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ESTIMATING LOSS IN VALUE: ACCRUED DEPRECIATION Chapter 12.

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Presentation on theme: "ESTIMATING LOSS IN VALUE: ACCRUED DEPRECIATION Chapter 12."— Presentation transcript:

1 ESTIMATING LOSS IN VALUE: ACCRUED DEPRECIATION Chapter 12

2 Accrued depreciation Age-life method Book value Capitalized income method Cost basis Cost-to-cure method Curable depreciation Curable postponed Current-value accounting Deferred maintenance Depreciation in accounting Depreciation in appraisal Diminished utility Economic life 2 CHAPTER TERMS AND CONCEPTS

3 Economic obsolescence Effective age Functional obsolescence Locational obsolescence Loss of utility Misplaced improvement Over-improvement Physical deterioration Rental loss method Sales data method Straight-line method Super adequacy Under-improvement 3 CHAPTER TERMS AND CONCEPTS

4 LEARNING OUTCOMES 1.Distinguish the concept of depreciation as it is used in accounting from that used in appraisal. 2.Name and give the causes of three types of depreciation. 3.Name four methods of estimating accrued depreciation and describe how they may be applied to an appraisal problem. 4

5 DEPRECIATION  Definition:  In accounting practice, all capital assets except land are considered to be wasting assets, assets that decline in value over time.  The estimate of accrued depreciation in appraisal, first, a dollar or percentage amount is deducted from the estimated cost of the improvements as if new on the date of value, rather than from their historical cost basis. Second, the amount of depreciation represents the appraiser’s best estimate of the actual market loss in value as compared to a new building, whereas accounting depreciation is a theoretical loss. 5

6 Appraisal Depreciation 6

7 DEPRECIATION: BOOK Book Depreciation  Definition: Deduction from cost  Purpose: Accounting, income tax reporting, etc.  How Determined: Company policy, IRS Regulations  How Applied: Deduction from book or historic costs. 7

8 DEPRECIATION: ACTUAL Actual Depreciation  Definition: Loss in value  Purpose: Used in Appraisals (cost approach primarily)  How determined: Cost to cure, age-life, sales data, rental loss…..  How applied: Deduction from current replacement cost. 8

9 TYPES OF ACCRUED DEPRECIATION Physical Deterioration Functional obsolescence External Obsolescence 9

10 CURABLE DEPRECIATION Curable  Cost to correct the condition or defect is less than the amount of value restored 10

11 INCURABLE DEPRECIATION Incurable  Cost to correct the condition or defect is greater than the amount of value restored 11

12 What do you think? 12

13 MEASURING ACCRUED DEPRECIATION  Straight-Line or Age-Life  Sales Data (Market) Method  Cost-to-Cure (Observed Condition)  Capitalized Income 13

14 BY THE SALES DATA METHOD 14

15 Cost-to-Cure Method 15 It measures the accrued depreciation by the cost to cure or repair any observed building defects. After inspecting the premises, the appraiser tries to identify each building defect, feature, or condition that reduces value. Each is then classified as either physical, functional, or economic. In addition, each defect must be studied to estimate whether it is economically curable or incurable. However, economic obsolescence is rarely economically curable, so the cost-to-cure method is of little use.

16 Physical Deterioration Deferred maintenance—curable Deferred maintenance—incurable Short-lived items Long-lived items 16

17 Functional Obsolescence Curable—an addition Curable—a replacement or substitution Curable—super adequacy or over- improvement Incurable—a deficiency Incurable—a super adequacy 17

18 Capitalized Income Method  or rental loss method can be used to estimate either the total loss in value from all causes, or simply the loss in value from a single cause.  To estimate loss in value from all causes, a comparison is made between the rent of the subject building on the date of value and the rent of a new or modern building that could take its place. 18

19 SUMMARY OF THE COST APPROACH 19

20 Cost Approach Section of the URAR and 2055 Forms 20

21 SUMMARY 21 Accrued depreciation for appraisal purposes is the estimated loss in market value of the improvements, when compared to their replacement or reproduction cost on the date of value. This value loss can be caused by physical deterioration, functional obsolescence, and/or economic obsolescence. Many types of physical deterioration, such as deferred maintenance, are curable by painting, fixing up, or doing repair work. Accrued depreciation may be estimated by the straight-line/age- life method, the sales data method, the cost-to- cure/observed condition method, or the capitalized income method.


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