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Guest lecture II: Amos Fiat’s Social Networks class Edith Cohen TAU, December 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Guest lecture II: Amos Fiat’s Social Networks class Edith Cohen TAU, December 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Guest lecture II: Amos Fiat’s Social Networks class Edith Cohen TAU, December 2014

2 Today Diffusion of information/contagion in networks: Applications:  Influence queries  Influence maximization  Influence similarity Reachability-based diffusion: Models & Scalable computation  Basic reachability  IC model  Set of instances

3 Diffusion in Networks Contagion, information, news, opinions, … spread over the network. When two nodes are connected, infection can pass from one to the other.

4 Diffusion in Networks Model of how information/infection spreads

5 Challenges  Modeling: Formulate a model that captures what we want  Scalability: Very efficient computation of many queries on very large networks

6 Modeling Diffusion

7 Simplest Model: Reachability “You infect everyone you can reach”

8 Simplest Model: Reachability “You infect everyone you can reach” Submodular and monotone !

9 Scalability: Node sketches

10 Reachability diffusion model: Issues “You infect everyone you can reach”  Intuition that contagion is probabilistic in nature Reachability does not capture:

11 Reachability diffusion model: Issues “You infect everyone you can reach”  Asymmetry: Distinguish strong or weak connections. Even if network is undirected, influence is not (may depend, say, on how many friends you have) Reachability does not capture: Strong tie weak tie

12 Reachability diffusion model: Issues “You infect everyone you can reach”  Asymmetry: Distinguish strong or weak connections. Even if network is undirected, influence is not (may depend, say, on how many friends you have) Reachability does not capture: More influencial Less influencial

13 Reachability diffusion model: Issues “You infect everyone you can reach”  Not robust: Can be very sensitive to presence or deletions of one or few (weak) edges Reachability does not capture:

14 Reachability diffusion model: Issues “You infect everyone you can reach”  Infection probability should decrease with path length and increase with path multiplicity. Reachability does not capture:

15 Reachability diffusion model: Issues “You infect everyone you can reach”  Intuition that contagion is probabilistic in nature  Asymmetry: Distinguish strong or weak connections. Even if network is undirected, influence is not (may depend, say, on how many friends you have)  Not robust: Can be very sensitive to presence or deletions of one or few (weak) edges  Infection probability should decrease with path length and increase with path multiplicity. Reachability does not capture:

16 Independent Cascade (IC) diffusion model [Kempe, Kleinberg, Tardos 2003]

17 Independent Cascade (IC)  Intuition that contagion is probabilistic in nature  Asymmetry: Distinguish strong or weak connections. Even if network is undirected, influence is not (may depend, say, on how many friends you have)  Not robust: Can be very sensitive to presence or deletions of one or few (weak) edges  Infection probability should decrease with path length and increase with path multiplicity. IC model does capture:

18 Independent Cascade (IC)  Asymmetry: Distinguish strong or weak connections. Even if network is undirected, influence is not (may depend, say, on how many friends you have) More influencial Less influencial

19 Independent Cascade (IC)  Infection probability should decrease with path length and increase with path multiplicity.

20 Scalability: Sketches for an IC model

21 Sketches for a fixed set of instances  We first consider a fixed (arbitrary) set of instances (edge sets): Influence is the average (or sum) of reachable set sizes, over instances. Motivation:  When the instances come from “enough” Monte Carlo simulations of an IC model, the sketches capture the model.  Capture “median” behavior of IC model  Can capture relations beyond IC model (edges not independent)

22 Fixed set of instances

23

24 Sketches for a fixed set of instances Approach I [CWY KDD 2009]

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26 Combined reachability sketches

27 Sketches for an IC model

28 IC model sketching

29

30 Influence Maximization We can consider influence maximization:  On a single instance (“static” graph)  A set of instances  An IC model Single instance captures the basic scalability challenges

31 Influence Maximization  Bad news: Problem is NP-hard even for a single instance (one “static” graph) Elements Sets Reduction to max/set cover:

32 Influence Maximization  Good news: Monotone and submodular

33 Greedy Influence Maximization  Greedy generates a sequence of nodes  The approximation guarantee is for each prefix

34 Greedy Sequence 1 2 3

35 Scalability Greedy does not scale well even on a single “static” graph – We can not afford much more than linear time on very large networks  In each step we need to determine the node with maximum marginal gain.  Exact computation of the cardinality for each node is costly (search from each node)

36 Scalability

37 SkIM: Sketch Based Influence Maximization [CDPW CIKM 2014] We show SkIM for one instance (similar for multiple instances)

38 SkIM: Sketch Based Influence Maximization [CDPW CIKM 2014]

39 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch

40 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch

41 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch

42 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch

43 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch

44 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch

45 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch

46 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch

47 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch

48 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch

49 Sampled Sketch size Inverted sketch 3 0 Residual problem 1 1 1

50 SkIM correctness

51 SkIM running time (1 instance)

52 SkIM: Sketch Based Influence Maximization [CDPW CIKM 2014]

53 Engineering SkIM

54 …Engineering SkIM

55 SkIM on multiple instances

56 SkIM: Sketch Based Influence Maximization [CDPW CIKM 2014]

57 [CDPW 2014] data sets from SNAP

58 Use of reachability sketches for influence:  Chen, Wang, Young. Efficient Influence Maximization in Social Networks. KDD 2009 Combined reachability sketches and scalable influence maximization:  Cohen, Delling, Pajor, Werneck. Sketch-based Influence Maximization and Computation: Scaling up with Guarantees. CIKM 2014  IC model: Kempe, Kleinberg, Tardos “Maximizing the spread of influence through a social networks” KDD 2003 Greedy algorithm for monotone submodular functions:  Nemhauser, Wolsey, Fisher. “An analysis of the approximations of maximizing submodular set functions” 1978 Bibliography: Reachability-based diffusion in networks  Reachability sketches: E. Cohen “Size-Estimation Framework with Applications to Transitive Closure and Reachability” JCSS 1997  KDD 2012 tutorial: Castillo, Chen, Lakshmanan “information and influence spread in social networks” us/people/weic/kdd12tutorial_inf.aspxhttp://research.microsoft.com/en- us/people/weic/kdd12tutorial_inf.aspx  There is a huge literature on scalable IM implementations (without guarantees…)

59 M. Gomez-Rodriguez, D. Balduzzi, and B. Schölkopf. Uncovering the temporal dynamics of diffusion networks. In ICML, Enhanced model and scalable algorithms:  Cohen, Delling, Pajor, Werneck. Timed-influence: Computation and Maximization. N. Du, L. Song, M. Gomez-Rodriguez, and H. Zha. Scalable influence estimation in continuous-time diffusion networks. In NIPS All-Distances Sketches:  E. Cohen “Size-Estimation Framework with Applications to Transitive Closure and Reachability” JCSS 1997  All-Distances skethces, revisited. PODS Further Modelling flexibility: “timed” influence Distance-based diffusion in networks

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