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DR. SAADA AL-ORF Nutrition Through the Life Cycle CHS265 Nutrition Basics 1ST Lecture.

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Presentation on theme: "DR. SAADA AL-ORF Nutrition Through the Life Cycle CHS265 Nutrition Basics 1ST Lecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 DR. SAADA AL-ORF Nutrition Through the Life Cycle CHS265 Nutrition Basics 1ST Lecture

2 Key Nutrition Concepts Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 2 1. Nutrition is the study of foods, their nutrients and other chemical constituents, and the effects of food constituents on health. 2. Nutrition is an interdisciplinary science. 3. Nutrition recommendations for the public change as new knowledge about nutrition and health relationships is gained 4. At the core of the science of nutrition are principles that represent basic truths and serve as the foundation of our understanding about nutrition 5. Healthy individuals require the same nutrients across the life cycle but in differing amounts. 6. Nutritional status during one stage of the life cycle influences health status during subsequent life-cycle stages.

3 Introduction Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 3 Basic nutrition information related to life- cycle stages is presented as:  Principles of the science of nutrition  Nutrient & other constituents of food  Nutritional assessment  Public food & nutrition programs  How to improve nutrition

4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 4

5 Principles of Human Nutrition Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 5

6 Nutrition Principle #1&2 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 6 1-Food is a basic need of humans.  Food security—having access at all times to sufficient supply of safe, nutritious foods  Food insecurity—limited or uncertain availability of safe, nutritious foods 2-Foods provide energy (calories), nutrients, and other substances needed for growth & health.  Calorie—a measure of the amount of energy transferred from food to the body  Nutrients—chemical substances in food that are used by the body

7 Essential Nutrients Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 7 Nutrients the body cannot manufacture are “essential” in the diet. We must consume them. They include:  Carbohydrates  Certain amino acids—”building blocks” of proteins  Essential fatty acids: linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid  Vitamins & minerals  Water

8 Nonessential Nutrients Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 8 Present in foods, but not required in the diet since we can make them Examples of nonessential nutrients: cholesterol, creatine and glucose

9 Factors that Impact Nutrient Needs Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 9 Age Body size Gender Genetic traits Growth Illness Lifestyle habits Medications Pregnancy and lactation

10 Dietary Intake Standards Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 10 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)  General term  Nutrient intake standards for healthy people Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)  Levels of essential nutrients  Adequate for most healthy people  Decrease risk of certain chronic diseases Adequate Intakes (AIs)  “Tentative” RDAs  Used when scientific information is less conclusive

11 Dietary Intake Standards Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 11 Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)  Estimated values to meet requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a group  EARs are used to assess adequacy of intakes of population groups Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)  Upper limits of nutrients compatible with health  These are the limits that should not be exceeded

12 Theoretical Framework Used in DRI Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 12

13 Standards of Nutrient Intake on Nutrition Labels Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 13 Daily Values (DVs) are standards for daily intakes of nutrients used on nutrition label of foods.

14 Six Categories of Nutrients Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 14

15 Carbohydrates Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 15 Simple carbohydrates  Monosaccharides  Disaccharides Complex carbohydrates  Starches  Glycogen  Fiber Alcohol sugars

16 Carbohydrates Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 16 Recommended intake level  45-65% of calories  Added sugar: 25% or less of calories  g fiber/day for females  g fiber/day for males Food sources  Widely distributed in plant foods  Milk is only animal source

17 CHO Sources Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 17 Starches are most abundant in the Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta group, the Vegetable group, and the plant foods found in the Meat and Poultry group Natural sugars occur in the Fruit group and in the Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese group The apex of FGP contains sugars and other sweets such as candy, gelatin, and soft drinks

18 Protein Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 18 Amino acids—”building blocks” of proteins  Essential—body cannot make; must be provided in diet  Nonessential—body can make Protein quality—high-quality proteins provide all essential amino acids Recommended intake  10-35% of calories Food sources (refer to Ch.1)

19 Essential Amino Acids Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 19 Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine

20 Fats (Lipids) Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 20 Fats—a subclass of lipids  Fats = solid at room temperature  Oils = liquid at room temperature Triglycerides— glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached

21 Essential Fatty Acids Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 21 Essential fatty acids  Linoleic acid (omega-6)  Alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3) Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio  Desirable ratio is 4 or less omega-6 to 1 omega-3  Many Americans have a 9 to 1 omega-6 to omega-3 intake

22 Saturation States Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 22 Saturated—no double bonds Unsaturated  Monounsaturated—one double bond  Polyunsaturated—2 or more double bonds Hydrogenation and Trans Fats  Hydrogenation—adds hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids  Changes structure of fatty acid from cis structure to trans form

23 Cholesterol Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 23 Cholesterol  A fat-soluble, clear liquid found in animal products  A precursor of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D

24 Recommended Intake of Fats Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 24 Not all fats are created equal “Unhealthful” fats  Those that raise LDL-cholesterol  Examples: Trans and saturated fats and cholesterol “Healthful” fats  Those that raise HDL-cholesterol  Examples: Monounsatured, polyunsaturated, linolenic, EPA, and DHA

25 Recommended Intake of Fats Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth % of calories from fat, limiting unhealthful fats as much as possible Linoleic acid: 17 g/day for men, 12 g/day for women Alpha- linolenic acid: 1.6 g/day for men, 1.1 g/day for women Sources of fats (refer to Ch.1)

26 Vitamins Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 26 Water-soluble vitamins:  Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, folate, B12, biotin, pantothenic acid, C Fat-soluble vitamins:  A, D, E, K Functions (refer to CH.1)  Coenzymes  Antioxidants

27 Vitamins Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 27 Recommended intakes and food sources (refer to Ch.1)  Deficiencies  Toxicities  Many vitamins have ULs Other substances in food  Phytochemicals

28 Minerals Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 28 There are 15 essential minerals

29 Minerals Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 29 All 15 minerals vary in:  Functions  Deficiencies  Overdoses Refer to Table 1.12 to read about these Food sources are found on Table 1.13

30 Water Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 30 Adults are 60-70% water Recommended daily intakes  cups for males  11 cups for females  75% from fluids; 25% from foods Dietary sources  Best to drink water

31 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 31

32 Types of solutes –Electrolytes Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, sulphate Ions dissociate to form charged particles –Other molecules Glucose, protein, urea, lactate, organic acids Remain stable Body Solutes Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 32

33 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 33

34 Nutrition Principle #3 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 34 Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells. Homeostasis—constancy of internal environment.

35 Nutrition Principle #4 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 35 Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake.  Prolonged inadequate intake results in obvious deficiencies.  Overdoses of nutrients (usually by supplements) result in mild to severe alterations in functioning.

36 Nutrient Function and Consequences by Level of Intake Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 36

37 Steps in Development of Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 37

38 Nutrient Deficiencies are Usually Multiple Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 38  The “ripple effect”—dietary changes introduced to improve intake of one nutrient affect intake level of other nutrients

39 Nutrition Principle 5&6 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 39 5-Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing fluctuations in food intake.  Nutrient storage  Regulation of absorption  Regulation of appetite 6-Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states, genetic factors, or combinations of these causes.  Primary malnutrition—dietary in origin  Secondary malnutrition—precipitated by a disease state, surgical procedure, or medication

40 Nutrient-Gene Interactions Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 40 Nutrigenomics—study of nutrient-gene interactions and effects of these interactions on health (also called nutritional genomics) Genes code for enzymes and protein synthesis which affect body functioning Interaction of genetic and environmental factors, including nutrition

41 Nutrient-Gene Interactions Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 41 Examples of nutrient-gene interactions:  Whole oats lowers blood cholesterol in some people but not others  Green tea reduces risk of prostate cancer in some men

42 Nutrition Principle #7&8 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 42 7-Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others  Pregnant/breastfeeding women, infants, children, people who are ill, frail elderly persons 8-Poor nutrition can influence the development of certain chronic diseases  Heart disease, hypertension, cancer, stroke, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, obesity

43 Nutrition Principle #9&10 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 43 9-Adequacy and balance are key characteristics of a healthy diet  Variety  Nutrient density  “Empty-calorie” foods There are no “good” or “bad” foods  As Hippocrates expressed it, “All things in nutriment are good or bad relatively.” 10-Nutrient-Dense Foods—contain high amounts of nutrients to calories  Empty-Calorie Foods—contain low amounts of nutrients to calories

44 Nutrition Labeling Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 44 Nutrition Facts panel  Must list fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, fiber, sugars, protein, vitamins A and C, calcium and iron  % Daily Values Nutrient content and health claims Ingredient label

45 Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 45 Nutrition Facts Panel

46 Ingredient Listing Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 46 Food products must list ingredients in an “ingredient label” Ingredients are listed by weight, starting with the greatest amount

47 Dietary Supplement Labeling Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 47 “Supplement Facts” panel lists serving size, ingredients, and % DV Nutrient content claims Health claims (must include disclaimer)

48 Other Labeling Concerns Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 48 Enrichment and fortification  Enrichment—refined grain products have thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and iron  Fortified—addition of any other nutrient  Refined flour  folic acid  Milk  vitamin D  Low-fat and skim milk  vitamins A & D

49 Other Labeling Concerns Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 49 Herbal remedies  Considered dietary supplements  Some act like drugs, have side effects  Vary in their safety and effectiveness  Amount taken, duration of use and user’s age, stage, and health status impact effect on health risk

50 Other Labeling Concerns Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 50 Functional foods or “neutraceuticals” Foods made “functional” by removing harmful or increasing beneficial substances Prebiotics—fiber-like, indigestible CHO broken down by bacteria Probiotics—live, beneficial bacteria See Table 1.17

51 The Life-Course Approach to Nutrition and Health Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 51  Healthy individuals require the same nutrients throughout life.  Amounts of nutrients vary based on age, growth and development.  Diets may be defined by cultures and religions.

52 Meeting Nutritional Needs Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 52 Dietary Considerations Based on Ethnicity Dietary Considerations Based on Religion  Muslims  Hindus  Buddhists  Sikhism  Mormons  Jews

53 Nutritional and Physical Activity Guides Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 53

54 My Pyramid Sample Menu Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 54

55 My Pyramid Sample Menu Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 55

56 Mediterranean Diet Pyramid Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 56

57 Types of Diets Nutrition Through the Life Cycle-ch1-© 2009 Cengage - Wadsworth 57 Diets: –NPO –clear liquid diet –Full liquid diet –Normal Diet –Therapeutic Diet


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