Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Psychology II: Communication and Motivation Practicing Leadership: Principles and Applications."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6: Psychology II: Communication and Motivation Practicing Leadership: Principles and Applications
“There is only one way under high Heaven to get anybody to do anything. Did you ever stop to think of that? Yes, just one way. And that is by making the other person want to do it. Remember there is no other way.” ▫Dale Carnegie
Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory: A motivation model that argues that behavior can be shaped by controlling the consequences of that behavior. Three Types: ▫Classical Conditioning ▫Operant Conditioning ▫Social Learning Theory
Herzberg’s Dual Factor Theory Hygiene FactorsMotivational Factors Absence of : Job security Quality of supervision Quality of interpersonal relationships Good working conditions Adequacy of pay and fringe benefits Opportunity for: Achievement Advancement Responsibility Job challenge Recognition
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Leaders and Managers believe: Theory Y Leaders and Managers believe: People inherently dislike work and will try to avoid it. People can view work as an activity as natural as rest or play. People must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. People will exercise self-direction and self- control if they are committed to the objectives of the task. People will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. The average person can learn to accept and even seek responsibility. Most people place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the general population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.
McClellan’s Trichotomy of Needs Power Motivation Drive and Achievement Motivation Need for Affiliation Every leader is on a continuum for each need Low High
“The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion it has taken place.” ▫George Bernard Shaw
Communication Transactional Communication: the idea that all communication involves a sender and a receiver. Both the sender and the receiver determine the meaning of the communication that has taken place. ▫Channel ▫Encoding and Decoding ▫Filters ▫Sets ▫Interference
Factors Leading to Breakdowns in Communication Differing frames of reference Selective perception Semantic problems Filtering Constraints on time Communication overload Cultural differences
Improving Communication Using descriptive, as opposed to evaluative, speech Taking a collaborative approach to problem-solving Communicating with spontaneity, rather than from hidden strategies or agenda Demonstrating empathy Promoting equality across and within levels of an organization Trying to hear all sides of a debate rather than simply sticking to one’s own agenda
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