Presentation on theme: "Civilizations that thrived during the medieval period."— Presentation transcript:
1Civilizations that thrived during the medieval period. Civilizations of AsiaMedieval ChinaCivilizations that thrived during the medieval period.
2Medieval China’s three dynasties: Sui Dynasty (580–618)Tang Dynasty (618–906)Song Dynasty (960–1127)Medieval China’s three dynasties:
3I. China Reunites a. The Sui (Swee) Dynasty Reunites China (581-618) A Dynasty is a series of rulers from the same family. After the Han Dynasty collapsed (rules for over 400years), China was broken up into several kingdoms. Despite this Buddhism, art and learning spreads.a. The Sui (Swee) Dynasty Reunites China ( )They unite N and S China for the first time in centuries.General Wendi declared himself emperor & found the Dynasty. He massacred 59 royal princes to take over.Yangdi (YANGH DEE) Wendi’s son took over, He expanded the territory.He rebuilt the Great Wall.He started the Great or Grand Canal built to link N Chinato S China so grain could get to the North. It linked theYangtze River to the Yellow.
5The Great Wall of China is approximately 4,160miles long.
6The Grand Canal A waterway that linked the Huang He (Yellow)River and the Chang (Yangtze River)
7Covers 1,000 miles and is still the longest canal ever built
8Negative: Hardships for Chinese people building and taxes For his projects. Led to a revolt that killed Yangtze. Suicame to an end.Positive: Reminded China of their glorious past. He allowedpeople to follow their own beliefs. Rebirth of Confuciusbeliefs.Emperor Wendi
9Yang Di, the last major Sui emperor The Collapse of the SuiYang Di, the last major Sui emperor
10b. Tang Dynasty-Golden Age Begins The Tang Dynasty lasted 300 years ( )Political & Cultural achievementPopulation growth (Chang ‘an was the biggest city in the world- 1 million people. It had a tall wall for protection & was shaped like a rectangle)Silk road- a chain of trade routes (not a single road) stretching from China to the Mediterranean Sea (Tea, Jade, Ivory, Ceramics, Silk)
12The Silk Road!!!The Silk Road crossed China’s Gobi Desert into Western Asia and eventually into the Eastern Mediterranean Region, this series of trade routes (not a single Road) introduced China to the rest of the World. China was reaching a period of greatness known as the “Golden Age.”
13Taizong (TY ZAWNG) Greatest ruler (626-649) of the Tang Dynasty He killed his two brothers and all ten of his nephews to take over.He was considered a fair and just ruler. Didn’t overburden the peasants withtaxes.He was a successful general, scholar, historian, & calligraphy.Later in life, he became tired of war & studied Confucius.He reformed government according to Confucius ideas.He gave land to peasants and treat all people w/ respect.Tang Taizong
14A Women Ruler: The Fall of the Tang: Empress Wu Hou (675 – 705) Only women to rule China on her own.Strengthened the MilitaryAdded more officials to the governmentTook over KoreaThe Fall of the Tang:In the Mid 700’s problems occur for the Tang.Turks took control of the Silk Road anddrove the Tang out.Economy was severely damaged.
15The Song Dynasty c. Song Dynasty (960-1279) Cultural achievements (Compass, Gunpowder, Smallpox Vaccine)They had advances in government like the merit system (system of hiring people based on their abilities as opposed to Nepotism).Many Buddhists vs. Neo-Confucianism emergedAgriculture improved-More rice grown-Art (landscape paintings), music, poetry, trade-printing books (Movable Type)
16Improvements in Agriculture New strains of rice and better irrigation methods helped peasants to grow more rice.Allowed farmers to produce two crops a year instead of one.
17The Arts and Trade During the Song dynasty, artists created the earliestknown Chinese landscapepaintings.They painted on silk and featuredpeaceful scenes of water, rocksand plants.
19The Arts and TradeRulers also prized graceful art objects like porcelain, a white and hard type of ceramic…often called China.
20The Arts and TradeSilk (called the queen of fibers)comes from the cocoons of caterpillars called silkworms.The Chinese’s silk was the highest quality in the world.
21Printing, Books, and Learning Song inventions included a new way to print books.The Chinese had carved the characters of each page onto a wood block. They would brush ink over the carving and lay a piece of paper on it to print the page.Printers could make many copies of a book using these blocks, but carving the block for each page took a long time.
23More Books...1045, Bi Sheng, developed a printing method that used movable type.He made many separate characters out of clay and rearranged them to make each page.During the Song dynasty books became less expensive andmore people including women learned how to read and write.
24The Mongols Conquer China d. A New Threat: Mongols in China until 1368Mongols were nomads from the plains of Central Asia, North China. They were warriors and spent much time on horseback.By 1200’s under the leadership of Genghis Khan they were a tough military Force.The Mongols started an empire that included China and Korea in the east, Russia and Eastern Europe in the west and then extended to the southwest as far as the Persian gulf.Genghis Khan had conquered all of Northern China by 1215.
26The Silk Road!!!The Silk Road crossed China’s Gobi Desert into Western Asia and eventually into the Eastern Mediterranean Region, this series of trade routes (not a single Road) introduced China to the rest of the World. China was reaching a period of greatness known as the “Golden Age.”
29Kublai KhanBut there was still the southern Song Empire which would continue to resist.Genghis Khan left it to his grandson Kublai Khan to complete the conquest of China and to rule it all.Kublai Khan came to power in 1259, within 20 years hehad defeated the last Song emperor.Kublai Khan declared himself Emperor of China and named the new dynasty “Yuan”-which means “beginning,” because Kublai Khan intended that the Mongol rule of China would last for centuries.Kublai Khan conquered the Southern part of China.
30The Mongol’s were able to centralize the government in China The Mongol’s were able to centralize the government in China. They did not allow the old Chinese ruling class to govern/ruleHigh government positions were reserved for Mongols’ and were even given to foreigners rather than to Chinese.The Mongols also kept their own language and customs rather than adopting the Chinese culture, but they did allow for the practice of many religions.Visitors from all lands were welcome to Kublai Khan’s court. A Christian from Europe, Marco Polo came from Venice, Italy.Marco Polo’s writings helped to increase trade with Europe and China. China prospered only under Kublai Khan, but not under the later Khans, or emperors who followed him.Batu Khan controlled the Russian Area.Mongol rule ended with a peasant revolt.
31e. Philosophy and Religion in China 1. Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC) was an ancient Chinese teacher.Believed in:Treat others with respectPeace to ChinaFamily before CommunityMoral values and ethics (Right vs. Wrong)Principles:Use right relationships to produce social orderRespect family & older generationsEducate individuals and societyAct in morally correct waysBeliefs put in the government:Advancement through educationRuler should be virtuous and kindSubject loyal and obey the lawChildren respect for parents and older generationsNeo-ConfucianismMorality is highest goal a person can reachMorality achieved through educationEducation through books, observation or interactionw/ wise people
32Fast Facts... Confucius came from a noble, but poor family. Confucius’s education was self-taught.Many historians believe that Confucius was China’s first professional teacher.Confucius taught both the rich and the poor so long as they truly wanted to learn.Confucius’s goal was order in society, at all levels. He believed that people behaving properly would bring order to society.The teachings of Confucius are the most widely studied Chinese philosophies.
33Confucius Quotes...Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life.He who learns but does not think, is lost!He who thinks but does not learn is in great danger.Life is really simple,but we insist on making it complicated.I hear, I know.I see, I remember.I do, I understand.
342. BuddhismBased on Siddhartha Gautama (sihd DAHR tuh GOW tuh muh) known as the“Enlightened one”.Started in IndiaBeliefs:Suffering is a part of lifeReason people suffer is that they are too attached to material possessions & selfish ideasBy living in a wise, moral, thoughtful way, people can eventually learn to escape sufferingIt spread to Korea and Japan
35The End of Medieval China China prospered only under Kublai Khan, but not under the later Khans, or emperors who followed him.In 1368, a Chinese peasant led an uprising that overthrew the foreign rulers and ended the Mongol rule of China.