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Civilizations of Asia Civilizations that thrived during the medieval period.

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Presentation on theme: "Civilizations of Asia Civilizations that thrived during the medieval period."— Presentation transcript:

1 Civilizations of Asia Civilizations that thrived during the medieval period.

2 –Sui Dynasty (580–618) –Tang Dynasty (618–906) –Song Dynasty (960–1127) Medieval China’s three dynasties:

3 I. China Reunites A Dynasty is a series of rulers from the same family. After the Han Dynasty collapsed (rules for over 400years), China was broken up into several kingdoms. Despite this Buddhism, art and learning spreads. A Dynasty is a series of rulers from the same family. After the Han Dynasty collapsed (rules for over 400years), China was broken up into several kingdoms. Despite this Buddhism, art and learning spreads. a. The Sui (Swee) Dynasty Reunites China (581-618) They unite N and S China for the first time in centuries. General Wendi declared himself emperor & found the Dynasty. He massacred 59 royal princes to take over. Yangdi (YANGH DEE) Wendi’s son took over, He expanded the territory. He rebuilt the Great Wall. He started the Great or Grand Canal built to link N China to S China so grain could get to the North. It linked the Yangtze River to the Yellow.

4 The Great Wall of China

5 The Great Wall of China is approximately 4,160miles long.

6 The Grand Canal A waterway that linked the Huang He (Yellow)River and the Chang (Yangtze River)

7 Covers 1,000 miles and is still the longest canal ever built

8 Negative: Hardships for Chinese people building and taxes For his projects. Led to a revolt that killed Yangtze. Sui came to an end. Positive: Reminded China of their glorious past. He allowed people to follow their own beliefs. Rebirth of Confucius beliefs. Emperor Wendi

9 Yang Di, the last major Sui emperor The Collapse of the Sui

10 b. Tang Dynasty-Golden Age Begins The Tang Dynasty lasted 300 years (618-907) Political & Cultural achievement Population growth (Chang ‘an was the biggest city in the world- 1 million people. It had a tall wall for protection & was shaped like a rectangle) Silk road- a chain of trade routes (not a single road) stretching from China to the Mediterranean Sea (Tea, Jade, Ivory, Ceramics, Silk)

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12 The Silk Road crossed China’s Gobi Desert into Western Asia and eventually into the Eastern Mediterranean Region, this series of trade routes (not a single Road) introduced China to the rest of the World. China was reaching a period of greatness known as the “Golden Age.”

13 Taizong (TY ZAWNG) Greatest ruler (626-649) of the Tang Dynasty He killed his two brothers and all ten of his nephews to take over. He was considered a fair and just ruler. Didn’t overburden the peasants with taxes. He was a successful general, scholar, historian, & calligraphy. Later in life, he became tired of war & studied Confucius. He reformed government according to Confucius ideas. He gave land to peasants and treat all people w/ respect.

14 Empress Wu Hou (675 – 705) Empress Wu Hou (675 – 705) –Only women to rule China on her own. –Strengthened the Military –Added more officials to the government –Took over Korea In the Mid 700’s problems occur for the Tang. In the Mid 700’s problems occur for the Tang. Turks took control of the Silk Road and drove the Tang out. Economy was severely damaged. A Women Ruler: The Fall of the Tang:

15 c. Song Dynasty (960-1279)  Cultural achievements (Compass, Gunpowder, Smallpox Vaccine)  They had advances in government like the merit system (system of hiring people based on their abilities as opposed to Nepotism).  Many Buddhists vs. Neo-Confucianism emerged  Agriculture improved -More rice grown -Art (landscape paintings), music, poetry, trade -printing books (Movable Type)

16 New strains of rice and better irrigation methods helped peasants to grow more rice. Allowed farmers to produce two crops a year instead of one.

17 During the Song dynasty, artists created the earliest known Chinese landscape paintings. They painted on silk and featured peaceful scenes of water, rocks and plants.

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19 Rulers also prized graceful art objects like porcelain, a white and hard type of ceramic… often called China.

20 Silk (called the queen of fibers) comes from the cocoons of caterpillars called silkworms. The Chinese’s silk was the highest quality in the world.

21 Song inventions included a new way to print books. The Chinese had carved the characters of each page onto a wood block. They would brush ink over the carving and lay a piece of paper on it to print the page. Printers could make many copies of a book using these blocks, but carving the block for each page took a long time.

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23 1045, Bi Sheng, developed a printing method that used movable type. He made many separate characters out of clay and rearranged them to make each page. During the Song dynasty books became less expensive and more people including women learned how to read and write.

24 d. A New Threat: Mongols in China until 1368 Mongols were nomads from the plains of Central Asia, North China. They were warriors and spent much time on horseback. Mongols were nomads from the plains of Central Asia, North China. They were warriors and spent much time on horseback. By 1200’s under the leadership of Genghis Khan they were a tough military Force. By 1200’s under the leadership of Genghis Khan they were a tough military Force. The Mongols started an empire that included China and Korea in the east, Russia and Eastern Europe in the west and then extended to the southwest as far as the Persian gulf. The Mongols started an empire that included China and Korea in the east, Russia and Eastern Europe in the west and then extended to the southwest as far as the Persian gulf. Genghis Khan had conquered all of Northern China by 1215. Genghis Khan had conquered all of Northern China by 1215.

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26 The Silk Road crossed China’s Gobi Desert into Western Asia and eventually into the Eastern Mediterranean Region, this series of trade routes (not a single Road) introduced China to the rest of the World. China was reaching a period of greatness known as the “Golden Age.”

27 The Golden Horde

28 Genghis Khan Kublai Khan

29 But there was still the southern Song Empire which would continue to resist. But there was still the southern Song Empire which would continue to resist. Genghis Khan left it to his grandson Kublai Khan to complete the conquest of China and to rule it all. Genghis Khan left it to his grandson Kublai Khan to complete the conquest of China and to rule it all. Kublai Khan came to power in 1259, within 20 years he Kublai Khan came to power in 1259, within 20 years he had defeated the last Song emperor. had defeated the last Song emperor. Kublai Khan declared himself Emperor of China and named the new dynasty “Yuan”-which means “beginning,” because Kublai Khan intended that the Mongol rule of China would last for centuries. Kublai Khan declared himself Emperor of China and named the new dynasty “Yuan”-which means “beginning,” because Kublai Khan intended that the Mongol rule of China would last for centuries. Kublai Khan conquered the Southern part of China.

30 The Mongol’s were able to centralize the government in China. They did not allow the old Chinese ruling class to govern/rule The Mongol’s were able to centralize the government in China. They did not allow the old Chinese ruling class to govern/rule High government positions were reserved for Mongols’ and were even given to foreigners rather than to Chinese. High government positions were reserved for Mongols’ and were even given to foreigners rather than to Chinese. The Mongols also kept their own language and customs rather than adopting the Chinese culture, but they did allow for the practice of many religions. The Mongols also kept their own language and customs rather than adopting the Chinese culture, but they did allow for the practice of many religions. Visitors from all lands were welcome to Kublai Khan’s court. A Christian from Europe, Marco Polo came from Venice, Italy. Visitors from all lands were welcome to Kublai Khan’s court. A Christian from Europe, Marco Polo came from Venice, Italy. Marco Polo’s writings helped to increase trade with Europe and China. China prospered only under Kublai Khan, but not under the later Khans, or emperors who followed him. Marco Polo’s writings helped to increase trade with Europe and China. China prospered only under Kublai Khan, but not under the later Khans, or emperors who followed him. Batu Khan controlled the Russian Area. Mongol rule ended with a peasant revolt.

31 e. Philosophy and Religion in China Believed in: Treat others with respect Peace to China Family before Community Moral values and ethics (Right vs. Wrong) Principles: Use right relationships to produce social order Respect family & older generations Educate individuals and society Act in morally correct ways 1. Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC) was an ancient Chinese teacher. Beliefs put in the government: Advancement through education Ruler should be virtuous and kind Subject loyal and obey the law Children respect for parents and older generations Neo-Confucianism Morality is highest goal a person can reach Morality achieved through education Education through books, observation or interaction w/ wise people

32 Confucius came from a noble, but poor family. Confucius’s education was self-taught. Many historians believe that Confucius was China’s first professional teacher. Confucius taught both the rich and the poor so long as they truly wanted to learn. Confucius’s goal was order in society, at all levels. He believed that people behaving properly would bring order to society. The teachings of Confucius are the most widely studied Chinese philosophies.

33 I hear, I know. I see, I remember. I do, I understand. Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life. He who learns but does not think, is lost! He who thinks but does not learn is in great danger. Life is really simple, but we insist on making it complicated.

34 2. Buddhism Based on Siddhartha Gautama (sihd DAHR tuh GOW tuh muh) known as the “Enlightened one”. Started in India Beliefs: Suffering is a part of life Reason people suffer is that they are too attached to material possessions & selfish ideas By living in a wise, moral, thoughtful way, people can eventually learn to escape suffering It spread to Korea and Japan

35 China prospered only under Kublai Khan, but not under the later Khans, or emperors who followed him. In 1368, a Chinese peasant led an uprising that overthrew the foreign rulers and ended the Mongol rule of China.


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