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MOTIVATION IN SCIENCE Josef Trna Masaryk university Brno, Czech Republic Brno, Czech Republic IPUC TFPC 29274-IC-2-2005-1-AT-ERASMUS-IPUC-19.

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Presentation on theme: "MOTIVATION IN SCIENCE Josef Trna Masaryk university Brno, Czech Republic Brno, Czech Republic IPUC TFPC 29274-IC-2-2005-1-AT-ERASMUS-IPUC-19."— Presentation transcript:

1 MOTIVATION IN SCIENCE Josef Trna Masaryk university Brno, Czech Republic Brno, Czech Republic IPUC TFPC IC AT-ERASMUS-IPUC-19

2 Motives are factors which awake, keep going, and focus the behaviour (P. Th. Young, 1961). Motives are factors which awake, keep going, and focus the behaviour (P. Th. Young, 1961). Motivation is a psychological process, in which motives are implemented into the behaviour and experiences of an individual (by outside factors). Motivation is a psychological process, in which motives are implemented into the behaviour and experiences of an individual (by outside factors). Motivation results in certain, aimed activity. Motivation results in certain, aimed activity. Needs are the elementary structures of motivation, which we can imagine as a condition of a lack or abundance in an organism, causing tension in an organism which is directed and starts activity. Needs are the elementary structures of motivation, which we can imagine as a condition of a lack or abundance in an organism, causing tension in an organism which is directed and starts activity.

3 MOTIVES (NEEDS) MOTIVATIONBEHAVIOUR

4 The classification of needs according to A.H. Maslow (1954): physiological needs physiological needs needs of security needs of security needs of solidarity and love needs of solidarity and love needs of appreciation needs of appreciation needs of self-fulfilment (inclusive of cognitive needs) needs of self-fulfilment (inclusive of cognitive needs)

5 Impulse is an inner initiative marking some change in the body or mind. Impulse is an inner initiative marking some change in the body or mind. Homeostasis is the condition of an organism when organs do not signal any lack and no impulse is apparent. Homeostasis is the condition of an organism when organs do not signal any lack and no impulse is apparent. In the condition of homeostasis (without impulse) the need can be increased by the use of an external initiative - incentive. In the condition of homeostasis (without impulse) the need can be increased by the use of an external initiative - incentive. Teachers who use different incentives can increase learning needs of the students. Teachers who use different incentives can increase learning needs of the students. Incentives can be positive or negative. Positive incentives increase and satisfy needs at the same time. Incentives can be positive or negative. Positive incentives increase and satisfy needs at the same time. Negative incentives increase the need, but do not satisfy it. Negative incentives increase the need, but do not satisfy it. Science education provides a typical complex incentive, in this situation for learning, with a variety of interacting needs and other motives. Science education provides a typical complex incentive, in this situation for learning, with a variety of interacting needs and other motives. Interest in science is an important complex motive, especially from an educational point of view. Interest in science is an important complex motive, especially from an educational point of view.

6 Education (teaching and learning) are complicated activities, implemented in schools typically in a social context, when a student reacts to the achievement requests of the teacher and school. In education, we can put forward three special groups of dominant needs in students which are being continuously developed: social needs social needs achievement needs achievement needs cognitive needs cognitive needs The existence of cognitive needs is very important result of psychological research. Therefore a part of motivation of students can be built on cognitive needs. These needs bring inner positive motivation and often lead to development of interest.

7 COGNITIVE NEEDS PRIMARY NEEDS Sensory activities Exploration (of surroundings) SECONDARY NEEDS A. Purposeful cognition (understanding) A.1: collecting of information A.2: systematisation and fixation of knowledge B. Development of cognitive abilities B.1: development of single cognitive skills B.2: development of system of cognitive skills and habits results in development of cognitive abilities C. Solution of problems C.1: identifying problems C.2: putting forward solution of problems C.3: independence and competency in solution of problems C.4: general respect and affection towards education D. With the relation to social and achievement needs D.1: power of own education and cognitive abilities D.2: position and prestige by own education and cognitive abilities D.3: positive relations (indispensability and so on) by reason of own education and cognitive abilities D.4: to get success and to avoid failure by means of own knowledge, skills and abilities

8 1. Stimulation through unconscious perception and experimentation. 2. Use of models of natural objects and phenomena. 3. Application of systematisation of science knowledge. 4. Use of similarity and analogy between natural objects or phenomena. 5. Undertaking problem exercises and projects. 6. Demonstrating simple experiments and toys. 7. Seeing paradoxes and tricks. 8. Watching films, video programs, TV programs, and computer programs. 9. Experiencing humour in science. 10. Visiting science museums and centres. Science cognitive motivation techniques:

9 Interdisciplinary cognitive motivation techniques : 1. Science for life (especially related to social issues - health, food, energy, and environment). 2. Applications of science knowledge in technology. 3. Use of ITC in science. 4. History related to science discoveries and scientists’ lives. 5. Analysis of scientists’ quotations. 6. Use of sci-fi literature and films. 7. Application of relation between science and art. 8. Use of philosophical aspects of science.

10 The cognitive motivation techniques afore mentioned can be used as cognitive motivation teaching techniques at schools. The cognitive motivation teaching techniques are ones specifically designed by the teacher so that they do induce learning in students. Principles of use cognitive motivation teaching techniques: 1. Individual motivation. 2. Variability. 3. Adequacy. 4. Optimal proportion of motivation. 5. Formation of a spectrum of students’ needs and the creation of an interest in science. 6. The passage from external to internal motivation. 7. The passage from the quantity of motivation to quality. 8. Suppression of negative motivation. 9. Purposefulness, systematic, and connection to other elements of education. 10. Interconnection with emotions and will.

11 In many fairytale books we can see illustrations of the evening sky showing a shining moon. In four different illustrations the moon was (displayed as the following): (A) (B) (C) (D) (A) (B) (C) (D) Which picture correctly shows the moon in the evening sky after dusk in a temperate zone in the Northern Hemisphere? The correct answer to task is (C): If you are looking at the southern part of the sky and see the moon, the moon will illuminated from the right by the setting sun in the west.

12 References Atkinson, J. and Raynor, J.O. Motivation and achievement. New York, Atkinson, J. and Raynor, J.O. Motivation and achievement. New York, Shayer, M. The Long-term effects of Cognitive Acceleration on pupils’ Achievement. London, King’s College London, Shayer, M. The Long-term effects of Cognitive Acceleration on pupils’ Achievement. London, King’s College London, Maslow, A.H. Motivation and Personality. New York, Maslow, A.H. Motivation and Personality. New York, Trna, J. and Ryk, L. Motywacja ucznia w nauczaniu przedmietów przyrodniczich. Wiesci zamkowe, 3, 1996, no.3, P Trna, J. and Ryk, L. Motywacja ucznia w nauczaniu przedmietów przyrodniczich. Wiesci zamkowe, 3, 1996, no.3, P Trna, J. Motivační složka zájmu žáka o fyziku. In: Didfyz´94. Samostatné fyzikálne poznávanie žiakov. Nitra, PROTON 1996, P Trna, J. Motivační složka zájmu žáka o fyziku. In: Didfyz´94. Samostatné fyzikálne poznávanie žiakov. Nitra, PROTON 1996, P Trna, J.: Science Experiment in Science Teacher Training. In: Science and Technology Education in New Millenium. 3-rd IOSTE Symposium for Central and East European Countries. Prague, PERES Publishers P Trna, J.: Science Experiment in Science Teacher Training. In: Science and Technology Education in New Millenium. 3-rd IOSTE Symposium for Central and East European Countries. Prague, PERES Publishers P Young, P.T. Motivation and Emotion. New York-London, Young, P.T. Motivation and Emotion. New York-London, Contact:


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