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BackSpace: Formal Analysis for Post-Silicon Debug Flavio M. de Paula * Marcel Gort *, Alan J. Hu *, Steve Wilton *, Jin Yang + * University of British.

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Presentation on theme: "BackSpace: Formal Analysis for Post-Silicon Debug Flavio M. de Paula * Marcel Gort *, Alan J. Hu *, Steve Wilton *, Jin Yang + * University of British."— Presentation transcript:

1 BackSpace: Formal Analysis for Post-Silicon Debug Flavio M. de Paula * Marcel Gort *, Alan J. Hu *, Steve Wilton *, Jin Yang + * University of British Columbia + Intel Corporation

2 Outline Motivation Current Practices BackSpace – The Intuition Proof-of-Concept Experimental Results (Recent Experiments) Conclusions and Future Work 2

3 Motivation Chip is back from fab!  Screened out chips w/ manufacturing defects 3

4 Motivation Chip is back from fab!  Screened out chips w/ manufacturing defects A bring-up procedure follows:  Run diagnostics w/o problems, everything looks fine! 4

5 Motivation Chip is back from fab!  Screened out chips w/ manufacturing defects A bring-up procedure follows:  Run diagnostics w/o problems, everything looks fine!  But, the system becomes irresponsive while running the real application… 5

6 Motivation Chip is back from fab!  Screened out chips w/ manufacturing defects A bring-up procedure follows:  Run diagnostics w/o problems, everything looks fine!  But, the system becomes irresponsive while running the real application… Every single chip fails in the same way (1M DPM: Func. bugs) 6

7 Motivation Chip is back from fab!  Screened out chips w/ manufacturing defects A bring-up procedure follows:  Run diagnostics w/o problems, everything looks fine!  But, the system becomes irresponsive while running the real application… Every single chip fails in the same way (1M DPM: Func. bugs) What do we do now? 7

8 Current Practices 8 Scan-out buggy state Inputs

9 Current Practices 9 Scan-out buggy state But, cause is not obvious!!! Inputs

10 Current Practices 10 Guess when to stop and single step ??? Scan-out Inputs

11 Current Practices 11 ? Non-buggy path Problems: Single-stepping interference; Non-determinism; Too early/late to stop? Inputs Guess when to stop and single step

12 Current Practices Leveraging additional debugging support:  Trace buffer of the internal state 12

13 Current Practices Leveraging additional debugging support:  Trace buffer of the internal state Provides only a narrow view of the design, e.g., program counter, address/data fetches 13

14 Current Practices Leveraging additional debugging support:  Trace buffer of the internal state Provides only a narrow view of the design, e.g., program counter, address/data fetches  Record all I/O and replay Solves the non-determinism problem, but… Requires highly specialized bring-up systems 14

15 Current Practices Leveraging additional debugging support:  Trace buffer of the internal state Provides only a narrow view of the design, e.g., program counter, address/data fetches  Record all I/O and replay Solves the non-determinism problem, but… Requires highly specialized bring-up systems 15 Just having additional hardware does NOT solve the problem Just having additional hardware does NOT solve the problem

16 A Better Solution: BackSpace Goal:  Avoid guess work  Avoid interfering with the system  Run at speed  Portable debug support  Compute an accurate trace to the bug 16

17 Requires:  Hardware: Existing test infrastructure and scan-chains; Breakpoint circuit; Good signature scheme;  Software: Efficient SAT solver; BackSpace Manager 17 A Better Solution: BackSpace

18 18 Non-buggy path Inputs 1. Run at-speed until hit the buggy state A Better Solution: BackSpace

19 19 Non-buggy path Inputs 1. Run at-speed until hit the buggy state A Better Solution: BackSpace

20 20 Non-buggy path Inputs 1. Run at-speed until hit the buggy state A Better Solution: BackSpace

21 21 Non-buggy path Inputs 1. Run at-speed until hit the buggy state A Better Solution: BackSpace

22 22 Inputs 2. Scan-out buggy state and history of signatures A Better Solution: BackSpace

23 23 Inputs A Better Solution: BackSpace Formal Engine 3.Off-Chip Formal Analysis

24 24 Inputs 4.Off-Chip Formal Analysis - Compute Pre-image A Better Solution: BackSpace Formal Engine

25 25 Inputs 5.Pick candidate state and load breakpoint circuit A Better Solution: BackSpace Formal Engine

26 26 Inputs 6.Run until hits the breakpoint A Better Solution: BackSpace Formal Engine

27 27 Inputs 7.Pick another state A Better Solution: BackSpace Formal Engine

28 28 Inputs 7.Run until hits the breakpoint A Better Solution: BackSpace Formal Engine

29 29 Inputs 7.Run until hits the breakpoint A Better Solution: BackSpace Formal Engine

30 30 Inputs A Better Solution: BackSpace Computed trace of length 2

31 31 Inputs A Better Solution: BackSpace 7.Iterate Formal Engine

32 32 Inputs 8.BackSpace trace A Better Solution: BackSpace

33 Outline Motivation Current Practices BackSpace – The Intuition Proof-of-Concept Experimental Results Recent Experiments Future Work 33

34 Proof-of-Concept Experimental Results 34 SAT Solver Chip on Silicon BackSpace Manager

35 Proof-of-Concept Experimental Results 35 SAT Solver Logic Simulator BackSpace Manager

36 Proof-of-Concept Experimental Results Setup:  OpenCores’ designs: 68HC05: 109 latches oc8051 : 702 latches  Run real applications 36

37 Proof-of-Concept Experimental Results Can we find a signature that reduces the size of the pre-image? Experiment:  Select 10 arbitrary ‘crash’ states on 68HC05;  Try different signatures 37

38 38 Signature Size vs. States in Pre-Image

39 Proof-of-Concept Experimental Results How far can we go back? Experiment:  Select arbitrary ‘crash’ states: 10 for each 68HC05 and oc8051;  Set limit to 500 cycles of backspace;  Set limit on size of pre-image to 300 states;  Compare the best two types of signature; Hand-picked Universal Hashing of entire state 39

40 40 68HC05 w/ 38-Bit Manual Signature

41 41 68HC05 w/ 38-Bit Manual Signature

42 42 68HC05 w/ 38-Bit Universal Hashing

43 w/ 281-Bit Manual Signature

44 w/ 281-Bit Universal Hashing

45 Proof-of-Concept Experimental Results Results  Signature: Universal Hashing  Small size of pre-images  All 20 cases successfully BackSpaced to limit 45

46 Proof-of-Concept Experimental Results Breakpoint Circuitry  40-50% area overhead. Signature Computation  Universal Hashing naïve implementation results in 150% area overhead. 46

47 Recent Experiments OpenRisc 1200:  32-bit RISC processor;  Harvard micro-architecture;  5-stage integer pipeline;  Virtual memory support;  Total of 3k+ latches BackSpace implemented in HW/SW  AMIRIX AP1000 FPGA board (provided by CMC)  Board mimics bring-up systems  Host-PC: off-chip formal analysis 47

48 Recent Experiments BackSpacing OpenRisc 1200:  Running simple software application  Backspaced for hundreds of cycles  Demonstrated robustness in the presence of nondeterminism 48

49 Conclusions & Future Work Introduced BackSpace: a new paradigm for post-silicon debug Demonstrated it works Main challenges:  Find hardware-friendly & SAT-friendly signatures  Minimize breakpoint circuitry overhead 49

50 50

51 Dfn. BackSpaceable Design 1) Augmented Machine  Given, where is the set of states,  Define the signature generator as where is the set of states,,  Construct an augmented machine M A such that: 51

52 Dfn. BackSpaceable Design 2) BackSpaceable State  A state (s’,t’) of augment state machine M A is backspaceable if its pre-image projected onto 2 S is unique. 52

53 Dfn. BackSpaceable Design 3) BackSpaceable Machine  An augmented machine M A is backspaceable iff all reachable states are backspaceable. A state machine M is backspaceable iff it can be augmented into a state machine M A for which all reachable states are reachable. 53

54 54 Crash State History Algorithm Given state (s 0,t 0 ) of a backspaceable augmented state machine M A, compute a finite sequence of states (s 0,t 0 ), (s 1,t 1 ),… as follows:  Since M A is backspaceable, let s i+1 be the unique pre-image state (on the state bits) of (s i,t i ).  Run M A (possibly repeatedly) until it reaches a state (s i+1,x). Let t i+1 = x.

55 55 Theorem (Correctness) If started at a reachable state, the sequence of states computed by the preceding algorithm is the (reversed) suffix of a valid execution of M.

56 56 Theorem (Probabilistic Termination) If the forward simulation is random, then with probability 1, the preceding algorithm will reach an initial state.


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