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Chapter 8b Intro to Routing & Switching.  Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:  Describe the structure of an IPv4 address.  Describe.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8b Intro to Routing & Switching.  Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:  Describe the structure of an IPv4 address.  Describe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8b Intro to Routing & Switching

2  Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:  Describe the structure of an IPv4 address.  Describe the purpose of the subnet mask.  Compare the characteristics and uses of the unicast, broadcast and multicast IPv4 addresses.  Compare the use of public and private addresses.  Explain the need for IPv6 addressing.  Describe the representation of an IPv6 address.  Describe types of IPv6 network addresses.  Configure global unicast addresses.  Describe multicast addresses.  Describe the role of ICMP in an IP network.  Use ping & traceroute to test network connectivity.

3 8.2.1

4  How to conserve the IP’s?  Tried NAT  Private IP addresses inside network  One or few public IP addresses  Tried CIDR  Classless inter-domain routing  Subnetting a subnetted address further  Came up with IPv6

5 8.2.1

6  128 bits  8 sets (hextets) of four hex digits  Ridiculous amounts of addresses  Every device can have unique address  Eliminates IP conservation  Written in hex separated by :  FE22:00FF:002D:0000:0000:0000:3012:CCE3

7  Rule 1: omit leading zeros  Remove zeros before other hex digits  00FF can be FF  0000 can be 0  What can this be reduced down to?  FE22:00FF:002D:0000:0000:0000:3012:CCE3

8  Rule 2: omit all zero hextets  Use :: for multiple zero-value fields  FE22:00FF:002D:0000:0000:0000:3012:CCE3  FE22:FF:2D::3012:CCE3  Can only do this once within address  Can’t tell how many fields it represents  2001:0:0:34D0:0:0:9F77:2854 CAN NOT be…  2001::34D0::9F77:2854  More examples next slide 

9  Incorrect address:  2001:0DB8::ABCD::1234  What could it be???  2001:0DB8::ABCD:0000:0000:1234  2001:0DB8::ABCD:0000:0000:0000:1234  2001:0DB8:0000:ABCD::1234  2001:0DB8:0000:0000:ABCD::1234

10  Practicing IPv6 Representations  Convert all 10 addresses into short form  Handout  Reduce the IPv6 addresses to short form

11  What are 2 ways to shorten up an IPv6 address?  Omit all zero groups  Omit leading zeros  How many bits in an IPv6 address?  128 bits  An IPv6 address is shown in what?  Hex  A hextet is how many bits?  16 bits  Each hextet is separated by what?  Colon :

12 8.2.3

13  Unicast  One to one  Multicast  One to a group  Anycast  DON’T WORRY ABOUT IT!  There are NO MORE BROADCASTS!

14  Represents a single interface  Example: address assigned to your NIC  Types of unicast addresses:  Global unicast- like a reg. IPv4 public address  Link-local- stays within LAN; not routable  Loopback- tests your NIC/if IP is working; ::1  Unique local- like NAT, unroutable

15 Global Unicast Address Link-local Address

16  Public address  Similar to a public IPv4 address  Begins with 2000::  2001:: reserved for examples

17  Every NIC MUST have one  Begin with FE80::  For communicating within the LAN only  Unroutable  Auto-configured  Combo of FE80 and the MAC address  Also used between routers to exchange routing tables & as next-hop IP addresses

18  Tests TCP/IP on your NIC  ::1

19  Like IPv4, there are network & host portions  Network ID is called prefix  Represented at end by a slash  805B:2D9D:DC28:0000:0000:FC57:D4C8:1FFF/48  805B:2D9D:DC28::FC57:D4C8:1FFF/48  805B:2D9D:DC28:0:0:0:0:0/48 is Network ID 805B:2D9D:DC28::/48 1 st 48 bits

20  IPv6 has:  Network ID (Prefix)  Subnet ID Identifies the subnetwork in your own network  Interface ID Your MAC address Like the host portion of IPv4 address

21   Drag the IPv6 address type to its description.

22  Name 3 common types of IPv6 unicast addresses.  Global, link local, loopback  What are the 3 parts of an IPv6 address?  Prefix, subnet ID, interface ID  Which part identifies the network & will be the same on every device in your network?  Prefix  Which part is identifiable in your network?  Subnet ID  Which part is the MAC address of your device?  Interface ID

23 8.2

24  Dual stack  Runs both IPv4 & IPv6 at same time  Tunneling  Sending an IPv6 packet over IPv4 network  Translation  NAT64  Translates the packets from IPv4 to v6 & back

25 Ipv6 address

26  Static  Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)  DHCPv6

27  Can assign IP address by itself (without DHCP server) based on info from router  IPv6 router sends RA (router advertisements)  As a multicast, every 200 seconds  Or a PC can send a RS (router solicitation) asking for address  These are ICMPv6 messages  Have to turn IPv6 routing on 1 st  Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing


29  What is the term for running both IPv4 & IPv6 at the same time on your network?  Dual stack  What allows IPv6 packets to be sent over an IPv4 network, between routers?  Tunneling  What process allows a host to automatically get an IPv6 address from the router?  SLAAC  What address is created automatically for inside the network communication?  Link local address

30  The link local (inside only) address begins with what?  FE80  The global unicast address will begin with what?  2000::  A host getting an address from a router using SLAAC sends and receives what?  RA and RS  What command will turn on IPv6 routing on a Cisco router?  Router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing

31 8.2


33  What command on a Cisco router will display a short list of all the router interface’s IPv6 addresses?  Show ipv6 interface brief  What command on a Cisco router will display the IPv6 routing table?  Show ipv6 route  What would the shortened version of this IPv6 address be? 2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329  2001:db8::ff00:42:8329

34 8.2

35  One to a group  Begin with FF00-FF02  Sent to all nodes on local-link  Like an IPv4 broadcast  Two kinds:  Assigned RS/RA messages To predefined groups, like for DHCP All nodes & all routers groups  Solicited node Sent to devices that match the last 24 bits of address For ARP requests!

36  Lab  You will practice configuring IPv6 addresses on a router, servers, and clients.  You will also practice verifying your IPv6 addressing implementation.  Lab  Identify the Different Types of IPv6 Addresses; Examine a Host IPv6 Network Interface and Address; Practice IPv6 Address Abbreviation; Identify the Hierarchy of the IPv6 Global Unicast Address Network Prefix

37  What kind of message is NOT used in IPv6 but used in IPv4?  Broadcasts  A multicast IPv6 message is sent to all hosts in a network. What will the address begin with?  FF00-FF02  A solicited node multicast is similar to what kind of action in an IPv4 network?  ARP request

38 8.3

39  For both IPv4 & v6  Echo request/reply  Destination or host unreachable  Time exceeded (TTL) IPv6 uses hop limit When reaches 0, you get time exceeded message Is H2 reachable? Yes, I’m here!

40  Has some new features:  Router Solicitation message (RS)  Router Advertisement message (RA)

41  More new features:  Neighbor Solicitation message (NS)  Neighbor Advertisement message (NA)


43  Shows the path to destination  Tells if reachable  TTL field decreases going through each router (hops)  When gets to 0, unreachable

44  An ICMP ping is the same on IPv4 & IPv6 networks. What 3 things does it test/tell you?  RTT (time it takes to get there and back), if it’s reachable, and route redistribution (better route within network to take)  What kind of test is an echo request/reply?  Ping  What ICMP messages are exchanged during an ARP request for IPv6?  NS, NA  How would you test if TCP/IP is working on your NIC?  Ping ::1

45  What test shows the path to a destination?  Traceroute  What happens when the TTL or hop count gets to 0?  Network is unreachable  How does the TTL/hop count decrease?  Going through a router  When trying to get the destination MAC address to send data, what kind of multicast address is used in the NS message?  Solicited node multicast, FF00-FF02

46  Complete the study guide handout  Take the quiz on  Jeopardy review

47 In this chapter, you learned:  There are three types of IPv6 addresses: unicast, multicast, and anycast.  An IPv6 link-local address enables a device to communicate with other IPv6-enabled devices on the same link and only on that link (subnet). Packets with a source or destination link-local address cannot be routed beyond the link from where the packet originated. IPv6 link-local addresses are in the FE80::/10 range.  ICMP is available for both IPv4 and IPv6.

48 Chapter 8b Intro to Routing & Switching

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