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Breast feeding prepared by : Dr.KHALID H.SALIH. If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not.

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Presentation on theme: "Breast feeding prepared by : Dr.KHALID H.SALIH. If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not."— Presentation transcript:

1 Breast feeding prepared by : Dr.KHALID H.SALIH

2 If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not too much, we would have found the safest way to health. Hippocrates

3 Principles of feeding Principles of feeding Feed according to expected wt Feed according to expected wt GIT should be used whenever possible GIT should be used whenever possible Milk should not be diluted Milk should not be diluted No sugar should be added to the bottle feed No sugar should be added to the bottle feed Weaning food should be started at 4-6mon Weaning food should be started at 4-6mon

4 Composition of Breast Milk Anti-Allergenic Properties Anti-Allergenic Properties Anti-Parasitic Properties Anti-Parasitic Properties Anti-Viral Properties Anti-Viral Properties Anti-Bacterial Properties Anti-Bacterial Properties Hormones Hormones Growth Factors Growth Factors Enzymes Enzymes Alive Alive Approx.300+ more Factors than ABM Approx.300+ more Factors than ABM Minerals Minerals Vitamins Vitamins Fat Fat Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Protein Protein Water Water

5 Summary of differences between milks Adapted from: Breastfeeding counselling: A training course. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1993 (WHO/CDR/93.6). Slide 2.2

6 Breast milk composition differences (dynamic) Gestational age at birth (preterm and full term) Gestational age at birth (preterm and full term) Stage of lactation (colostrums and mature milk) Stage of lactation (colostrums and mature milk) During a feed (foremilk and hind milk) During a feed (foremilk and hind milk) Day & night milk Day & night milk Summer & winter Summer & winter Slide 2.4

7 Slide 2b

8 Colostrum PropertyAntibody-rich Many white cells Many white cells Purgative Purgative Growth factors Growth factors Vitamin-A rich Vitamin-A richImportance protects against infection and allergy protects against infection and allergy protects against infection protects against infection clears meconium; helps prevent jaundice clears meconium; helps prevent jaundice helps intestine mature; prevents allergy, intolerance helps intestine mature; prevents allergy, intolerance reduces severity of some infection (such as measles and diarrhoea); prevents vitamin A- related eye diseases reduces severity of some infection (such as measles and diarrhoea); prevents vitamin A- related eye diseases Slide 2.5

9 Slide 2c

10 Technique of Breast Feeding Feedings should be initiated as soon after birth as possible Feedings should be initiated as soon after birth as possible Mothers who wish to initiate breast-feeding in the delivery room should be supported in doing so. Mothers who wish to initiate breast-feeding in the delivery room should be supported in doing so. the infant's desire for food will vary at different times of the day(The time required for an infant's stomach to empty may vary from 1–4 hr or more during a single day) the infant's desire for food will vary at different times of the day(The time required for an infant's stomach to empty may vary from 1–4 hr or more during a single day) By the end of the 1st wk of life, most healthy infants will be taking 60–90 mL/feeding and want 6–9 feedings/24hr By the end of the 1st wk of life, most healthy infants will be taking 60–90 mL/feeding and want 6–9 feedings/24hr

11 ADVANTAGES OF BREAST-FEEDING 1.Human milk is uniquely adapted to the infant's needs and is the most appropriate milk for the human infant 2.It is always available at the proper temperature and requires no preparation time 3.It is fresh and free of contaminating bacteria 4.Breast-feeding is associated with fewer feeding difficulties incident to allergy and/or intolerance to bovine milk. 5.Human milk contains bacterial and viral antibodies, including relatively high concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A 6.It also contains substances that inhibit the growth of many common viruses as well as bacteria

12 Advantage It also contains antibodies that are thought to provide local gastrointestinal immunity against organisms entering the body via this route. 8.Macrophages in human milk may synthesize complement, lysozyme, and lactoferrin 9.breast milk contains lactoferrin, an iron-binding whey protein that is normally approximately ⅓ saturated with iron and has an inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli 10.lower pH of the stool of breast-fed infants is thought to contribute to the favorable intestinal flora of infants 11.Human milk also contains bile salt-stimulated lipase, which kills Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica 12.passive transfer of T-cell immunity. 13.Breast milk will supply all the necessary nutrients except fluoride, The vitamin K and vitamin D. 14.The psychologic advantages of breast-feeding for both mother and infant are well recognized

13 Contraindications of Breast Feeding : 1.Contraindications related to mother like septicemia, nephritis, eclampsia, profuse hemorrhage, active tuberculosis, typhoid fever, breast cancer and malaria 2.Contraindications related to infant like galactosemia. Determination of adequacy of milk supply : Determination of adequacy of milk supply : The following signs indicate adequate breast milk feeding :- 1) Infant sleep 2-4 hr after nursing. 2) Infant gaining weight. 3) Good urine output.

14 Supplement to Breast Fed Infant: Give Vit. K1 to all babies(1mg Vit K) Give Vit. K1 to all babies(1mg Vit K) Give Vit. D to all breast fed babies(400 IU/day) Give Vit. D to all breast fed babies(400 IU/day) Give Iron to all breast fed babies by 6 mo Give Iron to all breast fed babies by 6 mo

15 :Disadvantages of Breast Feeding Unknown intake-volume of milk. Unknown intake-volume of milk. Transmission of infection-CMV, hepatitis, HIV,TB Transmission of infection-CMV, hepatitis, HIV,TB Breast milk Jaundice-mild self limiting Breast milk Jaundice-mild self limiting Transmission of drugs-antithyroid, anti cancer Transmission of drugs-antithyroid, anti cancer Nutritional inadequacies-prolong BF without introduction of solids lead to poor weight gain, rickets Nutritional inadequacies-prolong BF without introduction of solids lead to poor weight gain, rickets Vit K deficiency—hemorrhagic disease of newborn Vit K deficiency—hemorrhagic disease of newborn Less flexible, emotional upset if unsuccessful Less flexible, emotional upset if unsuccessful

16 ?Quiz

17 Calculate the normal energy & fluid requirement for 2 year old child (12kg) ? Calculate the normal energy & fluid requirement for 2 year old child (12kg) ?


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