Presentation on theme: "ESTIMATING LOSS IN VALUE: ACCRUED DEPRECIATION"— Presentation transcript:
1ESTIMATING LOSS IN VALUE: ACCRUED DEPRECIATION Chapter 12ESTIMATING LOSS IN VALUE: ACCRUED DEPRECIATION
2CHAPTER TERMS AND CONCEPTS Accrued depreciation Age-life method Book value Capitalized income method Cost basis Cost-to-cure method Curable depreciationCurable postponed Current-value accounting Deferred maintenance Depreciation in accounting Depreciation in appraisal Diminished utility Economic life
3CHAPTER TERMS AND CONCEPTS Economic obsolescence Effective age Functional obsolescence Locational obsolescence Loss of utility Misplaced improvement Over-improvementPhysical deterioration Rental loss method Sales data method Straight-line method Super adequacy Under-improvement
4LEARNING OUTCOMESDistinguish the concept of depreciation as it is used in accounting from that used in appraisal.Name and give the causes of three types of depreciation.Name four methods of estimating accrued depreciation and describe how they may be applied to an appraisal problem.
5DEPRECIATION Definition: In accounting practice, all capital assets except land are considered to be wasting assets, assets that decline in value over time.The estimate of accrued depreciation in appraisal, first, a dollar or percentage amount is deducted from the estimated cost of the improvements as if new on the date of value, rather than from their historical cost basis. Second, the amount of depreciation represents the appraiser’s best estimate of the actual market loss in value as compared to a new building, whereas accounting depreciation is a theoretical loss.
7DEPRECIATION: BOOK Book Depreciation Definition: Deduction from cost Purpose: Accounting, income tax reporting, etc.How Determined: Company policy, IRS RegulationsHow Applied: Deduction from book or historic costs.
8DEPRECIATION: ACTUAL Actual Depreciation Definition: Loss in value Purpose: Used in Appraisals (cost approach primarily)How determined: Cost to cure, age-life, sales data, rental loss…..How applied: Deduction from current replacement cost.
9TYPES OF ACCRUED DEPRECIATION Physical Deterioration Functional obsolescence External Obsolescence
10CURABLE DEPRECIATION Curable Cost to correct the condition or defect is less than the amount of value restored
11INCURABLE DEPRECIATION Cost to correct the condition or defect is greater than the amount of value restored
15Cost-to-Cure MethodIt measures the accrued depreciation by the cost to cure or repair any observed building defects. After inspecting the premises, the appraiser tries to identify each building defect, feature, or condition that reduces value. Each is then classified as either physical, functional, or economic.In addition, each defect must be studied to estimate whether it is economically curable or incurable. However, economic obsolescence is rarely economically curable, so the cost-to-cure method is of little use.
17Functional Obsolescence • Curable—an addition• Curable—a replacement or substitution• Curable—super adequacy or over-improvement• Incurable—a deficiency• Incurable—a super adequacy
18Capitalized Income Method or rental loss method can be used to estimate either the total loss in value from all causes, or simply the loss in value from a single cause.To estimate loss in value from all causes, a comparison is made between the rent of the subject building on the date of value and the rent of a new or modern building that could take its place.
20Cost Approach Section of the URAR and 2055 Forms
21SUMMARYAccrued depreciation for appraisal purposes is the estimated loss in market value of the improvements, when compared to their replacement or reproduction cost on the date of value. This value loss can be caused by physical deterioration, functional obsolescence, and/or economic obsolescence. Many types of physical deterioration, such as deferred maintenance, are curable by painting, fixing up, or doing repair work. Accrued depreciation may be estimated by the straight-line/age-life method, the sales data method, the cost-to-cure/observed condition method, or the capitalized income method.