Presentation on theme: "How to do cervical pap smear. The incidence of cervical cancer is increasing all over the world. Finding of screening tool for the prevention of cervical."— Presentation transcript:
How to do cervical pap smear
The incidence of cervical cancer is increasing all over the world. Finding of screening tool for the prevention of cervical cancer is very important. Hence the importance of pap smear.
How is a Pap smear done? A woman should have a Pap smear when she is not menstruating. The best time for screening is between 10 and 20 days after the first day of her menstrual period. For about two days before testing, a woman should avoid douching or using spermicidal foams, creams, or jellies or vaginal medicines (except as directed by a physician). These agents may wash away or hide any abnormal cervical cells.
With the woman positioned on her back, the clinician will often first examine the outside of the patient's genital and rectal areas, including the urethra, to assure that they look normal. A speculum is then inserted into the vaginal area. A cotton swab is sometimes used to clear away mucous that might interfere with an optimal sample.
A small brush called a cervical brush is then inserted into the opening of the cervix (the cervical os) and twirled around to collect a sample of cells. Because this sample comes from inside the cervix, is called the endocervical sample. A second sample is also collected as part of the Pap smear and is called the ectocervical sample. These cells are collected from a scraping of the area surrounding, but not entering, the cervical os. Both the endocervical and the ectocervical samples are gently smeared on a glass slide and a fixative (a preservative) is used to prepare the cells on the slide for laboratory evaluation.
Bimanual vaginal examination is then used after pap smear to detect if there is any uterine or cervical pathology.
New techniques The new techniques consist of alternative ways to prepare and read Pap smears. In one new preparation method known as liquid-based cytology, cervical cells are obtained as usual but a new technique is used to prepare the slides for analysis. The physician puts the cell sample into a vial of liquid preservative. The cells are then sent to the laboratory where they are filtered and spread on glass slides. This method removes any contamination from blood or mucous.
When might a Pap smear not be adequate for interpretation? It is a requirement that the report comment on the adequacy of the smear sample for Pap analysis. If the sample is inadequate, the report details the reason. Examples of problems that might be listed under "sample adequacy" include "drying artifact" or "excessive blood." These comments refer to factors that the person analyzing the smear feels may have interfered with his or her ability to interpret the sample.
Sometimes, a Pap smear report will read "unsatisfactory due to excessive inflammation." Inflammation that is present in the woman's cervical area may make it difficult to interpret the Pap smear. Examples of causes of inflammation might include infections or irritation. Inflammation is a common finding on pap smears. If it is severe, your doctor may want to try to determine the cause of the inflammation. In many cases, a repeat pap smear is recommended to determine if the inflammation has resolved and to obtain a sample that is adequate for interpretation.
Decision for follow up In summary, the physician will use clinical judgment in terms of the specific follow-up after a Pap smear that reports inflammation.
a.Fully visualized SCJ b. not fully visualized SCJ