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Spread of Civilizations in East Asia: 500 - 1650.

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Presentation on theme: "Spread of Civilizations in East Asia: 500 - 1650."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spread of Civilizations in East Asia:

2 Two Golden Ages of China: The Tang and the Song

3 The Sui Dynasty AD The Han Empire (210 BC-Ad 220) like the Roman Empire, collapsed The Sui Dynasty AD unified China for the first time in 400 years Emperor Wendi Capital was at Changan Wendi and Yangdi were harsh rulers Forced peasant to fight in army or work on public works projects-(corvee) Wen Di was Buddhist, encouraged Confucianism and Daoism too Continued building Grand Canal Rebuilt Great Wall

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5 Tang Dynasty AD Emperor Taizong in 626 Buddhism spread Learning,arts flourished Farm production expanded Technology improved Invaders assimilated

6 Tang Dynasty: Building an Empire Brilliant general, government reformer, historian, master of calligraphy China’s most admired emperor Emperor Tang Taizong

7 Tang Dynasty: Building an Empire

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9 Tang Dynasty: Government & Economy most extensive empire in Chinese history Rebuilt Han bureaucracy Upheld Confucian ideals perfected civil service exams Recruited Confucian scholars Government officials had highest status in society Set up schools to prepare male students for the exams Developed flexible law code Empress Wu

10 Emperor Receives A Civil Service Candidate

11 Tang Dynasty: Government & Economy gave land to peasants; (equal field system) weakened power of large land owners some peasants gained wealth Increased government revenues & power Scholars became new ruling elite Emperors directly controlled army

12 Tang Dynasty: Government & Economy Canals encouraged internal trade & transportation (military & trade) Grand Canal linked the Huang He to the Yangzi Food grown in the south could be shipped to the capital in the north

13 The Grand Canal longest waterway ever dug by human labor Designed to transport military 1200 miles; still used today

14 Tang Dynasty Decline AD 907 Emperors lost territories in Central Asia to Arabs Corruption, high taxes, drought, famine, & rebellions Mandate of Heaven revoked 907, rebel leader overthrew last Tang emperor 50 years pass before next dynasty

15 The Song Dynasty: AD Tai Zu founded after 50 years of civil war & reunited much of China Faced constant threats from Mongolians & Manchurians Forced to establish new capital in south at Hangzhou -south of Huang He -ruled for another 150 years

16 Song Dynasty Bureaucrats selected according to scores they obtained on civil-service exams -meritocracy Zen Buddhism became popular Power of merchant class rose –increased trade New strains of rice allowed double output

17 Tang & Song Golden Age Wealth Culture Foreign Trade Paper Money Porcelain

18 Technology of Tang & Song Gunpowder Block printing Movable type

19 More Advances small pox vaccine in the 10th century. Spinning wheel Arches Gunpowder – combination of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal block printing –characters carved onto a wooden block then inked and pressed onto a sheet of paper Sailing ship – the junk mechanical clocks

20 Song Golden Age Wealth and culture dominated East Asia Farming shifted from wheat fields of the north to rice paddies of Yangzi in south New strains of rice & Improved irrigation=two crops per year Created surplus; allowed more people to pursue commerce, learning or arts

21 Prosperity Under the Song Cities grew Foreign trade flourished Merchants from India, Persia, & Arabia Paper money

22 City Life During the Song Dynasty

23 Qing Ming Festival

24 Group of seated female musicians, Tang dynasty (618–906), late 7th century Night-Shining White, Tang dynasty (618–906), ca. 750

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26 Chinese Society During Tang & Song Well-ordered Highly stratified Gentry Peasantry-relied on each other not government Merchants at the bottom Emperor and aristocratic families at the top

27 Song Dynasty: Women Higher status than later periods Girls are “small happiness” Footbinding custom emerges “Golden Lillies”

28 Song Dynasty: Arts & Literature Wealthy people bought books, paintings, and other art to decorate homes

29 Song Dynasty: Landscape Painting Reaches a high point Artists would meditate for days on a landscape, capture mood, and then paint from memory Painting done with brushes and ink on silk Stress harmony of nature Influence of Buddhism declines Influence of Daoism grows

30 Song Dynasty: Other Arts Indian Stupa becomes Chinese pagoda Buddha statue

31 Porcelain

32 Literature Poetry Philosophy Religion History

33 Poetry Human emotions Nature Individuals place in universe Down the blue mountain in the evening, Moonlight was my homeward escort. Looking back, I saw my path Lie in levels of deep shadow.... I was passing the farm-house of a friend, When his children called from a gate of thorn And led me twining through jade bamboos Where green vines caught and held my clothes. And I was glad of a chance to rest And glad of a chance to drink with my friend.... We sang to the tune of the wind in the pines; And we finished our songs as the stars went down, When, I being drunk and my friend more than happy, Between us we forgot the world. Li Bo

34 The Mongols

35 How did Genghis Khan conquer and create the largest empire ever known? Largest empire ever to exist, spanning the entire Asian continent from the Pacific Ocean to modern-day Hungary in Europe. visionary leadership superior organizational skills the swiftest and most resilient cavalry ever known army of superb archers (the "devil's horsemen" in Western sources) Asian states were politically weak and, of course, havoc and devastation

36 Mongolian Artifacts Mongolian ewer

37 Legacy of Genghis & Mongols cultural & artistic development courtly way of life Pax Mongolica Divided into four main branches –the Yuan Dynasty( (The Great Khan) –the Chaghatay Khanate in Central Asia (ca. 1227–1363) –the Golden Horde in southern Russia extending into Europe (ca. 1227–1502) –Ilkhanid Dynasty in Greater Iran (1256– 1353)

38 Mongol Rule Transformed themselves from nomadic tribal people into rulers Quickly learned how to administer their vast empire Adopted system of administration of the conquered states Some Mongols in the top positions but allowed former local officials to run everyday affairs Khanates were connected through an intricate network that crisscrossed the continent Horses made swift communication possible, carrying written messages through a relay system of stations. A letter sent by the emperor in Beijing and carried by an envoy wearing his paiza, or passport, could reach the Ilkhanid capital Tabriz, some 5,000 miles away, in about a month

39 Legacy of Pax Mongolica Active trade transfer and resettlement of artists and craftsmen along the main routes New influences integrated with established local artistic traditions By the middle of the thirteenth century, the Mongols had formed the largest contiguous empire in the world, uniting Chinese, Islamic, Iranian, Central Asian, and nomadic cultures within an overarching Mongol sensibility

40 The Mongols/Yuan Dynasty Mongols overrun Songs to become the only “foreign” dynasty to rule China

41 The Mongols in China: Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan Becomes emperor in 1279 or 1271 after 40 years of conflict with Song Buddhism state religion Welcomes foreigners to his court Hires Marco Polo for 17 years.

42 Mongol/Yuan Rule Not oppressive Allowed people to live as before if they paid regular tribute At first, abolished civil-service but then reinstated it Turks and Persians run it

43 Mongol Rule Strict hierarchy developed: 1.Tax-free Mongols 2.Non-Chinese civil Servants 3.Northern Chinese 4.Southern Chinese Intelligentsia ignored

44 Mongol Religion Kublai Khan retained shamanism Chinese beliefs unaffected by Yuan rule Buddhist monasteries increased Mongolian Shamanism Ceremony

45 Pax Mongolia ’s Mongols controlled The Silk Road Provided protection Trade flourished Mongol Passport 13th century

46 China Under Mongol Rule After subduing Northern and then Southern China (Songs) Kublai Khan ruled from his capital (today’s Beijing) all of China and Korea, Tibet, and Vietnam

47 Mongol Yuan Dynasty Kublai initially resists Mongol assimilation Only Mongols allowed in military and high government jobs Too few Mongols to control vast empire Uneasy mix of Chinese and foreign ways develop Kublai reverses adapts Chinese name for dynasty- Yuan Welcomes outsiders to his court (Marco Polo)

48 Marco Polo years old when he went with his uncle and dad (merchants) across Persia and Central Asia to reach China when he was 21 Kublai Khan who hired him to stay for 17 years Returned to Venice when he was 41 (1295) Captured and imprisoned Wrote Divisament dou Monde about the wonders of China

49 Ming Dynasty: Restoration of Chinese Rule Chinese took advantage of chaos during late Yuan rule to rebel against the Mongols Rebel leader and founder of Ming Dynasty, Hong Wu, named his dynasty “brilliant”

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51 How did the Ming govern China? Reintroduced the civil-Service Exam Emperors very powerful, ruled as despots Brief period of overseas exploration although later Ming emperors prohibited foreign trade

52 Ming Belief System Rebirth of Confucianism Combined belief in Daoism, Confucianism and Buddhism Confucius, Buddha, and Lao-Tse tasting from a pot of vinegar, meant to symbolize the essence of life. Confucius believed that life was sour, and required rules and regulations to correct the impropriety of the people who lived it; he makes a sour face in reaction to the vinegar. Buddha believed that life was suffering, and that the path to enlightenment lay with the elimination of our earthly desires; his face is stern and contemplative. Lao-Tse, who believed that life – is by nature imperfect, confusing, and complex – was sweet and beautiful, is smiling.

53 Daily Life under the Ming Rebuilt bridges, canals, roads, temples, shrines, and the walls of 500 cities At first reduced taxes, improved trade & agriculture Later, heavy taxation and careless government produced peasant rebellion and civil war

54 How did this dynasty help China? Secured borders of China to prevent foreign invasion Gained control of Korea, Mongolia, parts of Central and Southeast Asia Eliminated Mongol influences and revived traditional Chinese values and practices like Confucian principles.

55 Ming China

56 Zheng He

57 Voyages of Zheng He


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