Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8b Intro to Routing & Switching. Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: Describe the structure of an IPv4 address. Describe."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8b Intro to Routing & Switching
Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: Describe the structure of an IPv4 address. Describe the purpose of the subnet mask. Compare the characteristics and uses of the unicast, broadcast and multicast IPv4 addresses. Compare the use of public and private addresses. Explain the need for IPv6 addressing. Describe the representation of an IPv6 address. Describe types of IPv6 network addresses. Configure global unicast addresses. Describe multicast addresses. Describe the role of ICMP in an IP network. Use ping & traceroute to test network connectivity.
How to conserve the IP’s? Tried NAT Private IP addresses inside network One or few public IP addresses Tried CIDR Classless inter-domain routing Subnetting a subnetted address further Came up with IPv6
128 bits 8 sets (hextets) of four hex digits Ridiculous amounts of addresses Every device can have unique address Eliminates IP conservation Written in hex separated by : FE22:00FF:002D:0000:0000:0000:3012:CCE3
Rule 1: omit leading zeros Remove zeros before other hex digits 00FF can be FF 0000 can be 0 What can this be reduced down to? FE22:00FF:002D:0000:0000:0000:3012:CCE3
Rule 2: omit all zero hextets Use :: for multiple zero-value fields FE22:00FF:002D:0000:0000:0000:3012:CCE3 FE22:FF:2D::3012:CCE3 Can only do this once within address Can’t tell how many fields it represents 2001:0:0:34D0:0:0:9F77:2854 CAN NOT be… 2001::34D0::9F77:2854 More examples next slide
Incorrect address: 2001:0DB8::ABCD::1234 What could it be??? 2001:0DB8::ABCD:0000:0000:1234 2001:0DB8::ABCD:0000:0000:0000:1234 2001:0DB8:0000:ABCD::1234 2001:0DB8:0000:0000:ABCD::1234
Practicing IPv6 Representations Convert all 10 addresses into short form Handout Reduce the IPv6 addresses to short form
What are 2 ways to shorten up an IPv6 address? Omit all zero groups Omit leading zeros How many bits in an IPv6 address? 128 bits An IPv6 address is shown in what? Hex A hextet is how many bits? 16 bits Each hextet is separated by what? Colon :
Unicast One to one Multicast One to a group Anycast DON’T WORRY ABOUT IT! There are NO MORE BROADCASTS!
Represents a single interface Example: address assigned to your NIC Types of unicast addresses: Global unicast- like a reg. IPv4 public address Link-local- stays within LAN; not routable Loopback- tests your NIC/if IP is working; ::1 Unique local- like NAT, unroutable
Global Unicast Address Link-local Address
Public address Similar to a public IPv4 address Begins with 2000:: 2001:: reserved for examples
Every NIC MUST have one Begin with FE80:: For communicating within the LAN only Unroutable Auto-configured Combo of FE80 and the MAC address Also used between routers to exchange routing tables & as next-hop IP addresses
Tests TCP/IP on your NIC ::1
Like IPv4, there are network & host portions Network ID is called prefix Represented at end by a slash 805B:2D9D:DC28:0000:0000:FC57:D4C8:1FFF/48 805B:2D9D:DC28::FC57:D4C8:1FFF/48 805B:2D9D:DC28:0:0:0:0:0/48 is Network ID 805B:2D9D:DC28::/48 1 st 48 bits
IPv6 has: Network ID (Prefix) Subnet ID Identifies the subnetwork in your own network Interface ID Your MAC address Like the host portion of IPv4 address
Drag the IPv6 address type to its description.
Name 3 common types of IPv6 unicast addresses. Global, link local, loopback What are the 3 parts of an IPv6 address? Prefix, subnet ID, interface ID Which part identifies the network & will be the same on every device in your network? Prefix Which part is identifiable in your network? Subnet ID Which part is the MAC address of your device? Interface ID
Dual stack Runs both IPv4 & IPv6 at same time Tunneling Sending an IPv6 packet over IPv4 network Translation NAT64 Translates the packets from IPv4 to v6 & back
Can assign IP address by itself (without DHCP server) based on info from router IPv6 router sends RA (router advertisements) As a multicast, every 200 seconds Or a PC can send a RS (router solicitation) asking for address These are ICMPv6 messages Have to turn IPv6 routing on 1 st Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing
What is the term for running both IPv4 & IPv6 at the same time on your network? Dual stack What allows IPv6 packets to be sent over an IPv4 network, between routers? Tunneling What process allows a host to automatically get an IPv6 address from the router? SLAAC What address is created automatically for inside the network communication? Link local address
The link local (inside only) address begins with what? FE80 The global unicast address will begin with what? 2000:: A host getting an address from a router using SLAAC sends and receives what? RA and RS What command will turn on IPv6 routing on a Cisco router? Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing
What command on a Cisco router will display a short list of all the router interface’s IPv6 addresses? Show ipv6 interface brief What command on a Cisco router will display the IPv6 routing table? Show ipv6 route What would the shortened version of this IPv6 address be? 2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329 2001:db8::ff00:42:8329
One to a group Begin with FF00-FF02 Sent to all nodes on local-link Like an IPv4 broadcast Two kinds: Assigned RS/RA messages To predefined groups, like for DHCP All nodes & all routers groups Solicited node Sent to devices that match the last 24 bits of address For ARP requests!
Lab You will practice configuring IPv6 addresses on a router, servers, and clients. You will also practice verifying your IPv6 addressing implementation. Lab Identify the Different Types of IPv6 Addresses; Examine a Host IPv6 Network Interface and Address; Practice IPv6 Address Abbreviation; Identify the Hierarchy of the IPv6 Global Unicast Address Network Prefix
What kind of message is NOT used in IPv6 but used in IPv4? Broadcasts A multicast IPv6 message is sent to all hosts in a network. What will the address begin with? FF00-FF02 A solicited node multicast is similar to what kind of action in an IPv4 network? ARP request
For both IPv4 & v6 Echo request/reply Destination or host unreachable Time exceeded (TTL) IPv6 uses hop limit When reaches 0, you get time exceeded message Is H2 reachable? Yes, I’m here!
Has some new features: Router Solicitation message (RS) Router Advertisement message (RA)
More new features: Neighbor Solicitation message (NS) Neighbor Advertisement message (NA)
Shows the path to destination Tells if reachable TTL field decreases going through each router (hops) When gets to 0, unreachable
An ICMP ping is the same on IPv4 & IPv6 networks. What 3 things does it test/tell you? RTT (time it takes to get there and back), if it’s reachable, and route redistribution (better route within network to take) What kind of test is an echo request/reply? Ping What ICMP messages are exchanged during an ARP request for IPv6? NS, NA How would you test if TCP/IP is working on your NIC? Ping ::1
What test shows the path to a destination? Traceroute What happens when the TTL or hop count gets to 0? Network is unreachable How does the TTL/hop count decrease? Going through a router When trying to get the destination MAC address to send data, what kind of multicast address is used in the NS message? Solicited node multicast, FF00-FF02
Complete the study guide handout Take the quiz on netacad.com Jeopardy review
In this chapter, you learned: There are three types of IPv6 addresses: unicast, multicast, and anycast. An IPv6 link-local address enables a device to communicate with other IPv6-enabled devices on the same link and only on that link (subnet). Packets with a source or destination link-local address cannot be routed beyond the link from where the packet originated. IPv6 link-local addresses are in the FE80::/10 range. ICMP is available for both IPv4 and IPv6.