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1 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Regional Cisco Networking Academy Conference.

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Presentation on theme: "1 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Regional Cisco Networking Academy Conference."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Regional Cisco Networking Academy Conference 2014 Giving you the knowledge and confidence to teach IPv6 Introduction to IPv6: Exactly the same as IPv4… only completely different Rick Graziani CS/CIS Instructor Cabrillo College

2 2 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Why IPv6? IPv6 and ICMPv6 at a glance Format of an IPv6 Address IPv6 Address Global Unicast IPv6 Address Subnetting Link-Local Unicast IPv6 Address Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Three options Link-local address Multicast address Address Resolution A lot of stuff, but don’t be intimidated!

3 3 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Why are they making me learn IPv6?

4 4 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Monday, January 31, 2011 IANA allocated the last /8 IPv4 address blocks to the RIRs. RIR’s have very few IPv4 address left, if any. Many ISPs are severely limited and some have already run out.

5 5 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada About 80% of North America has Internet access Only 28% of Asia and 16% of Africa has Internet access Some ISPs are only giving out IPv6

6 Internet of Everything Cisco defines the Internet of Everything (IoE) as bringing together people, process, data, and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before. Cisco estimates that there will be 50 billion “connected” devices by That’s a lot of addresses!

7 No more NAT as we know it Using NAT to “hide” IPv6 networks has been the source of some debate. IETF continues to state that NAT is not a security feature. NAT for IPv4 breaks many things. IETF does not support the concept of translating a “private IPv6” address to a “public” IPv6 address... but there are exceptions /24 RFC 1918 Private Address Public IPv4 Address NAT

8 Benefits of IPv6 Larger address space Stateless autoconfiguration End-to-end reachability without private addresses and NAT Better mobility support Peer-to-peer networking easier to create and maintain, and services such as VoIP and Quality of Service (QoS) become more robust. The “killer application” for the Internet is the Internet itself.

9 You are probably already running IPv6 Windows Vista or later, Mac OSX, Linux already running IPv6 Packet analyzer (Wireshark) Potential man-in-the-middle attack RS (Router Solicitations) and RA (Router Advertisements) described in other lessons. Get familiar with IPv6! R1 RA Rouge RA RS IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 I need an IPv6 prefix Here is an IPv6 prefix and gateway

10 10 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada I bought a /24 on eBay and I’m doing NAT444444, so I’m good! “Finding “creative” ways to keep IPv4 alive without transitioning to IPv6 is like rearranging deck chairs on the titanic.” IETF IPv4 is not going away any time soon, but it will be replaced by IPv6 Now is the time to learn, test and become familiar with IPv6

11 11 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Learn IPv6 in the Lab Implement IPv6 in a part of your network See if you get IPv6 at home Contact ISP IPv6 enabled modem IPv6 enabled router Linksys ea6500 Router

12 12 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IPv4 IPv6 IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist for the foreseeable future. Dual-stack – Device running both IPv4 and IPv6. Enterprises and ISPs have to support both protocols, which is a reason to eventually go to only IPv6.

13 13 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Tunneling – IPv6 packets encapsulated inside IPv4 packets. NAT64 – Translating between IPv4 and IPv6. Native IPv6 – All IPv6 (our focus and the goal of every organization).

14 14 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IPv6 is more than just larger address space. It was a chance to make some improvements on the IP protocol.

15 15 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Next Header = Protocol field in IPv4. Indicates the data payload type (TCP, UDP, ICMPv6) Hop Limit = TTL (Time to Live) in IPv4. Number of router hops before packet is discarded. Routers do not fragment IPv6 packets unless it is the source of the packet. Use of a Link-Local Address. ICMPv6 is more robust than ICMPv4. SLAAC (Stateless Address Autoconfiguration) for dynamic addressing.

16 16 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Described in RFC 4443 Much more robust than ICMP for IPv4 Contains new functionality and improvements. More than just “messaging” but “how IPv6 conducts business”. General message similar to ICMP for IPv4 (Type and Code fields) IPv6 Next Header Value: 58 decimal or 3A hexadecimal IPv6 Header Next Header 58 ICMPv6 Header ICMPv6 Message Body IPv6 Data

17 17 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada ICMPv6 informational messages used by Neighbor Discovery (RFC 4861): Router Solicitation Message Router Advertisement Message Discussed with dynamic configuration of IPv6 addresses We will also introduce assigned multicast addresses Neighbor Solicitation Message Neighbor Advertisement Message Discussed with address resolution (IPv4 ARP) We will also introduce solicited node multicast address Redirect Message (Similar to ICMPv4) Router-Device Messaging Device-Device Messaging

18 18 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Understanding the format of IPv6 Address

19 19 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada  IPv6 addresses are 128-bit addresses represented in:  Eight 16-bit segments or “hextets” (not a formal term)  Hexadecimal (non-case sensitive) between 0000 and FFFF  Separated by colons  Reading and subnetting IPv6 is easier than IPv4! One Hex digit = 4 bits 2001:0DB8:AAAA:1111:0000:0000:0000:0100/ : 0DB8 : AAAA : 1111 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : bits 1 16 bits 2 16 bits 3 16 bits 4 16 bits 5 16 bits 6 16 bits 7 16 bits 8

20 20 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada  How many addresses does 128 bits give us?  340 undecillion addesses or …  340 trillion trillion trillion addresses or …  “50 billion billion billion addresses for every person on earth” or….  “A string of soccer balls would wrap around our universe 200 billion times!” … in other words …  You won’t need to learn IPv7 for the next version of CCNA! 2001:0DB8:AAAA:1111:0000:0000:0000:0100/ : 0DB8 : AAAA : 1111 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : bits

21 21 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Early versions of CCNA included: IPv4 Appletalk IPX

22 22 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada  Two rules for reducing the size of written IPv6 addresses.  The first rule is: Leading zeroes in any 16-bit segment do not have to be written : 0DB8 : 0001 : 1000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0ef0 : bc : DB8 : 1 : 1000 : 0 : 0 : ef0 : bc : 0DB8 : 010d : 000a : 00dd : c000 : e000 : : DB8 : 10d : a : dd : c000 : e000 : : 0DB8 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : : DB8 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 500

23 23 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada  The second rule can reduce this address even further:  Any single, contiguous string of one or more 16-bit segments consisting of all zeroes can be represented with a double colon. FE80 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0001 FE80 : : 1 Second RuleFirst Rule

24 24 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada  Only a single contiguous string of all-zero segments can be represented with a double colon.  Both of these are correct… FE80 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0014 : 0000 : 0000 : 0095 FE80 :: 14 : 0 : 0 : 95 OR FE80 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 14 :: 95

25 25 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada  Using the double colon more than once in an IPv6 address can create ambiguity because of the ambiguity in the number of 0’s. FE80::14::95 FE80:0000:0000:0000:0014:0000:0000:0095 FE80:0000:0000::0014:0000: :0095 FE80:0000:0014:0000:0000:0000:0000:0095

26 26 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada  IPv4, the prefix—the network portion of the address—can be identified by a dotted decimal netmask or bitcount or /24  IPv6 prefixes are always identified by bitcount (prefix length).  Prefix length notation: 2001:0DB8:100:a::/ bits

27 27 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IPv6 Addresses

28 28 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IPv6 Addressing Multicast Unicast Anycast AssignedSolicited Node Global Unicast Unspecified Loopback Embedded IPv4 Link-Local Unique Local FF00::/8 FF02::1:FF00:0000/104 ::/128 ::1/ ::/3 3FFF::/3 FE80::/10 FEBF::/10 FC00::/7 FDFF::/7 ::/80

29 29 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Interface ID Subnet ID Global Routing Prefix Global Unicast Address (GUA) 001 Range: 2000::/ :: to 3FFF::/ :: Global unicast addresses are similar to IPv4 addresses Routable Unique IANA’s allocation of IPv6 address space in 1/8 th sections

30 30 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Interface ID Subnet ID Global Routing Prefix Global Unicast Address (GUA) 001 Range: 2000::/ :: to 3FFF::/ :: Global unicast addresses are equivalent to IPv4 public addresses Except under very specific circumstances, all end users will have a global unicast address Terminology: Prefix equivalent to network address Prefix length equivalent to subnet mask in IPv4 Interface ID equivalent to host portion

31 31 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Typical Global Unicast Address and Why We Love IPv6! IPv4 Unicast Address 32 bits Network portionHost portionSubnet portion /? IPv6 Global Unicast Address 128 bits Global Routing Prefix Interface ID 16-bit Fixed Subnet ID /64 64-bit Interface ID = 18 quintillion (18,446,744,073,709,551,616) devices/subnet 16-bit Subnet ID = 65,536 subnets /48

32 32 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Interface ID Subnet ID Global Routing Prefix /64 Global Unicast Addresses and the rule 2001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : 1111 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : = 4 (/64) : :0DB8:AAAA:1111:0000:0000:0000:0100/ :0DB8:AAAA:1111::100/64 16 bits 314 /48/64

33 33 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada  Just increment by 1 in Hexadecimal: 2001:0DB8:AAAA:0000::/ :0DB8:AAAA:0001::/ :0DB8:AAAA:0002::/ :0DB8:AAAA:000A::/64  Valid abbreviation is to remove the 3 leading 0’s from the first shown quartet 2001:0DB8:AAAA:1::/ Rule

34 34 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Interface ID Subnet ID Global Routing Prefix Subnetting into the Interface ID Prefix 64 bits48 bits 16bits /48 / : 0DB8 : AAAA : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : : 0DB8 : AAAA : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0001 : : 0DB8 : AAAA : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0002 : 0000 thru 2001 : 0DB8 : AAAA : FFFF : FFFF : FFFF : FFFE : : 0DB8 : AAAA : FFFF : FFFF : FFFF : FFFF : 0000 Global Routing Prefix Subnet-IDInterface ID

35 35 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Subnetting on a nibble boundary Interface ID Subnet ID Global Routing Prefix /68 Prefix 60 bits 48 bits20 bits /48 /68 Subnetting on a nibble (4 bit) boundary makes it easier to list the subnets: /64, /68, /72, etc. 2001:0DB8:AAAA:0000:0000::/ :0DB8:AAAA:0000:1000::/ :0DB8:AAAA:0000:2000::/68 through 2001:0DB8:AAAA:FFFF:F000::/68 /68

36 36 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Subnetting within a nibble Interface ID Subnet ID Global Routing Prefix /70 Prefix 58 bits 48 bits22 bits /48 / :0DB8:AAAA:0000:0000::/ :0DB8:AAAA:0000:0400::/ :0DB8:AAAA:0000:0800::/ :0DB8:AAAA:0000:0C00::/ Four Bits: The two leftmost bits are part of the Subnet-ID, whereas the two rightmost bits belong to the Interface ID. bits

37 37 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada 1 bit Interface ID Global Routing Prefix Do we need the IPv6 equivalent to a /30? /127? 127-bit Prefix 79 bits48 bits 1bit /48 /127 Beyond the scope of CCNA but may be of interest…. RFC Using 127-Bit IPv6 Prefixes on Inter-Router Links Ping-Pong Attack Neighbor Cache Exhaustion Issue There are mitigation techniques for both. If you still want to use a /127, reserve a separate /64 for each /127. Subnet ID 2001:0DB8:AAAA:F000::/ :0DB8:AAAA:F000::A/ :0DB8:AAAA:F000::B/ :0DB8:AAAA:F001::/ :0DB8:AAAA:F001::A/ :0DB8:AAAA:F001::B/127

38 38 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Global Unicast IPv6 Address Static Configuration

39 39 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Global Unicast Configuring a Global Unicast Address Dynamic IPv6 Unnumbered Stateless Autoconfiguration DHCPv6 Static EUI-64 Manual IPv6 Address

40 40 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Exactly the same as an IPv4 address only different. No space between IPv6 address and Prefix-length. IOS commands for IPv6 are very similar to their IPv4 counterpart. All 0’s and all 1’s are valid IPv6 host IPv6 addresses. No space R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/0 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:1::1/64 R1(config-if)#no shutdown R1(config-if)#exit

41 41 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/1 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:2::1/64 R1(config-if)#no shutdown R1(config-if)#exit R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:3::1/64 R1(config-if)#clock rate R1(config-if)#no shutdown

42 42 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada show running-config command on router R1 R1# show running-config interface GigabitEthernet0/0 no ip address duplex auto speed auto ipv6 address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/64 !

43 43 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada show ipv6 interface brief command on router R1 R1# show ipv6 interface brief GigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1 Global unicast address Link-local unicast address Link-local address automatically created when (before) the global unicast address is. We will discuss link-local addresses soon.

44 44 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada PC1: Static Global Unicast Address 2001:db8:acad:1:: :db8:acad:1::1 (or link-local address) 64

45 45 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada PC1> ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix. : IPv6 Address : 2001:db8:acad:1::10 Link-local IPv6 Address..... : fe80::50a5:8a35:a5bb:66e1 Default Gateway : 2001:db8:acad:1::1 PC1: Static Global Unicast Address

46 46 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada PC1> ping 2001:db8:acad:1::1 Pinging 2001:db8:acad:1::1 from 2001:db8:acad:1::100 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 2001:db8:acad:1::1: time=1ms Ping statistics for 2001:db8:acad:1::1: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms PC1> Ping uses ICMPv6 Echo Request and Echo Reply messages similar to ICMPv4.

47 47 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Global Unicast IPv6 Address Dynamic Configuration

48 48 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Global Unicast Manual IPv6 Unnumbered IPv6 Address Stateless Autoconfiguration DHCPv6 Static EUI-64 Dynamic

49 49 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada DHCP Server

50 50 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada The Router Advertisement (RA) tells hosts how it will receive IPv6 Address Information. Sent periodically by an IPv6 router or… … when the router receives a Router Solicitation message from a host. DHCPv6 Server ICMPv6 Router Advertisement ICMPv6 Router Solicitation To all IPv6 routers: I need IPv6 address information To all IPv6 devices: Let me tell you how to do this … To all IPv6 devices: Let me tell you how to do this … ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Router Solicitation Router Advertisement

51 51 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Router Advertisement/Solicitation Messages Part of ICMPv6 (Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6) Router Advertisements (RA) are sent by an “IPv6 router” – ipv6 unicast-routing command Forwards IPv6 Packets Can be enabled for IPv6 static and dynamic routing Sends ICMPv6 Router Advertisements Note: Routers can be configured with IPv6 addresses without being an IPv6 router DHCPv6 Server R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing ICMPv6 Router Advertisement

52 52 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada DHCPv6 Server R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing Option 1: SLAAC (Default on Cisco routers) “I’m everything you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway)” Option 2: SLAAC + Stateless DHCPv6 for DNS address “Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server.” Option 3: All addressing except default gateway – DHCPv6 “I can’t help you. Ask a DHCPv6 server for all your information.” RA DHCPv6 Option 1 and 2: Stateless Address Autconfiguration – DHCPv6 Server does not maintain state of addresses Option 3: Stateful Address Configuration – Address received from DHCPv6 Server

53 53 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Option 1 – RA Message To: FF02::1 (All IPv6 devices multicast – more later) From: FE80::1 (Link-local address) Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1:: Prefix-length: /64 RA 1 1 MAC: B-8C-E0-80 Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1:: Prefix-length: /64 Default Gateway: FE80::1 Global Unicast Address: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1: + Interface ID 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64 EUI-64 Process or Random 64-bit value 2 2 DHCPv6 Server 3 3

54 54 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Interface ID Subnet ID Global Routing Prefix /48 / bits EUI-64 ProcessRandomly Generated Number (Privacy Extension) SLAAC Router Advertisement 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64 Windows operating systems, Windows XP and Server 2003 use EUI-64. Windows Vista and newer; hosts create a random 64-bit Interface ID. Linux: Mostly use random 64-bit number Mac OSX: use EUI-64 (on my Macs) DHCPv6 Server

55 55 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Option 1 – RA Message To: FF02::1 (All IPv6 devices multicast) From: FE80::1 (Link-local address) Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1:: Prefix-length: /64 RA 1 1 MAC: B-E9-D4-80 Prefix: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1:: Prefix-length: /64 Default Gateway: FE80::1 Global Unicast Address: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1: + Interface ID 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64 EUI-64 Process or Random 64-bit value 2 2 DHCPv6 Server

56 56 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Hexadecimal OUI 24 bits Device Identifier 24 bits Binary Step 1: Split the MAC address Binary Step 2: Insert FFFE Binary Step 3: Flip the U/L bit Binary Modified EUI-64 Interface ID in Hexadecimal Notation BE9D480 FFFE 00036B E9D F F F E

57 57 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada PC1> ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix. : IPv6 Address : 2001:db8:acad:1: b-ff-fe-e9-d4-80 Link-local IPv6 Address..... : fe80:: b-ff-fe-e9-d4-80 Default Gateway : fe80::1 PC1: Global Unicast Address A 64-bit Interface ID and the EUI-64 process accommodate the IEEE specification for a 64-bit MAC address. Router Advertisement EUI-64

58 58 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada DHCPv6 Other Configuration Flag is set. Use me for your address information just like SLAAC but… … you need to get other information from a DHCPv6 server like possibly a DNS server address. DHCPv6 Server I created my own address, have a prefix-length, default gateway, but I need a DNS address… I created my own address, have a prefix-length, default gateway, but I need a DNS address… ICMPv6 Router Advertisement ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Learn how to configure the RA message and the Stateless DHCPv6 server in the Intermediate IPv6 presentation

59 59 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada DHCPv6 Managed Configuration Flag is set. Get ALL of your address information from a DHCPv6 server except use my link-local address for your default gateway address. DHCPv6 Server The router’s Router Advertisement tells me it can’t help me and I need to communicate with a stateful DHCPv6 server… ICMPv6 Router Advertisement ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Learn how to configure the RA message and the Stateful DHCPv6 server in the Intermediate IPv6 presentation

60 60 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada DHCPv6 DHCPv6 is similar to DHCPv4. Host operating systems “may” include the option of ignoring the Router Advertisement from the router and only use the stateful services of a DHCPv6 server. Note: All addresses should be checked before use with DAD (Duplicate Address Detection), similar to gratuitous ARP in IPv4. DHCPv6 Server

61 61 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada The World of IPv4 – DHCPv4 and NAT What about DHCP and IPv6 for my home network – First IPv4 at home…. ISP only has to deliver a public IPv4 address for Home router interface. DHCP and RFC 1918 private address space is used for home network (ISP is not involved). NAT is used for translation – but has its drawbacks! No NAT (like that… kind of) for IPv6 ISP HOME Public IPv4 Address for the interface G0/ / / /16 G0/0 Private IPv4 Address NAT DHCPv4

62 62 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada The World of IPv6 – DHCPv6-PD (Prefix Delegation) In the Intermediate presentation we will learn the operations and configuration of DHCPv6-PD. ISP-DR HOME-RR IPv6 Address for the interface: SLAAC DHCPv6 (Stateful or Stateless) G0/1 G0/0 Complete IPv6 Reachability Delegating Router (DR) Requesting Router (RR) How does the home network get a “pubic” IPv6 address? DHCPv6 with Prefix Delegation

63 63 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Link-Local Unicast IPv6 Addresses

64 64 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IPv6 Addressing Multicast Unicast Anycast AssignedSolicited Node Global Unicast Unspecified Loopback Embedded IPv4 Link-Local Unique Local FF00::/8 FF02::1:FF00:0000/104 ::/128 ::1/ ::/3 3FFF::/3 FE80::/10 FEBF::/10 FC00::/7 FDFF::/7 ::/80

65 65 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Used to communicate with other devices on the link. Are NOT routable off the link (network). Only have to be unique on the link. Are not included in the IPv6 routing table. An IPv6 device must have at least a link-local address. Used by: Hosts to communicate to the IPv6 network before it has a global unicast address. Router’s link-local address is used by hosts as the default gateway address. Adjacent routers to exchange routing updates Link-local unicast Link-Local Communications

66 66 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Interface ID / xx xxxx FE80::/10 Remaining 54 bits 10 bits 64 bits EUI-64, Random or Manual Configuration Link-local Unicast Range: FE80::/ :: to FEBF::/ ::

67 67 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada R1 G0/0 G0/1 S0/0/0 R1#show interface gigabitethernet 0/0 GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is CN Gigabit Ethernet, address is fc c3e0 (bia fc c3e0) R1#show ipv6 interface brief GigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1 GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E1 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1 Serial0/0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1 R1# EUI-64 Serial interfaces will use a MAC address of an Ethernet interface. FF:FE = EUI-64 (most likely) Wait! Two Link-Locals are the same!

68 68 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada PC1> ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix.: IPv6 Address : 2001:db8:acad:1:3496:1c51:3f57:fe89 Link-local IPv6 Address... : fe80::3496:1c51:3f57:fe89 Default Gateway : fe80::1 PC1: Link-Local Unicast Address Many operating systems will use a random 64-bit Interface IDs for GUA and Link- Local IPv6 Addresses.

69 69 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada R1 G0/0 FE80::1 G0/1 FE80::1 S0/0/0 FE80::1 R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/0 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 ? link-local Use link-local address R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local R1(config-if)#exit R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/1 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local R1(config-if)#exit R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-local R1(config-if)# Link-Local Addresses only have to be unique on the link! Static addresses are more easily remembered and recognizable.

70 70 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada ipv6 enable command Router(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/1 Router(config-if)# ipv6 enable Router(config-if)# end Router# show ipv6 interface brief GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up] FE80::20C:30FF:FE10:92E1 Router# Link-local addresses are automatically created whenever a global unicast address is configured The ipv6 enable command will: Create a link-local address when there is no global unicast address Maintain the link-local address even when the global unicast address is removed Link-local unicast address only

71 71 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada R1# ping fe80::2 Output Interface: ser 0/0/0 % Invalid interface. Use full interface name without spaces (e.g. Serial0/1) Output Interface: serial0/0/0 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to FE80::2, timeout is 2 secs: !!!!! Must include exit-interface G0/0 FE80::1 2001:0DB8:ACAD:2::/64 Ser 0/0/0 :1 Ser 0/0/0 :2 R2R1 FE80::1 FE80::2 2001:0DB8:ACAD:1::/64

72 72 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada R1# show ipv6 route ospf O 2001:DB8:CAFE:2::/64 [110/657] via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0 O 2001:DB8:CAFE:3::/64 [110/1304] via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0 O 2001:DB8:CAFE:A002::/64 [110/1294] via FE80::2, Serial0/0/0 R1# Link-local addresses are used as next hop addresses

73 73 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Multicast IPv6 Addresses

74 74 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IPv6 Addressing Multicast Unicast Anycast AssignedSolicited Node FF00::/8 FF02::1:FF00:0000/104 ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Solicitation ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Router Solicitation Router Advertisement

75 75 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Group ID Flag 1111 FF00::/8 8 bits 112bits 4 bits Scope Similar to Multicast addresses for IPv4. Used to send a packet to a group of devices. Two types: 1. Assigned 2. Solicited Node

76 76 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada FF02::1 – All IPv6 Devices All IPv6 devices, including the router, belong to this group. Every IPv6 device will listen and process packets to this address. ICMPv6 Router Advertisement FF02::1 FE80::1

77 77 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routin g FF02::2 – All IPv6 Routers All IPv6 routers belong to this group. Used to communicate with an IPv6 Router ( ipv6 unicast routing ) FF02::2 FE80::0123:456:789A:BCDE ICMPv6 Router Solicitation

78 78 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada R1# show ipv6 interface gigabitethernet 0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 Global unicast address(es): 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1, subnet is 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64 Joined group address(es): FF02::1 FF02::2 FF02::5 FF02::6 FF02::1:FF00:1 FF02::1:FF75:C3E0 All-IPv6 devices on this link All-IPv6 routers on this link: IPv6 routing enabled Solicited-node multicast addresses Member of these Multicast Groups FF02 – “2” means link-local scope What is a solicited node multicast address? Let’s talk address resolution. OSPFv3 All OSPF Routers (similar to ) OSPFv3 All DR Routers (similar to )

79 79 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Address Resolution

80 80 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada IP to data link(MAC) address mapping: IPv4 addresses use ARP IPv6 addressing use ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery messages Neighbor Solicitation Neighbor Advertisement Devices store this mapping in their Neighbor Cache PC1 PC2 ARP Request Neighbor Advertisement Neighbor Solicitation 1 1 ARP Reply 2 2 Know IPv4, what is the MAC? My IPv4! Here is the MAC? Know IPv6, what is the MAC? My IPv6! Here is the MAC? ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Neighbor Solicitation Neighbor Advertisement ARP Cache Neighbor Cache

81 81 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada ARP Request/Reply Ethernet ICMPv6: Neighbor Solicitation/Advertisement IPv6 Header Ethernet IPv4: ARP over Ethernet IPv6: ICMPv6 over IPv6 over Ethernet PC1 PC2 ARP Request Neighbor Advertisement Neighbor Solicitation 1 1 ARP Reply 2 2 Know IPv4, what is the MAC? My IPv4! Here is the MAC? Know IPv6, what is the MAC? My IPv6! Here is the MAC? ARP Request: Broadcast NS: Multicast NS: Solicited Node Multicast

82 82 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Ethernet Broadcast IPv4/IPv6 Multicast IGMP/MLD Snooping Ethernet Broadcast Destination MAC Address: Broadcast Data must be passed to upper layer for processing. IPv4 or IPv6 Multicast IP multicast packets can be filtered by the switch, only sending packets to members of that group IPv4 - IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) IPv6 - MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery) However, Solicited Node Multicasts are forwarded out all ports because of the potentially huge forwarding tables needed to to store these addresses. (For now.)

83 83 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada ARP Requests: Layer 2 broadcasts: Ethernet broadcasts are sent to all devices. Flood the entire broadcast domain (subnet/VLAN). Ethernet NIC must process the frame. Any filtering is done by a higher layer protocol such as ARP. Solicited Node Multicasts: Layer 2 and Layer 3 multicasts: Although solicited node multicasts are forwarded out all ports, …. Layer 2 multicast allows frames to be filtered by the NIC and not have send data to an upper layer protocol for inspection. Target IPv4 Address

84 84 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Neighbor Cache – Maps IPv6 addresses with Ethernet MAC addresses Similar to ARP Cache for IPv4 5 States (2 noticeable and 3 transitory): (My CCNP Presentation) Reachable: Packets have recently been received providing confirmation that this device is reachable. Stale: A certain time period has elapsed since a packet has been received from this address. Transitory States: INCOMPLETE, DELAY, PROBE PC1 Neighbor Cache IPv6 Address MAC Address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1:: bd9.c644 Neighbor Cache IPv6 Address MAC Address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1:: bd9.c644 IPv :DB8:ACAD:1::10 MAC bd9.c644 Neighbor Advertisement

85 85 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada R1# show ipv6 neighbors IPv6 Address Age Link-layer Addr State Interface FE80::50A5:8A35:A5BB:66E bd9.c644 STALE Fa0/0 2001:DB8:ACAD:1:: bd9.c644 STALE Fa0/0 R1# ping 2001:db8:aaaa:1::100 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2001:DB8:AAAA:1::100, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms R1# show ipv6 neighbors IPv6 Address Age Link-layer Addr State Interface FE80::50A5:8A35:A5BB:66E bd9.c644 STALE Fa0/0 2001:DB8:ACAD:1:: bd9.c644 REACH Fa0/0 R1# Windows: netsh interface ipv6 show neighbor Linux/MAC: ip neighbor show

86 86 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada ICMPv6 Review

87 87 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Described in RFC 4443 Much more robust than ICMP for IPv4 Contains new functionality and improvements. More than just “messaging” but “how IPv6 conducts business”. General message similar to ICMP for IPv4 Also uses Type and Code fields like in ICMPv 4. IPv6 Next Header Value: 58 decimal or 3A hexadecimal IPv6 Header Next Header 58 ICMPv6 Header ICMPv6 Message Body IPv6 Data

88 88 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada ICMPv6 informational messages used by Neighbor Discovery (RFC 4861): Router Solicitation Message Router Advertisement Message Discussed with dynamic configuration of IPv6 addresses Introduced with assigned multicast addresses Neighbor Solicitation Message Neighbor Advertisement Message Discussed with address resolution (IPv4 ARP) Introduced with solicited node multicast address Redirect Message (Similar to ICMPv4) Router-Device Messaging Device-Device Messaging

89 89 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Used by SLAAC (Stateless Address Autoconfiguration) Router Advertisement Message Here is one of three options: 1.I have everything you need. 2.I have mostly what you need, but you will need to contact a DHCPv6 server for other information like a DNS address. 3.I have nothing for you. Contact a DHCPv6 serverl Router Advertisement Message Here is one of three options: 1.I have everything you need. 2.I have mostly what you need, but you will need to contact a DHCPv6 server for other information like a DNS address. 3.I have nothing for you. Contact a DHCPv6 serverl FF02::1 All IPv6 Devices FF02::1 All IPv6 Devices Router Solicitation Message I need IPv6 address information. Router Solicitation Message I need IPv6 address information. FF02::2 All IPv6 Routers FF02::2 All IPv6 Routers PC1 DHCPv6 Server

90 90 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Address Resolution - A device knows the IPv6 address but needs the Layer 2 MAC address. Unlike ARP, ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation/Advertisement messages are encapsulated in IPv6. Information is stored in the Neighbor Cache. Neighbor Solicitation Message Whoever has the IPv6 Address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 please send me your Ethernet MAC address. Neighbor Solicitation Message Whoever has the IPv6 Address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 please send me your Ethernet MAC address. Solicited Node Multicast Neighbor Advertisement Message I have the IPv6 Address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10. Here is my Ethernet MAC address: 0021:9bd9:c644. Neighbor Advertisement Message I have the IPv6 Address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10. Here is my Ethernet MAC address: 0021:9bd9:c644. Unicast PC2 PC

91 91 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Why IPv6? IPv6 and ICMPv6 at a glance Format of an IPv6 Address IPv6 Address Global Unicast IPv6 Address Subnetting Link-Local Unicast IPv6 Address Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Three options Link-local address Multicast address Address Resolution Teach it and use it, and it will all make sense!

92 92 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Rick Graziani - PowerPoints for CCNA, CCNP, IPv6 Username = cisco Password = perlman Shameless plug! Quality time with my two nieces…

93 93 © 2013 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco confidential. Cisco Networking Academy, US/Canada Rick Graziani - Username = cisco Password = perlman


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