# Child Find and Eligibility Determination for AEA Special Education Support Staff Day 2 Fall 2011.

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Child Find and Eligibility Determination for AEA Special Education Support Staff Day 2 Fall 2011

Discrepancy Needs Exclusionary Factors Decision Making Overview of Day 2

Discrepancy

The difference between the individual’s current level of performance compared to peers’ level of performance or other expected standards at a single point in time. -- Iowa Special Education Eligibility Standards, 2006 Discrepancy

A basic tenet of problem solving is that as the intensity of a problem rises, the amount of resources that we use in solving the problem also rises. Similar to this, as the intensity of a problem rises, the rigor of our discrepancy information also needs to increase. Rigor of Decisions

T echnical Adequacy O bjectivity A mount D irectness of Measure What Makes Data More or Less Rigorous?

Standardized Administration: administered under conditions that specify where, when, how, and for how long children may respond to the questions or "prompts.” Reliability and validity of the data source T echnical Adequacy High Rigor Low Rigor # of letters written: all students receive 10 minutes to write the alphabet on standard paper during writing class at their desk # of letters written: students use their own writing paper to write all letters during the day

Reliability: Consistency or Repeatability Validity: The test measures what it is intended to measure Meaningful measure of a targeted skill T echnical Adequacy High Rigor Low Rigor Assessing Math Skills for multiplication: Permanent product of classroom multiplication test administered in a standardized fashion. Assessing Math Skills for the Unit: Total grades for the unit made up of homework, tests and quizzes.

Performance Standard: Data must be able to be compared to a performance standard to be useful to make decisions T echnical Adequacy: So What? High Rigor Low Rigor Peer Comparison Teacher Expectation

Objectivity Data that refers to observable and measurable characteristics of the problem Objective data can be assessed quantitatively or qualitatively High Rigor Low Rigor Aggression: Number of incidents of aggression Aggression: Number of suspensions (suspensions  aggression)

Objectivity BASC (behavior rating scale) used to measure specific behavior of concern

Objectivity Parent log of the number of ounces consumed

Amount Multiple data sources Consistent data collected at different times Consistency across data provides more confidence in our decisions High Rigor Low Rigor A median of 20 blurt outs during 30 minute observation periods across multiple settings with multiple teachers 1 data point indicating 20 blurt outs during a 30 minute period

Amount Baseline collected once

Amount Stable and representative baseline collected 3 times across 3 days

Directness Measures what you intend and need to measure Skill specific Example methods: Direct observation/assessment Review of Permanent product Parent checklist Teacher rating Teacher/parent report High Rigor Low Rigor Health: BP, urinalysis, blood level assessments etc. Health: Web MD’s checklist of symptoms

Teacher tallied student’s incidences of hitting based on definition in intervention plan Directness

Aggression measured through a teacher’s report completed at end of day based on memory Directness

Checklist Not all data sources will meet all elements of TOAD Multiples measures and data sources help assure all elements of TOAD can be addressed Some measures weigh higher on the decisions than others Technical AdequacyHighMediumLow ObjectivityHighMediumLow AmountHighMediumLow DirectnessHighMediumLow

Ms. K made a checklist of morning routine tasks. She asked the TA to complete it based on Katie's independence on her morning routine. The TA completed it one time during her break at lunchtime. Checklist: Let’s Do One Together Technical AdequacyHighMediumLow ObjectivityHighMediumLow AmountHighMediumLow DirectnessHighMediumLow

Is the 1 st ranked team twice as good as the 2 nd ranked team? Is the difference between the skills of the 3 rd and 4 th ranked teams the same as the difference between the skills of the 18 th and 19 th ranked teams? Comparing Data

Four Types of Data Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio + − + − × ÷

A scale of measurement in which numbers stand for names Allows only for classification Examples: 1 = proficient 2 = non-proficient 1 = true 2 = neutral 3 = false Nominal

“Our school meets the unique needs of all of its students.” On a Likert scale of 1-5 (1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree), the average score was 2.8. Thus, more than ½ of the community stakeholders have positive perceptions regarding this question. Is this an accurate statement? Think About

A way of measuring that ranks (orders) on a variable. The difference between the ranks needs not be equal (unequal intervals between units of measure). Examples: Percentile rank Class rank Rubric scores Grade and age equivalents Ordinal

Grade/Age Equivalent Scores If a 5 th grade student receives a grade equivalent score of 7.4 this DOES NOT mean that student can perform 7 th grade work. It suggests that a typical 7 th grader in the fourth month of school would receive the same score if 7 th graders had taken the 5 th grade test.

A scale or measurement that describes variables in such a way that the distance between any two adjacent units of measure (or intervals) is the same, but in which there is no meaningful zero point. Examples: Year (A.D.) Fahrenheit Celsius Standard Scores Interval

A measurement or scale in which any two adjoining values are the same distance apart and in which there is a zero point Examples: ITBS National Standard Score (NSS) MAP-RIT scores Percent Frequency, duration (raw scores) Lexile scores Ratio

Using national norms, the average 2 nd grade student in the fall of the school year reads at a rate of 44 correct words per minute. In the spring of the year, the average 2 nd grade student reads at a rate of 90 correct words per minute. To meet this goal in 24 weeks, the student must gain approximately 1.9 words per minute per week. Thumbs Up or Thumbs Down?

Beth obtained an ITED National Standard Score (NSS) of 250 during her 8 th grade year. She obtained a NSS of 260 during her 9 th grade year. Given that average students are to grow 10 NSS points between these two years, Beth demonstrated average growth during this time. Thumbs Up or Thumbs Down?

What Types of Data Do You Use? Percentile Rank ITBS NSS CBM Scores Rubric Scores % What type of data do you frequently use? Are you using data appropriately? Are you reporting data appropriately?

AEA Special Education Procedures Manual (July, 2011), p.44 What are the multiple sources of data that demonstrate the individual’s performance is significantly discrepant from that of peers and expected standards? How does the individual’s current level of performance compare to that of typical peers or expected standards? What is the magnitude of the discrepancy? What are the functional implications of the discrepancy? Discrepancy During Evaluation

Discrepancy Multiple Methods and Data Sources

Multiple Sources of Data Using RIOT Methods There must be at least two sources of data for each area of concern.

AEA Special Education Procedures (July, 2011), p.44 What are the multiple sources of data that demonstrate the individual’s performance is significantly discrepant from that of peers and expected standards? How does the individual’s current level of performance compare to that of typical peers or expected standards? What is the magnitude of the discrepancy? What are the functional implications of the discrepancy? Discrepancy During Evaluation

Discrepancy Peer/Expected Performance

Performance Standards A performance standard (or standard of comparison) is used as a rule or basis of comparison in measuring or judging performance. Data Based Decision-Making Manual, Heartland AEA 11, 2008

Performance Standards First Consider: Iowa Core Curriculum Essential Concepts and Skills Iowa Early Learning Standards Iowa Core Content Standards Then Consider: District measure of peer performance District/AEA/state/na tional norms Developmental norms Classroom expectations School policies

Performance Standards Norm Referenced Comparisons Individual’s performance is compared with the performance of a normed group e.g. local, national, user Criterion Referenced Comparisons Individual's performance is compared to an established standard of performance e.g. research, developmental, parent, medical, teacher

The individual would be able to perform at the “floor” of an expected range. When using percentiles, the expected range would be one standard deviation below or above the “middle” = 16 th percentile to the 84 th percentile. Record the range, not just a score. Expected Level of Performance

AEA Special Education Procedures (July, 2011), p.44 What are the multiple sources of data that demonstrate the individual’s performance is significantly discrepant from that of peers and expected standards? How does the individual’s current level of performance compare to that of typical peers or expected standards? What is the magnitude of the discrepancy? What are the functional implications of the discrepancy? Discrepancy During Evaluation

Discrepancy Magnitude of Discrepancy

1.Read the Magnitude of Discrepancy information in the Portfolio. This is a section of the Special Education Procedures Manual. 2.Discuss the reading with your table partners. Determining Magnitude

Magnitude of the Discrepancy Size of the difference between the standard and current performance Ways to measure the magnitude: Absolute difference Percentile ranks Discrepancy ratios

Absolute difference is the difference between the current performance from the performance standard Percentage of points earned on an objectively defined behavior point sheet Peers: 95%; Student: 65% 95 – 65 = 30 percentage points (Absolute difference) Absolute Difference

Q: How do you determine if an absolute difference is significant? A: Convert the absolute difference into a percentage, then use the guideline of 25% or more difference. Absolute Difference Magnitude

Describes how a score compares to other scores on the same assessment Examples: 30th percentile means a student scored as well or better than 30% of the comparison group 50th percentile means a student scored as well or better than 50% of the comparison group Percentile Rank

vs. Portion of the whole thing Answers the question, “how much?” or “what part of 100?” Absolute difference Describes how score fits into the distribution of scores Answer the question, “how well compared to…” Relative (dependent on how everyone else performs) Percent Percentile Rank

A way to calculate magnitude for ratio data (i.e., that are equal interval and have a “true zero”) Guideline: 2.0 times discrepant is significantly discrepant Historically used to analyze CBM data when a norm is not available Discrepancy Ratio

Examples Duration and latency data (use common time frame) Number of steps taken in 5 minutes Number of times tardy to first hour Number of assignments turned in late over 2 weeks Non-examples Rubrics Percentile ranks

Use percentile rank when: Local or national norms are available Use absolute difference when: Local or national norms are not available Data are equal interval Use discrepancy ratio when: Local or national norms are not available Ratio data (equal interval and have a true zero) Guidelines for Reporting Discrepancy

Determining Magnitude of Discrepancy Read the Q and A in the Nice to Know section discussing the use of percentile ranks and times discrepant (discrepancy ratio). At your table, discuss what you typically use and what you thought about when you read the information.

Discrepancy Table

AEA Special Education Procedures Manual (July, 2011), p.44 What are the multiple sources of data that demonstrate the individual’s performance is significantly discrepant from that of peers and expected standards? How does the individual’s current level of performance compare to that of typical peers or expected standards? What is the magnitude of the discrepancy? What are the functional implications of the discrepancy? Discrepancy During Evaluation

So What? ! What do the data say about the discrepancy? How does this impact the ability of the individual to function in the educational system? Functional Implications

Discrepancy Significance of Discrepancy Summary

Once a standard is selected and the individual’s performance is compared to this standard, a decision must be made if the discrepancy is large enough to be significant. Determining Significance of Discrepancy

Discrepancy Significance of Discrepancy Summary

Uniqueness specifically refers to a comparison with local peers AND Comparing the individual to others with similar experiences What does it mean to be unique?

1.Smaller comparable (same experiences) subgroup 2.Classroom peer grade level within the same building 3.Grade level within the same building 4.Grade level within the same district Preferred Comparisons (Rank Ordered)

Discrepant vs. Unique Discrepant Discrepancy can be determined compared to any standard, including; national standards, benchmarks, etc. Ex. DIBELS score is in the “Well-below Benchmark” range Unique Uniqueness specifically refers to a comparison with local peers. Comparing the student to others with similar experiences Ex. DIBELS score is below the other 3 students in the group.

Approaching, At or Above Standard Below Standard In the average range of peer performance Student is not discrepant and not unique Student is discrepant but not unique Well Below the Average Range of Peer Performance Student is not discrepant but is unique Student is discrepant and unique Discrepant vs. Unique

A.Lukas scored at the 8th NPR on the ITBS. Over 80% of same grade peers scored above the 51st NPR. B.Dylan is at a Level C in Guided Reading. The expectation at this time of year is for him to be at a Level H. Do These Data Reflect Discrepancy? Uniqueness?

C.Claire scored in the at risk range on her last DIBELS benchmark. D.Nick blurts out an average of 15 times/hr. Classroom peers blurt out 2 or fewer times/hr. E.Allen retells 9 words after reading a passage. 85% of peers retell at least 25 words. Do These Data Reflect Discrepancy? Uniqueness?

Elements of Analysis Needs Significance (quantitative data) Functional Implication (qualitative, descriptive data) Uniqueness (quantitative, qualitative data)

Discrepancy Uniqueness

Determining Educational Needs

One purpose of evaluating eligibility is to determine specific educational needs based on data Consideration is given to the range of services and supports within the integrated educational system Every Student in School Has Educational Needs

During evaluation we also determine which needs (if any) are a result of the individual’s disability. Needs resulting from a disability may be addressed through delivery of special education services and supports. Needs During Evaluation

Needs

Needs are determined by analyzing information collected regarding the individual’s progress data, discrepancy data, and exclusionary factors.

Adapted from AEA Special Education Procedures Manual; p. 47, July, 2011 R eview I nterview O bservations T est/ T asks I nstruction C urriculum E nvironment L earning Supports Statement of Individual’s Educational Needs Data Collection Methods Components

ICEL & RIOT Instruction: How content is taught Curriculum: What content is taught Environment: Context/Condition s for learning Learning Supports: Other supports needed by the learner Review: existing information Interview: parents, teachers, individual Observe: individual during instruction Test/Task: assess the individual’s skills LEAST TO MOST INTRUSIVE

1. What are the individual’s needs in the areas of instruction, curriculum, and environment? 2. What are the instructional strategies, accommodations, and modifications that enable the individual’s learning performance to improve? Questions to Guide Analysis. AEA Special Education Procedures Manual (July, 2011) p.48

3. What accommodations and modifications were provided which enhanced the individual’s performance and allowed opportunity to acquire educationally relevant skills? Questions to Guide Analysis AEA Special Education Procedures Manual (July, 2011) p.48

4. What, if any, ecological variables are related to the individual’s needs and potentially contribute to the interventions, accommodations or modifications not enhancing the individual’s performance? Questions to Guide Analysis AEA Special Education Procedures Manual (July, 2011) p.48

5. What is the pervasiveness of the area of concern across settings and time? 6. What ongoing, substantial, additional services are needed that exceed the capacity of general education resources alone? Questions to Guide Analysis. AEA Special Education Procedures Manual (July, 2011) p.48

Definition: Instructional strategies and methods that enable learning; reinforcement/motivational strategies Methodology: Instruction how we want individuals to be instructed that has the highest probability of enhanced learning outcomes how the individual should be taught Component: Instruction

Does the individual require instruction from someone with specialized preparation or training? Does the individual require instruction that includes frequent repetitions of key concepts? Instruction: Example Analysis Questions AEA Special Education Procedures Manual (July, 2011) p.48

What does the convergence of data indicate the individual requires, in the area of instruction, in order to make progress and narrow the gap between where he/she is functioning and the standard or expectation of performance? Instruction Need Question

Definition: Content of instruction, specific skills and concepts the individual needs to learn Content: Curriculum what individuals need to know what they can and cannot do the things that need to be taught Component: Curriculum

Does the individual require alternative textbooks (digital media, alternative accessible media) or instructional materials? Does the individual require curriculum at a different or extended grade level? Curriculum: Example Analysis Questions AEA Special Education Procedures Manual (July, 2011) p.48

What does the convergence of data indicate the individual requires, in the area of curriculum, in order to make progress and narrow the gap between where he/she is functioning and the standard or expectation of performance? Curriculum Need Question

Definition: Adaptations to procedures, schedules, routines, behavioral expectations, room or seating arrangements, adaptive supports Delivery of Instruction: Instruction/Environment both how to teach and the environmental structures or conditions required to get it done group size, opportunity for feedback, teacher to student ratio, reinforcement schedule, use of technology, etc. would all be in play Component: Environment

Does the individual require a distraction free environment or a ratio with fewer students to teacher? Does the individual require visual supports? Environment: Example Analysis Questions AEA Special Education Procedures Manual (July, 2011) p.48

What does the convergence of data indicate the individual requires, in the area of environment, in order to make progress and narrow the gap between where he/she is functioning and the standard or expectation of performance? Environment Need Question

Definition: additional adaptations or supports such as outside resources (parents, community agencies and/or services, medical services, etc.) which are needed in order for the individual to progress educationally Component: (Additional) Learning Supports

Does the individual require supports from community service agencies in order to facilitate transition to post- secondary life? Are there needed supports that parents could provide which also facilitate learning? Learning Supports: Example Analysis Questions

What does the convergence of data indicate the individual requires, in the area of additional learning supports, in order to make progress and narrow the gap between where he/she is functioning and the standard or expectation of performance? (Additional) Learning Support Need Question

Individually, read the document entitled, Educational Needs (Needs for Specially Designed Instruction) written by Randy Allison (2010) As a table group discuss: How does this document impact work with students? Needs for Specially Designed Instruction

Which of the identified needs, if any, will require services and supports that exceed the capacity and obligation of the general education program and resources?

Group size Minutes of instruction Intensification of and focus of curricular materials Capacity Considerations Motivational strategies Specificity of the instruction (direct instruction as opposed to discovery learning) Opportunities to respond and practice with feedback

41.111(2) High-quality general education instruction; general education interventions. a. As a component of efficient and effective, high- quality general education instruction, it shall be the responsibility of the general education program of each LEA to provide additional support and assistance to all students who may need such additional support and assistance to attain the educational standards of the LEA applicable to all children. Obligation: From the Code

Needs

whether or not interventions require special education resources Progress DiscrepancyNeeds Eligibility Decision what and how to teach if the individual is different from standards and unique compared to peers how the individual responds to intervention Eligibility Decision

Access & Opportunity Exclusionary Factors Ecological Factors

Access & Opportunity (Individual Information Page, part a)

Was instruction available? Was the individual available to receive instruction? Was the instruction appropriate and was core sufficient? Access & Opportunity

(Individual Information Page, part a)

Exclusionary Factors (Individual Information Page, part b)

Exclusionary Factors Lack of appropriate instruction in reading Lack of appropriate instruction in math Limited English Proficiency Ecological Factors Cultural Environmental or economic disadvantage

The Purpose of Considering Exclusionary Factors Examination of exclusionary factors assures that students are not identified as disabled because: they have not had access to the curriculum and appropriate instruction as well as the opportunity to learn.

For the purpose of eligibility determination, the potential impact of exclusionary factors is examined after all other evaluation data has been analyzed (progress, discrepancy, need ). Exclusionary Factors: Context

or they have been affected by a circumstance that is clearly not a disabling condition (e.g., limited English proficiency). Exclusionary Factors: Context (continued)

Lack of Appropriate Instruction The best “test” of whether or not lack of instruction is a causative factor is to implement instruction systematically and evaluate its effect. Iowa Special Education Procedures Manual, 2010

Lack of instruction is not a likely exclusionary factor if: Most students benefit from core instruction Most students who need it benefit from supplemental instruction Interventions matched to needs have been provided to the individual Lack Of Appropriate Instruction: System Approach

Lack Of Appropriate Instruction: Individual Approach Implement appropriate instruction systematically and evaluate its effect If the individual’s performance improves to the point that short-term intervention will result in performance consistent with grade level expectations, then the individual cannot be determined disabled.

Evaluate the appropriateness of tiered instruction provided to the individual Evaluate the instruction provided to judge the match to the individual’s needs and the degree of implementation integrity Lack Of Appropriate Instruction: Individual Approach

Smartypants School District boasts 90% of students meeting state expectations in math. 80% of students are Caucasian; 12% are Hispanic; and 8% are African American. 66% of Hispanic students do not meet state expectations in math. A Hispanic student is being evaluated for academic concerns, including math. The individual did not meet state expectations in math. Table Activity: The Facts

1.Given the information on Smartypants School District, is the individual being evaluated unique when compared to setting peers? 2.Is the individual being evaluated unique when compared to peers with similar experiences? 3.With regard to the individual being evaluated, is lack of appropriate instruction an exclusionary factor? Table Activity: The Questions

Limited English Proficiency

Limited English Proficiency (LEP) “a student's language background is in a language other than English, and the student's proficiency in English is such that the probability of the student's academic success in an English-only classroom is below that of an academically successful peer with an English language background.” Iowa Code Section 280.4

In the course of normal second language acquisition, a student may not be able to perceive or pronounce certain sounds that do not exist in his or her first language. This is not a learning, speech, or hearing disorder. It may take a long time for a student to learn English well enough to participate fully in an all-English-language mainstream classroom. LEP: Key Points

The context in which decisions are made includes the consideration of linguistic variables unique to the individual. If an individual student’s performance does not fall below the expectations of peers with similar linguistic backgrounds, the student’s needs are not likely due to a disability requiring special education. Decisions

Exclusionary Factors (Individual Information Page, part b)

Ecological Factors

Cultural factors may include: a cultural background that is different from the culture of the school or community, fewer non-school opportunities, limited experience in the culture of the school, and limited involvement in organizations or activities of any culture. Considerations of Culture Adapted from the Texas Education Agency

Environmental disadvantage may include: homelessness, abuse, poor nutrition, limited experiential background, home responsibilities that interfere with the opportunity to develop study habits and participate in school- related activities, disruption in family life, stress, trauma, or lack of emotional support. Considerations of Environment Adapted from the Texas Education Agency

Economic disadvantage impacting school performance may include an inability on the part of the family to afford enrichment materials or experiences. Considerations of Economic Disadvantage Adapted from the Texas Education Agency

When one or more of these factors may interfere with the opportunity to engage in and benefit from instruction: 1.Determine the skills the student lacks and needs to learn 2.Implement supplemental or intensive instruction/ intervention 3.Monitor student progress Considering Ecological Factors

Eligibility Decision- Making

whether or not interventions require special education resources Progress DiscrepancyNeeds Eligibility Decision what and how to teach if the individual is different from standards and unique compared to peers how the individual responds to intervention Eligibility Decision Disability Need

The presence of a disability does not necessarily equate to the need for special education services. Disability ≠ Special Education

If needs are a result of an educational disability, team may meet needs using: Special education resources General education resources Decision-Making

If needs are not a result of an educational disability, team must determine how the individual’s needs will be met using general education resources. Decision-Making

Which of the identified needs, if any, will require services and supports that exceed the capacity and obligation of the general education program and resources?

Does Not Demonstrate a Disability Demonstrates a Disability Does Not Demonstrate Need Demonstrates Need General Education Services General Education Services With or Without 504 Accommodations General Education Services with Additional Supports Special Education Services and Supports

When data are sufficient to indicate a disability or the lack of a disability, and educational needs, the educational team is able to make a decision regarding the eligibility decision. The Data Are Sufficient

When the data are insufficient for decision-making, the educational team has the professional obligation to indicate the data are insufficient, therefore the individual is not eligible. The Data Are Insufficient

There may be times when evaluation data are sufficient, but are inconclusive to make a decision. In this situation, the educational team has the obligation to indicate the data are inconclusive for decision- making. The Data Are Inconclusive So…

If during the evaluation the data suggest a need for continuing with data collection, the team may seek an additional consent from the parent to continue. Seek Another Consent

In this event, the original evaluation is concluded, an EER written, and an eligibility determination meeting held with a Prior Written Notice provided summarizing that the individual is not eligible. When This Happens…

Three conditions where the evaluation could be different: 1.Medical or Health Condition 2.Sudden Status Change 3.Obvious and Immediate Need for Service and Support Rare & Unusual Circumstances

In these cases, the documentation on the EER would provide statements about the impact of the individual’s condition on educational performance. Documenting Rare & Unusual Circumstances on the EER

“Child Find is a serious civil rights issue.” Dr. Marty Ikeda, 2010 Conclusion: High Stakes Decision

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