Presentation on theme: "The End of Qin Two leaders of the rebels figured most prominently: Liu Bang and Xiang Yu –Liu Bang led a force of 3,000 into Xianyang, Ziying surrendered."— Presentation transcript:
The End of Qin Two leaders of the rebels figured most prominently: Liu Bang and Xiang Yu –Liu Bang led a force of 3,000 into Xianyang, Ziying surrendered imperial seal and Qin officially ended Liu Bang ordered his shoulders follow three rules: “ whoever kills would be executed; whoever hurts or steals will be punished ” Liu Bang yielded Xianyang to Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu entered and took over Xian Yang –slaughtered all remaining Qin soldiers, razed the entire city including Apang Hall, and executed Ziying
New Emperor and New Dynasty Wars between armies of Liu Bang (Han) and that of Xiang Yu (Chu) ( BCE) ended with Liu Bang’s victoryWars between armies of Liu Bang (Han) and that of Xiang Yu (Chu) ( BCE) ended with Liu Bang’s victory Liu Bang proclaimed himself emperor, and his dynasty the Han dynastyLiu Bang proclaimed himself emperor, and his dynasty the Han dynasty He immediately faced Xiongnu’s challengeHe immediately faced Xiongnu’s challenge Portrait of Liu Bang in Woodblock painting, Qing Dynasty
Emperors of the Han Dynasty Han emperors after Liu Bang –Huidi→Wendi→Jingdi→Wudi Han Wudi, Liu Che (r. 141BCE-87BCE) –One of the greatest emperors in Chinese history –Able to deal with external external and Internal unrests, caused by Xiongnu factions eunuchs emperors’ in-laws –Huo Guang –Wang Mang Defeated Xiongnu many times Launched numerous military campaigns against Xiongnu
Post-Wudi Period Xiongnu remained a big problem A Policy of Appeasement was used –Xiongnu dissolved and split into 5 groups –Hu-han-xie Chanyu ( Khan )submitted himself to the Han –the “Heqin” Deplomacy princess or palace lady, the victim of this policy Wang Qiang (Wang Zhaojun) was married off the topic of poetry, drama, story-telling….
The “ Heqin ” Diplomacy Princess or palace lady married to Xiongnu’s Shanyu (Khan) –198 BCE (under Gaozu) –192 BCE (under Huidi, Gaozu’s son) –174 BCE (under Wendi) –162 BCE (under Wendi) –152 BCE (under Jingdi, princess) –135 BCE (under Wudi)
ceased between BCE because of Han Wudi’s policy of expansion War with Xiongnu: –129 BCE, Xiongnu defeated –127 BCE, Xiongnu defeated –124 BCE, Xiongnu defeated –123 BCE, Xiongnu defeated –121 BCE, Xiongnu defeated
More wars with Xiongnu –103 BCE, Han defeated –99 BCE, Han defeated –97 BCE, Han defeated –91 BCE, Han defeated –80 BCE, Xiongnu defeated (under Zhaodi) 56 BCE, Xiongnu surrendered because of political struggles –54 BCE, Xiongnu split into North and South –52 BCE, Xiongnu surrendered paid tribute to Han court in 51, 50, 49 BCE
More wars and peace with Xiongnu –43 BCE, Xiongnu rebelled (under Yuandi) –36 BCE, Xiongnu defeated (under Yuandi) – 33 BCE, Xiongnu Khan paid tribute and proposed to Wang Qiang, a palace lady in Yuandi’s harem –31 BCE, Xiongnu Khan died (under Chengdi) –25 BCE, Xiongnu Khan paid tribute (under Chengdi) –1 BCE,Xiongnu paid tribute (under Aidi) –10 CE, Xiongnu rebelled (Wang Mang ruled Han/Xin) –11 CE, Xiongnu invaded (Wang Mang) –14 CE, Heqin resumed
Autumn in the Palace of Han Author and literary type: –Ma Zhiyuan (or Ma Chih-yuan, fl. 1251) –Yuan drama Major characters: –Han Yuan-di (or Yuan-ti) –Wang Qiang (or Wang Ch’iang) better known as Wang Zhaojun (or Wang Chao-chün). –Mao Yanshou (or Mao Yüan-shou) –Hu-han-yeh (or Hu-han-ye), Xiongnu’s Khan Importance of this play History and fiction –Historicization of fiction –Fictionalization of history
Wang Mang and the Xin Dynasty Wang Mang: A Regent turning into an Emperor (Acting Emperor) –Founded a short-lived dynasty: The Xin Dynasty (9 AD-23 AD) –Regarded is a typical bad ruler in Chinese history –A good example of the ambitious politician who kept a low profile in his early public life, advanced quickly, and became a power-hungry hypocrite –Known for his usurpation, cruelty, and tyrannical rule –Important reform, which followed Confucian ideal, was overshadowed by his bad image –Often compared to the First Emperor
Wang Mang’s Early Image Personal traits –humble –selfless –generous –polite –filial –frugal –well-learned Administrative ability –An enthusiastic Confucian idealist and skillful administrator –honored talented scholars –reform-minded –scrupulous
周公恐懼流言日， 王莽謙恭下士時； 若使當年身先死， 一生真偽有谁知 ？ The day when the Duke of Zhou feared rumors, The time when Wang Mang was modest and respectful of scholars; Had they both died at those times, Who would had known who they really were? [the true faces of them] Cited to warn people that judging historical personages tends to be biased
Qian Long ( ): the Old Man of Ten Completions One of the most celebrated emperors in Chinese history; the sixth emperor of the Qing Dynasty Regarded as typical good emperor whose accomplishments in both culture and military are great and exemplary Most prolific poet in Chinese history –42,000 poems left behind His reign witnessed long lasting peace and prosperity Most popular emperor in modern Chinese movies and TV series
The Qianlong Emperor Hall for Nourishing the Mind
The New Age of Prosperity Qianlong’s reign witnessed one of the most prosperous period in Chinese history –Unprecedented upsurge in agriculture, manufacturing, and commerce –The peasant was much happier than his counterpart in the France of Louis XV –People were better educated, because schools were numerous –Population grew rapidly, which led to the dramatic growth of economy and productivity 200 million in 1762, 361 million in 1812, 430 million in 1850.
Fast-growing Industries Textile industry—Songjiang, Shanghai areaTextile industry—Songjiang, Shanghai area Tea plantations—whole Yangtze basinTea plantations—whole Yangtze basin Porcelain and celadon exported in great quantitiesPorcelain and celadon exported in great quantities Paper and sugar manufactured in FukienPaper and sugar manufactured in Fukien Hempen cloth of Xinhui, Kwangtung; steel of Wuhu; ironmongery in Foshan; silks, ceramic, and lacquer-ware of Suzhou and HangzhouHempen cloth of Xinhui, Kwangtung; steel of Wuhu; ironmongery in Foshan; silks, ceramic, and lacquer-ware of Suzhou and Hangzhou
Qing dynasty (1644–1911), dated 1770 by Xu Yang (Chinese, active ca. 1750–76), China Handscroll; ink and color on silk; 27 1/8 x 784 1/2 in. (168.8 x 1994 cm) The Qianlong Emperor's Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou and the Grand Canal (detail)
The scenic site of Tiger Hill, on the outskirts of Suzhou, was a favorite place for outings from the city. The Qianlong Emperor visited this small mountain, topped by an ancient Buddhist pagoda, during his stay in the city.
At the base of Tiger Hill, a family of fishermen enjoys a meal; nearby, a boy flies a kite—a Chinese invention.
The great Chang Gate of Suzhou allows entrance to the city either by land---across the bridge---or water, along a tributary of the Grand Canal.
Marco Polo called Suzhou the Venice of China because of its network of canals, which served as the most convenient thoroughfares for travel and trade. Here, a fisherman offers a large fish for sale from his boat.
The arrival of the emperor, who is shown mounted on a white horse entering the city through the Xu Gate. Accompanied by imperial bodyguards, he is greeted by numerous officials and local dignitaries. Lake Tai is visible in the distance.
Emperor’s arrival, detail
Kneeling officials and citizens line the route along which the emperor will follow to his temporary residence.
Along the near shore of the Grand Canal is a shop selling furniture and a stand for dumplings.
Officials or wealthy residents often sponsored outdoor theatrical performances on elaborate temporary stages to welcome the emperor. Here, the artist provides a glimpse behind one such stage, where props are readied and actors change hurriedly for their appearance in the next scene.
The Greatest Book Project Ironically came with the censorship of books –The policy of book censorship started in Kangxi’s reign, became harsher under Yongzheng, and ended in the great literary inquisition of in Qianlung’s reign –10231 works in 171,000 rolls were put on the index of prohibited books and over 2320 of them were completely destroyed (burned). –Authors of books “defamatory to Our dynasty” were hunted, executed, exiled, forced to labor, sentenced to life…and their properties confiscated.
Siku quanshu (Complete Collection of the Four Treasures), 10,000 titles Literary inquisition was part of the grand book project—Suku quanshu
Qianlong Empero’s Inspection of the Troops by Lang Shining (Giuseppe Castiglione), reproduction