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MBF-705 LEGAL AND REGULATORY ASPECTS OF BANKING SUPERVISION OSMAN BIN SAIF Session: SEVEN.

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Presentation on theme: "MBF-705 LEGAL AND REGULATORY ASPECTS OF BANKING SUPERVISION OSMAN BIN SAIF Session: SEVEN."— Presentation transcript:

1 MBF-705 LEGAL AND REGULATORY ASPECTS OF BANKING SUPERVISION OSMAN BIN SAIF Session: SEVEN

2 Summary of Previous Session General Types of Bank Regulations Privacy Regulations Anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism regulation Community re-investment regulation Deposit account regulation Deposit insurance regulation Consumer protection Withdrawal limit and reserve requirement 2

3 Summary of Previous Session (Contd.) Interest on demand deposits Lending Regulations – Consumer protection – Debt collection – Credit cards – Lending limits Central bank regulations Regulation of bank affiliates and holding companies 3

4 Agenda of this session SECTION 2: REGULATING BANK CAPITAL ADEQUACY – What is Capital Adequacy – Regulations – 5C’s of Credit Regulatory Capital – Tier 1 Capital – Tier 2 Supplementary Capital Revaluation Reserves 4

5 Agenda of this session (Contd.) General Provisions Hybrid Debt Capital Instrument Sub-ordinated term debt Different international implementations 5

6 SECTION 2: REGULATING BANK CAPITAL ADEQUACY 6

7 CAPITAL ADEQUACY Capital requirement (also known as Regulatory capital or Capital adequacy) is the amount of capital a bank or other financial institution has to hold as required by its financial regulator. This is usually expressed as a capital adequacy ratio of equity that must be held as a percentage of risk-weighted assets. 7

8 CAPITAL ADEQUACY (Contd.) These requirements are put into place to ensure that these institutions do not take on excess leverage and become insolvent. Capital requirements govern the ratio of equity to debt, recorded on the right side of a firm's balance sheet. They should not be confused with reserve requirements, which govern the left side of a bank's balance sheet--in particular, the proportion of its assets it must hold in cash. 8

9 Regulations A key part of bank regulation is to make sure that firms operating in the industry are prudently managed. The aim is to protect the firms themselves, their customers and the economy, by establishing rules to make sure that these institutions hold enough capital to ensure continuation of a safe and efficient market and able to withstand any foreseeable problems. 9

10 Regulations (Contd.) The main international effort to establish rules around capital requirements has been the Basel Accords, published by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision housed at the Bank for International Settlements. This sets a framework on how banks and depository institutions must calculate their capital. 10

11 Regulations (Contd.) In 1988, the Committee decided to introduce a capital measurement system commonly referred to as Basel I. This framework has been replaced by a significantly more complex capital adequacy framework commonly known as Basel II. After 2012 it was replaced by Basel III. Another term commonly used in the context of the frameworks is Economic Capital, which can be thought of as the capital level bank shareholders would choose in the absence of capital regulation. 11

12 Regulations (Contd.) The capital ratio is the percentage of a bank's capital to its risk-weighted assets. Weights are defined by risk-sensitivity ratios whose calculation is dictated under the relevant Accord. Basel II requires that the total capital ratio must be no lower than 8%. 12

13 Regulations (Contd.) Each national regulator normally has a very slightly different way of calculating bank capital, designed to meet the common requirements within their individual national legal framework. Most developed countries implement Basel I and II and now III, stipulate lending limits. 13

14 Regulations (Contd.) The 5 Cs of Credit - Character, Cash Flow, Collateral, Conditions and Capital- have been replaced by one single criterion. While the international standards of bank capital were laid down in the 1988 Basel I accord, Basel II makes significant alterations to the interpretation, if not the calculation, of the capital requirement. 14

15 Regulations (Contd.) Examples of national regulators implementing Basel II include the FSA in the UK, BaFin in Germany, OSFI in Canada, Banca d'Italia in Italy, State bank in Pakistan. In the European Union member states have enacted capital requirements based on the Capital Adequacy Directive CAD1 issued in 1993 and CAD2 issued in

16 Regulations (Contd.) In the United States, depository institutions are subject to risk-based capital guidelines issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (FRB). These guidelines are used to evaluate capital adequacy based primarily on the perceived credit risk associated with balance sheet assets, as well as certain off-balance sheet exposures such as unfunded loan commitments, letters of credit, and derivatives and foreign exchange contracts. 16

17 Regulations (Contd.) The risk-based capital guidelines are supplemented by a leverage ratio requirement. To be adequately capitalized under federal bank regulatory agency definitions, a bank holding company must have a Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 4%, a combined Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital ratio of at least 8%, and a leverage ratio of at least 4%, and not be subject to a directive, order, or written agreement to meet and maintain specific capital levels. 17

18 Regulations (Contd.) To be well-capitalized under federal bank regulatory agency definitions, a bank holding company must have a Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 6%, a combined Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital ratio of at least 10%, and a leverage ratio of at least 5%, and not be subject to a directive, order, or written agreement to meet and maintain specific capital levels. 18

19 Regulations (Contd.) These capital ratios are reported quarterly on the Call Report or Thrift Financial Report. Although Tier 1 capital has traditionally been emphasized, in the Late-2000s recession regulators and investors began to focus on tangible common equity, which is different from Tier 1 capital in that it excludes preferred equity. 19

20 Regulatory capital In the Basel II accord bank capital has been divided into two "tiers", each with some subdivisions. 20

21 Tier 1 capital Tier 1 capital, the more important of the two, consists largely of shareholders' equity and disclosed reserves. This is the amount paid up to originally purchase the stock (or shares) of the Bank (not the amount those shares are currently trading for on the stock exchange), retained profits subtracting accumulated losses, and other qualifiable Tier 1 capital securities. 21

22 Tier 1 capital (Contd.) In simple terms, if the original stockholders contributed $100 to buy their stock and the Bank has made $10 in retained earnings each year since, paid out no dividends, had no other forms of capital and made no losses, after 10 years the Bank's tier one capital would be $200. Shareholders equity and retained earnings are now commonly referred to as "Core" Tier 1 capital, whereas Tier 1 is core Tier 1 together with other qualifying Tier 1 capital securities. 22

23 Tier 2 (supplementary) capital Tier 2 capital, or supplementary capital, comprises undisclosed reserves, revaluation reserves, general provisions, hybrid instruments and subordinated term debt. 23

24 Undisclosed Reserves Undisclosed reserves are not common, but are accepted by some regulators where a Bank has made a profit but this has not appeared in normal retained profits or in general reserves. 24

25 Revaluation reserves A revaluation reserve is a reserve created when a company has an asset revalued and an increase in value is brought to account. A simple example may be where a bank owns the land and building of its headquarters and bought them for $100 a century ago. A current revaluation is very likely to show a large increase in value. The increase would be added to a revaluation reserve. 25

26 General provisions A general provision is created when a company is aware that a loss may have occurred but is not certain of the exact nature of that loss. Under pre-IFRS accounting standards, general provisions were commonly created to provide for losses that were expected in the future. As these did not represent incurred losses, regulators tended to allow them to be counted as capital. 26

27 Hybrid debt capital instruments They consist of instruments which combine certain characteristics of equity as well as debt. They can be included in supplementary capital if they are able to support losses on an on-going basis without triggering liquidation. Sometimes, it includes instruments which are initially issued with interest obligation (e.g. Debentures) but the same can later be converted into capital. 27

28 Subordinated-term debt Subordinated debt is classed as Lower Tier 2 debt, usually has a maturity of a minimum of 10 years and ranks senior to Tier 1 debt, but subordinate to senior debt. To ensure that the amount of capital outstanding doesn't fall sharply once a Lower Tier 2 issue matures and, for example, not be replaced, the regulator demands that the amount that is qualifiable as Tier 2 capital amortises (i.e. reduces) on a straight line basis from maturity minus 5 years (e.g. a 1bn issue would only count as worth 800m in capital 4 years before maturity). 28

29 Subordinated-term debt (Contd.) The remainder qualifies as senior issuance. For this reason many Lower Tier 2 instruments were issued as 10yr non-call 5 year issues (i.e. final maturity after 10yrs but callable after 5yrs). If not called, issue has a large step - similar to Tier 1 - thereby making the call more likely. 29

30 Different International Implementations Regulators in each country have some discretion on how they implement capital requirements in their jurisdiction. 30

31 Different International Implementations (Contd.) For example, it has been reported that Australia's Commonwealth Bank is measured as having 7.6% Tier 1 capital under the rules of the Australian Prudential Regulation Authority, but this would be measured as 10.1% if the bank was under the jurisdiction of the UK's Financial Services Authority. This demonstrates that international differences in implementation of the rule can vary considerably in their level of strictness. 31

32 Summary of this session SECTION 2: REGULATING BANK CAPITAL ADEQUACY – What is Capital Adequacy – Regulations – 5C’s of Credit Regulatory Capital – Tier 1 Capital – Tier 2 Supplementary Capital Revaluation Reserves 32

33 Summary of this session (Contd.) General Provisions Hybrid Debt Capital Instrument Sub-ordinated term debt Different international implementations 33

34 THANK YOU 34


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