Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Different approaches and techniques of behaviour coding Yfke Ongena Workshop on Behaviour Coding Wivenhoe House, University of Essex 16 February 2007.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Different approaches and techniques of behaviour coding Yfke Ongena Workshop on Behaviour Coding Wivenhoe House, University of Essex 16 February 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Different approaches and techniques of behaviour coding Yfke Ongena Workshop on Behaviour Coding Wivenhoe House, University of Essex 16 February 2007

3 What is behaviour coding? Data reduction for Systematic analysis Behaviour of interviewer and respondent Understanding the question-answer process Deviations from the ‘paradigmatic’ Q-A sequence

4 Paradigmatic Q-A sequence I: How many days a week do you watch television? R: Seven days I: Okay, Thank you

5 Non-Paradigmatic Q-A sequence (1) I: How many days a week do you watch television? R: Excuse me? I: How many days a week do you watch television? R: Seven days I: Okay, Thank you

6 Non-Paradigmatic Q-A sequence (2) I: How many days a week do you watch television? R: Well, that would be most days I: Seven days a week? R: Yes I: Okay, Thank you

7 Diagnostic instrument Interaction  Validity Evaluating questions/ data-collection procedures Monitoring interviewers

8 Problem-solving instrument Cognitive or Social/Communicative problems  Interaction CASM movement (Further) development of cognitive and conversational theories

9 History of behaviour coding Cannell, Fowler & Marquis, 1968: fairly simple scheme 1969 tape recorder: Increasing number of codes (12  47) Use of computer: semi-automatic coding & increased possibilities of analysis Current data sets: ±500 interviews, QA sequences, utterances

10 Typical codes included in schemes Interviewer behaviourN coding schemes Range % of occurrence Reads question exactly as scripted % Reads question with minor change211-32% Reads question with major change350-25% Question skipped/ not verified160-22% Non-directive probe in interviewer’s words % Suggestive/directive probe150-33%

11 Typical codes included in schemes Respondent behaviourN coding schemes Range % of occurrence Adequate answer % Inadequate answer212-27% Don’t know answer171-6% Refusal to answer210-1% Request for clarification180-23% Interruption180-36% Qualified answer142-20%

12 Goals of Behaviour Coding Prior to actual data collection: Pre-testing questions* Pre-testing data-collection procedures During data-collection Monitoring interviewers* After data collection Evaluating data quality Explore causes and effects of behaviours*

13 Pre-testing questions Most frequent use of behaviour coding Respondent codes: request for clarification, qualified answer, inadequate answer, don’t know/refusal Problems with questions may be visible in very subtle ways Interviewer codes: minor/major changes in question wording Might be more important to know what is changed in question wording Benefits of behaviour coding: reliable and quantitative

14 Interviewer monitoring During data-collection: Supervision But also prior/after (pre-testing/evaluation) Codes based on interviewer training Unconditional versus conditional behaviour Major benefit of Behaviour coding: objectivity

15 Interaction analysis Sequential information in QA sequence is analyzed ‘Non-problematic’ behaviours should also be included Full versus selective coding

16 Unit of coding Roughest unit: whole interview Most frequently used: QA sequence Intermediate level: Exchange Most detailed level: Utterance Selective coding: only utterances that are within the set of pre-specified codes are coded Full coding: all utterances are coded

17 Conventional coding (selective coding at the level of the QA sequence) InterviewerRespondent codes E Exact1 Interruption with answer S Slight change2 Clarification M Major change3 Adequate answer 4 Qualified answer 5 Inadequate answer 6 Don’t know 7 Refusal to answer

18 Conventional coding Exercise Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Question 7 Question 8

19 Exchange level coding Exchange of initial question reading and initial response Exchange of prompt by interviewer and a possible second answer by the respondent Ignore ‘insignificant behaviours’ in between exchanges (acknowledgement token, silence, laughter)

20 Exchange level coding Exercise Question 10

21 Interaction coding (full coding at the utterance level) Sequence Viewer program Transcripts available in text window Semi-automatic coding Multivariate coding Multiple variables from general to specific Each variable only a few values

22 Example of interaction coding in Sequence Viewer

23 Example of full coding at the utterance level I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself? R: Four I: Okay Transcription Audio/ video files

24 Example of full coding at the utterance level I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself? R: Four I: Okay - - -

25 I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself? R: Four I: Okay Actor Exchange Distance Specification Adequacy Direction I

26 I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself? R: Four I: Okay Actor Exchange Distance Specification Adequacy Direction IQ

27 I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself? R: Four I: Okay Actor Exchange Distance Specification Adequacy Direction IQ

28 I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself? R: Four I: Okay Actor Exchange Distance Specification Adequacy Direction IQ0C

29 I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself… I: Would it one, two, between three and five or more than five? Actor Exchange Distance Specification Adequacy Direction IQ0C-- IQ0A--

30 I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself? R: Four I: Okay Actor Exchange Distance Specification Adequacy Direction IQ0CA

31 I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself? R: Four I: Okay Actor Exchange Distance Specification Adequacy Direction IQ0CAz

32 I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself? R: Four I: Okay Actor Exchange Distance Specification Adequacy Direction IQ0CAz R A0AA 4 IP0nxx

33 Comparison full and selective coding Question 1 I: First, How many persons live in your household, counting all adults and children and including yourself? R: Four I: Okay Selective codes: ‘Exact’, ‘3’ (Adequate answer) ‘Full’ codes: IQ0CAz, RA0AA4, IP0nxx

34 Question 2 (part 1) I: …..how confident are you that the Census Bureau… with other government agencies? Very confident, somewhat confident, not too confident, or not at all confident? R:Share it with what other governments? Selective code: ‘Exact’, ‘2’ (Requests Clarification) ‘Full’ codes: IQ0CAz, IQ0AAa, RR0rxx Comparison full and selective coding

35 Question 2 (part 2) I: Well the question doesn’t specify but it just says other government agencies. R: oh probably very confident I: Okay Selective codes: 4 (Qualified answer) ‘Full codes’: IQ0MAz, RA0AT1, IP0nxx Comparison full and selective coding

36 Question 7 Codes: Exact, Interrupts, Don’t know Other codes of the exercise Question 3 Codes: Major change, Inadequate answer Question 8 Codes: Exact, Interrupts, Inadequate answer

37 Practical application of coding Live coding Live coding with tape Tape coding Tape coding with filled out questionnaire Coding from transcripts Coding from transcripts+ direct access to audio Increasing assistance& hence possibilities

38 New Technologies CARI:Computer as tape recorder Access to additional information from CATI Electronic documentation of coder’s notes Semi-automatic coding Fully automatic coding from log-files Do interviewers open screens with question texts, help info, enter data correctly etc. Use of respondent laptop: are show cards shown?


Download ppt "Different approaches and techniques of behaviour coding Yfke Ongena Workshop on Behaviour Coding Wivenhoe House, University of Essex 16 February 2007."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google