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Memory Management Tom Roeder CS215 2006fa. Motivation Recall unmanaged code eg C: { double* A = malloc(sizeof(double)*M*N); for(int i = 0; i < M*N; i++)

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Presentation on theme: "Memory Management Tom Roeder CS215 2006fa. Motivation Recall unmanaged code eg C: { double* A = malloc(sizeof(double)*M*N); for(int i = 0; i < M*N; i++)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory Management Tom Roeder CS fa

2 Motivation Recall unmanaged code eg C: { double* A = malloc(sizeof(double)*M*N); for(int i = 0; i < M*N; i++) { A[i] = i; } } What’s wrong? memory leak: forgot to call free(A); common problem in C

3 Motivation What’s wrong here? char* f(){ char c[100]; for(int i = 0; i < 100; i++) { c[i] = i; } return c; } Returning memory allocated on the stack Can you still do this in C#? no: array sizes must be specified in “new” expressions

4 Motivation Solution: no explicit malloc/free (new/delete) eg. in Java/C# { double[] A = new double[M*N]; for(int i = 0; i < M*N; i++) { A[i] = i; } } No leak: memory is “lost” but freed later A Garbage collector tries to free memory keeps track of used information somehow

5 COM’s Solution Reference Counting AddRef/Release each time a new reference is created: call AddRef each time released: call Release must be called by programmer leads to difficult bugs forgot to AddRef: objects disappear underneath forgot to Release: memory leaks Entirely manual solutions unacceptable

6 Garbage Collection Why must we do this in COM? no way to tell what points to what C/C++ pointers can point to anything C#/Java have a managed runtime all pointer types are known at runtime can do reference counting in CLR Garbage Collection is program analysis figure out properties of code automatically two type of analysis: dynamic and static

7 Soundness and Completeness For any program analysis Sound? are the operations always correct? usually an absolute requirement Complete? does the analysis capture all possible instances? For Garbage Collection sound = does it ever delete current memory? complete = does it delete all unused memory?

8 Reference Counting As in COM, keep count of references. How? on assignment, increment and decrement when removing variables, decrement eg. local variables being removed from stack know where all objects live at ref count 0, reclaim object space Advantage: incremental (don’t stop) Is this safe? Yes: not reference means not reachable

9 Reference Counting Disadvantages constant cost, even when lots of space optimize the common case! can’t detect cycles Has fallen out of favor. Reachable

10 Trees Instead of counting references keep track of some top-level objects and trace out the reachable objects only clean up heap when out of space much better for low-memory programs Two major types of algorithm Mark and Sweep Copy Collectors

11 Trees Top-level objects managed by CLR local variables on stack registers pointing to objects Garbage collector starts top-level builds a graph of the reachable objects

12 Mark and Sweep Two-pass algorithm First pass: walk the graph and mark all objects everything starts unmarked Second pass: sweep the heap, remove unmarked not reachable implies garbage Soundness? Yes: any object not marked is not reachable Completeness? Yes, since any object unreachable is not marked but only complete eventually

13 Mark and Sweep Can be expensive eg. emacs everything stops and collection happens this is a general problem for garbage collection at end of first phase, know all reachable objects should use this information how could we use it?

14 Copy Collectors Instead of just marking as we trace copy each reachable object to new part of heap needs to have enough space to do this no need for second pass Advantages one pass compaction Disadvantages higher memory requirements

15 Fragmentation Common problem in memory schemes Enough memory but not enough contiguous consider allocator in OS ? 10

16 Unmanaged algorithms best-fit search the heap for the closest fit takes time causes external fragmentation (as we saw) first-fit choose the first fit found starts from beginning of heap next-fit first-fit with a pointer to last place searched

17 Unmanaged algorithms worst-fit put the object in the largest possible hole under what workload is this good? objects need to grow eg. database construction eg. network connection table different algorithms appropriate in different settings: designed differently in compiler/runtime, we want access speed

18 Heap Allocation Algorithms Best for managed heap? must be usually O(1) so not best or first fit use next fit walk on the edge of the last chunk General idea allocate contiguously allocate forwards until out of memory

19 Compacting Copy Collector Move live objects to bottom of heap leaves more free space on top contiguous allocation allows faster access cache works better with locality Must then modify references recall: references are really pointers must update location in each object Can be made very fast

20 Compacting Copy Collector Another possible collector: divide memory into two halves fill up one half before doing any collection on full: walk the trees and copy to other side work from new side Need twice memory of other collectors But don’t need to find space in old side contiguous allocation is easy

21 C# Memory management Related to next-fit, copy-collector keep a NextObjPointer to next free space use it for new objects until no more space Keep knowledge of Root objects global and static object pointers all thread stack local variables registers pointing to objects maintained by JIT compiler and runtime eg. JIT keeps a table of roots

22 C# Memory management On traversal: walk from roots to find all good objects linear pass through heap on gap, compact higher objects down fix object references to make this work very fast in general Speedups: assume different types of objects

23 Generations Current.NET uses 3 generations: 0 – recently created objects: yet to survive GC 1 – survived 1 GC pass 2 – survived more than 1 GC pass Assumption: longer lived implies live longer Is this a good assumption? good assumption for many applications and for many systems (eg. P2P) Put lower objects lower in heap

24 Generations During compaction, promote generations eg. Gen 1 reachable object goes to Gen 2 Eventually: } } } Generation 0 Generation 1 Generation 2 Heap

25 More Generation Optimization Don’t trace references in old objects. Why? speed improvement but could refer to young objects Use Write-Watch support. How? note if an old object has some field set then can trace through references

26 Large Objects Heap Area of the heap dedicated to large objects never compacted. Why? copy cost outweights any locality automatic generation 2 rarely collected large objects likely to have long lifetime Commonly used for DataGrid objects results from database queries 20k or more

27 Object Pinning Can require that an object not move could hurt GC performance useful for unsafe operation in fact, needed to make pointers work syntax: fixed(…) { … } will not move objects in the declaration in the block

28 Finalization Recall C++ destructors: ~MyClass() { // cleanup } called when object is deleted does cleanup for this object Don’t do this in C# (or Java) similar construct exists but only called on GC no guarantees when

29 Finalization More common idiom: public void Finalize() { base.Finalize(); Dispose(false); } maybe needed for unmanaged resources slows down GC significantly Finalization in GC: when object with Finalize method created add to Finalization Queue when about to be GC’ed, add to Freachable Queue

30 Finalization images from MSDN Nov 2000


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