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© 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 1 Fagan’s Inspections.

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Presentation on theme: "© 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 1 Fagan’s Inspections."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 1 Fagan’s Inspections

2 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 2 Lecture Outline lFagan’s Software Inspections lFormal Process Definition lExit Criteria Examples lDefects lSeven Step Inspection Process Objectives lInspection Roles lStep 1 - Planning lStep 2 - Overview lStep 3 - Preparation lStep 4 - Inspection Meeting lStep 5 - Inspection Analysis Meeting lStep 6 - Rework lStep 7 - Follow-Up

3 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 3 Expectations Motivate participants to: n Use these processes to produce defect-free products with a high degree of productivity n Perform those processes repeatably and consistently n Continually improve those processes in a controlled manner Provide participants with the knowledge and skills to: n Use the Fagan's Inspection processes n Measure (participate in a Fagan's Inspection) and improve their work product n Participate in developing improvements to work processes

4 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 4 Objectives 1. To impart sufficient knowledge and skills to enable you to participate in productive document inspections. You will understand the objectives, principles and methods of Fagan’s inspections. 2. To develop skills/knowledge to enable you to participate in effective inspections fulfilling a moderator, author, reader or tester role: m Planning & Organizing a Fagan's Inspection m Preparing for a Fagan's Inspection Meeting m Participating in a Fagan's Inspection 3. To understand the basic concepts and approach of continuous process improvement as it relates to the software inspection process.

5 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 5 Fagan's Inspection DEFINITION A highly structured, clearly defined process by which software documents are reviewed in detail by a team including the author and, ideally, the customer. GOAL To identify defects as closely as possible to the point of occurrence in order to facilitate corrective action.

6 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 6 The ETVX Paradigm Entry Task Validate Exit OK Entry Task Validate Exit OOPS OK Inspection

7 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 7 ETVX Paradigm Software Development Process Fagan's Inspection Relationships: A software development process, e.g., specifying, designing, coding Entry Criteria Task Validate Exit Criteria Fagan's Inspection Tasks distributed to team members

8 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 8 Michael Fagan's A-B-C Process Defect Free Software Development Continuous Incremental Process Improvement Entry Criteria Objective: Make Product Function/ Process Exit * Criteria Formally Defined Process (Task) A Entry Criteria Objective: Measurement Fagan Inspection Exit * Criteria Measurement Exit Criteria Objective: Process Improvement Function: l Analysis l Create Process Change Entry Criteria Process Improvement B Customer Feedback C * Same Exit Criteria for product creation and validation

9 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 9 Relative Cost of Finding Defects

10 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 10 Fagan’s Software Development Process Model Test or “Customer” Feedback Problem Reports; Change Requests EXIT 2 Fagan's Inspection Product 2 3 Causal Analysis Metrics & Defect List Problem Solving Improvements Task (Process) Formally Defined 1 Product 1 EXIT * Same Exit Criteria for product creation and validation Product 1 : Product produced by process Product 2 : Product with identified defects removed

11 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 11 Software Inspection Methodology This methodology has been found to work effectively in conjunction with all development techniques and languages with which it has been involved over the last 20 years. You should expect it to work well with whatever techniques and languages you are now using.

12 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 12 The Software Inspection Process Formal Process Definition Entry Criteria Objective: Make Product Function/ Process Exit * Criteria Formal Process Definition A Entry Criteria Objective: Measurement Fagan Inspection Exit * Criteria Measurement Exit Criteria Objective: Process Improvement Function: l Analysis l Create Process Change Entry Criteria Process Improvement B Customer Feedback C * Same Exit Criteria for product creation and validation

13 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 13 An Operational Definition of Entry/Exit Criteria Operationally, Entry/Exit Criteria can be determined by asking about the completeness and accuracy of the process input/output. Completeness is the set of statements defining all of the items that make up a finished document. Accuracy, the standards of acceptance, is a combination of: nthe definitive source of information, conditions, or rules for data found in the document (content). n how that information is to be formatted or depicted (form). The purpose of exit criteria is to define quality. Without a definition of quality, quality cannot be measured.

14 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 14 More Definitions of Exit Criteria Exit criteria answers the questions: "How do I know when I am finished with a task?” "How can I show I've done it right?” Characteristics of Exit Criteria n A list of items that must be contained in a work product (SoA: one typed page). n Each item has a "Standard of Acceptance (SoA)" associated with it. l An SoA states the attributes (properties) of each item. l An SoA states the acceptability of each item in a binary manner thereby allowing peers to objectively judge whether it has been met. l Each SoA must have an associated detailed reference so that someone could be shown that the standard was in fact met. n Should be agreed to by the next step’s workers [customer(s)].

15 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 15 Exit Criteria 1. Items in Product, and Standards of Acceptance for each item 2. Product-requirements Example for Items in Product: My Presentations 1. Copyright (SoA: Legally correct; in PowerPoint or Word template) 2. Version information: Version number & Date; “File name”-Page# 3. Title (SoA: one or two lines; 36 pt; centered) 4. Amount of material (SfA: max 18 lines of 24pt text with no graphics): - 2-5 Major topics (one line; No bullet) - 2-5 Bullets on 3-4 major bullets with l - 2-5 Sub-bullets on 3-4 sub-bullets with dash lead-in 5. One or two graphics (SoA: not interfering with text or replacing text lines) 6....

16 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 16 Formal Process Definition

17 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 17 ETVX Entry Task ValidateExit OOPs OK OOPs OK Entry Task ValidateExit OOPs OK OOPs OK Inspection Exit Criteria Exit Criteria Exit Criteria

18 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 18 Software Inspection Measurement Entry Criteria Objective: Make Product Function/ Process Exit * Criteria Formal Process Definition A Entry Criteria Objective: Measurement Fagan Inspection Exit * Criteria Measurement Exit Criteria Objective: Process Improvement Function: l Analysis l Create Process Change Entry Criteria Process Improvement B Customer Feedback C * Same Exit Criteria for product creation and validation

19 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 19 Objective of Inspection TO FIND EVERY DEVIATION FROM THE EXIT CRITERIA nExit criteria are the work requirements of the process that the work product must meet nEach deviation from requirements is a defect

20 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 20 Purposes of Inspection nFind defects immediately after they are caused nReduce total defect rework to a minimum nReduce the schedule impact of defect rework on subsequent life cycle processes nMeasure product quality (Exit Criteria) nDetermine whether a process has been completed nGive real measurements against project management check points nProvide early data for improvement of the software process nProvide the software author with the quickest feedback on defects, how to recognize and avoid them in the future

21 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 21 What Is a Defect? nAn instance of non-conformance with the initiating requirements, standards, or exit criteria nCan exist in the accuracy/completeness of requirements, standards, and associated interface/reference documents nIdentified by team consensus during inspection meeting based on requirements/standards

22 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 22 Defect Categories nSeverity a. Major lA Condition that causes an operational failure, malfunction, or prevents attainment of an expected or specified result lInformation that would lead to an incorrect response or misinterpretation of the information by the user lAn instance of non-conformance that would lead to a discrepancy report if implemented as is b. Minor lA violation of standards, guidelines, or rules, but would not lead to a discrepancy report lInformation that is undesirable but would not cause a malfunction or unexpected results (bad workmanship) lInformation that, if left uncorrected, may decrease maintainability

23 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 23 Defect Categories (continued) Class a.Missing lInformation that is specified in the requirements or standard, but is not present in the document b.Wrong lInformation that is specified in the requirements or standards and is present in the document, but the information is incorrect c.Extra lInformation that is not specified in the requirements or standards but is present in the document Type lDescribes what kind of areas the inspection document has defects in (often an “-illity”; e.g. grammar, syntax) lInspection teams should define and tailor the classes to the work product. lhttp://www.research.ibm.com/softeng/ODC/DETODC.HTM#typehttp://www.research.ibm.com/softeng/ODC/DETODC.HTM#type

24 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 24 Defect Categories (continued) Defect Categories Severity Class MajorMinorMissingWrongExtraClarity Data Usage Interface Reliability llllll Type

25 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 25 Major Defect Definition In Code: A condition in code or documentation that could cause a malfunction or a deviation from specified or expected results, i.e., operational failure. Minor Defect Definition In Code or Design: A design or coding instance that is a violation of standards or conventions that would not result in a test or user reported defect, if not corrected. It could cause difficulties in maintenance or clarity of purpose. In Documents: A header, caption, prose or diagram instance that is a violation of standards or conventions that would not result in a test or user reported defect, if not corrected.

26 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 26 Inspectors and Their Roles All roles have the common objective of verifying that the product satisfies the exit criteria (or, identifying defects) Each role has a different function in inspections 1. Moderator 2. Author (Writer, Analyst, Designer, Coder, etc.) 3. Reader 4. Tester

27 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 27 Inspection Team Roles nModerator lLeads the inspection team nAuthor lOriginates/reworks the document nReader (also an analyst, designer, coder, etc.) lParaphrases/interprets the document sexpresses his/her understanding sdoes NOT actually read nTester lConsiders testability, traceability, requirements, standards and external interactions All roles verify conformance with the exit criteria.

28 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 28 The Seven Step Inspection Process STEPOBJECTIVE 1. Planning- Materials meet inspection entry criteria - Assign Inspector roles - Schedule meeting time/place for steps 2, 4 & 5 2. Overview- Educate inspection team. Provide work product background, context, rationale, etc. 3. Preparation- Prepare to fulfill role - Completely understand document from role's perspective 4. Inspection- Identify, classify and record defects - No solutions or improvements 5. Inspection - Review/analyze inspection steps 1 - 5 for Analysis improvement - Identify defect causes - Recommend process improvements 6. Rework- Correct ALL defects 7. Follow-Up- Ensure all defects identified are corrected - Ensure no new defects are introduced

29 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 29 Software Inspection Meets Entry Criteria for Inspection? Yes Planning Overview Preparation Rework Follow-Up Seven Step Process as Outlined by Fagan Defect Log Summary Report Meets Exit Criteria for the work? Yes No Summary Report Inspection Analysis Process Improvement Recommendations

30 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 30 Inspection Team - Moderator nModerator lManages the entire Process lManages the inspection meeting - Discussion leader? Facilitator? - Controls order of participation - Fills out the paperwork; “Holds the pen” lIs technically competent - Could have developed work product being inspected lStimulates participation of all team members lConsensus driver (defect, and where, or...) lEnsures that team follows inspection process

31 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 31 Inspection Team - Author nAuthor lOriginator of work product being inspected lHas vested interest in ensuring that all defects are found lProvides inspection team with overview of work product lActively participates in Inspection Meeting lConfirms reader and tester understanding

32 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 32 Inspection Team - Reader nReader lRecipient of work product being inspected lObtains complete understanding of the document lDetermines the path to be followed through the document lParaphrases and interprets the document

33 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 33 Inspection Team - Tester nTester lCompletely understand the inspection document lConsiders testability lEnsures that document complies with requirements and standards lDescribes test approaches lAddresses all external interactions - control and data

34 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 34 Formal Inspection Process Stages and People

35 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 35 Other Inspection Constraints nMaximum time allotted for the inspection meeting is 2 hours nOver and above the four roles described, two additional "INSPECTORS" may participate; all must prepare and participate, usually as lReader (perhaps diagram interpreter) lTester (with special focus) nMaximum of 6 participants allowed in inspection meeting nManagement is not invited

36 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 36 The Seven Step Inspection Process Step 1 Planning Objective: Ensure document meets inspection entry criteria Roles Involved: Author, Moderator Responsibilities: l Moderator ensures that document meets the inspection entry criteria and that all supporting documentation is available l Depending on the size of the document, the moderator may need to schedule several inspection meetings (chunking) l Author and moderator select inspection team and determine roles l Moderator schedules overview and inspection meetings and sends out meeting notices

37 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 37 The Seven Step Inspection Process Step 2 Overview Objective:Obtain shared understanding, enable efficient preparation Roles Involved: Inspection Team Responsibilities: l Moderator chairs the meeting and assigns roles l Author gives presentation, briefing team on document background, purpose, design rationale, etc. (i.e. a fast walkthrough) l Inspection team should understand their role and ask questions from the role's perspective to clarify and enhance understanding of the document l Moderator distributes inspection materials and records overview hours

38 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 38 The Seven Step Inspection Process Step 3 Preparation Objective: Enable effective participation in inspection meeting Roles Involved: Entire Inspection Team Responsibilities: l Team members become completely familiar with requirements, standards, exit criteria, and other relevant documentation l Team members individually review, study, and understand document l Note possible defects on the document and prepare for discussion at the inspection meeting (prepare to fulfill role) mModerator must consider how to bring team into discussion in meeting mReader makes notes about path taken through code, prose, or diagram so s/he can repeat it in the meeting mTester makes notes about interfaces, source requirements, traceability,..., and possible testing approaches, etc.

39 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 39 The Seven Step Inspection Process Step 4 Inspection - Establish Preparedness Inspection n Objective:Identify, classify, and record document defects n Roles Involved: Inspection Team n Responsibilities: l Moderator records inspection start time l Moderator ensures adequacy of preparation time l If inadequate preparation by team, moderator cancels and reschedules inspection meeting l Moderator records team members preparation times

40 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 40 The Seven Step Inspection Process Step 4 Inspection - Inspecting the Product l Reader proceeds through the document paraphrasing and interpreting the document’s contents l All team members participate in defect discovery and ensure document complies with project standards (meets exit criteria) l Tester describes test approach, requirements trace, etc. and confirms external interface connections l Author confirms the reader's and tester's understanding l Moderator keeps team focused on the product (downplays interpersonal issues) l Moderator maintains adequate iteration between reader/author/tester, not allowing reader to go too far too fast l Moderator invites the phantom inspector (team synergy) l Moderator allows only defect identification, not correction l Moderator drives the defect identification to consensus l All inspection team members agree on severity, type, class of defect l Moderator records defect on defect list & issues on “action item” list

41 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 41 The Seven Step Inspection Process Step 4 Inspection - Concluding the Meeting l Document has been completed or 2 hours is up l Moderator and inspection team determine product disposition m No defects identified, product deliverable to “customer” m Defects identified, some rework required (small amounts of change), product available to “customer” after author/moderator follow-up m Defects identified, rework required, partial reinspection required, reinspect rework only m Defects identified, major rework required, reinspect entire document l Moderator records inspection meeting time on inspection summary l Moderator requests inspection process improvement suggestions l Moderator notes any software process improvement suggestions offered l Moderator records estimated rework time (offered by author)

42 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 42 The Seven Step Inspection Process Step 5 Inspection Analysis Inspection Analysis l Were preparation and inspection rates within limits of recommended rates? l Was team synergy adequate? l What would you do to improve your next inspection? m Planning m Overview m Preparation m Inspection m Inspection Analysis Defect Analysis for Defect Cause Removal l Were systemic problems in the software process identified? Issues noted? Recommendations noted? l For each major defect: m Cause is systemic or mis-execution? m Process change recommended? m Action required?

43 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 43 The Seven Step Inspection Process Step 6 Rework REWORK nObjective:Remove defects nRole Involved: Author nResponsibilities: l Author utilizes the defect list and any notes he recorded during the meeting l Author corrects ALL defects documented in the inspection meeting l Author determines if scope of rework increased sufficiently to justify reinspection l Author records actual rework time

44 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 44 The Seven Step Inspection Process Step 7 Follow-Up nObjective:Verify defect removal; Ensure no new defects introduced nRoles Involved: Author/Moderator nResponsibilities: l Moderator reviews corrected defects with author, ensures all defects identified are corrected, conform to standards, meet exit criteria and product requirements l Moderator ensures that no new defects were introduced as the result of the rework l Moderator determines if scope of rework increased sufficiently to justify reinspection l Moderator signs off on reworked document Moderator publishes inspection summary report

45 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 45 Software Inspection Perspectives nSeven-Step Inspection Method Process Map nInspectors Roles by Process Step –Moderator’s –Author’s –Reader’s –Tester’s

46 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 46 SEVEN-STEP INSPECTION METHOD PROCESS MAP (1 of 7) Prepare And Submit Inspection Documents From Page 7 4 Review Inspection Document Complete, Reasonable Quality Level ? No Reinspection ? Rework Complete ? Select Team; Determine Roles Gather and Copy Inspection Materials For Inspectors Bypass Overview Meeting ? No Schedule Overview Meeting. Notify Team Members Yes No Confirm Roles No Yes 1 Go To Page 2 Yes Step 1 Planning STEP 2 Overview

47 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 47 SEVEN-STEP INSPECTION METHOD PROCESS MAP (2 of 7) Step 2 Overview Verbally Present Design Problem, Intent, Or Solution Of Material To Be Inspected Verify Understanding Of Design Problem, Intent, Or Solution - - - - - - - - - - - Ask Questions To Clarify Design Problem, Intent, Or Solution Of Material To Be Inspected Discuss Role Responsi- bilities, Answer Questions Ask Questions To Clarify Inspector Roles - - - - - - - - - - - Verbally Commit To Fulfill Role Assignments Distribute Inspection Material To Inspectors Record Overview Meeting Time Confirm / Schedule Inspection Meeting Step 3 Preparation Study And Understand Document To Fulfill Role Review Inspection Materials, Make Notes To Ask Questions About Possible Defects And Enhance Participation At The Inspection Meeting, Note Preparation Time 1 From Page 1 STEP 4 Inspection

48 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 48 SEVEN-STEP INSPECTION METHOD PROCESS MAP (3 of 7) Step 4 Inspection Record Inspection Start Time Record Preparation Time 2 Hours Up? Inspection Complete ? Yes 2 Go To Page 5 No 3 From Page 4 Describe Document's Implementation, Lead Team Through Document Describes Test Approach Possible Defect ? No Yes Team Discusses Question, Looks Up And Cites Standard Or Requirement From Which The Document Deviates, Team Consensus On Defect A - - - - - - - - - - - Validates Readers Interpretation Of The Document Asks Tester To Describe Test Approach, Validate Linkages Checked - - - - - Confirms Understanding Of Material Presented Present Questions About Possible Defects

49 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 49 SEVEN-STEP INSPECTION METHOD PROCESS MAP (4 of 7) A Step 4 Inspection (continued) Defect In Inspection Document ? No Yes Team Identifies Defect As Missing, Wrong, Or Extra Categorizes Defect as Major Or Minor Notes Location And Determines Class Yes No Note Issues For Discussion Later Record Defect B Yes Go To Page 3 3 No Defect In Other Document ? All Parts Of Document Covered ?

50 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 50 SEVEN-STEP INSPECTION METHOD PROCESS MAP (5 of 7) B Develop Problem Statement, Note Any Possible Cause Record Issues All Issues Covered ? No Team Discusses Required Rework Significant Rework ? Recommend Reinspection Record Total Inspection Time No Yes STEP 5 Inspection Analysis Step 4 Inspection (continued) 2 From Page 3 Issues Noted ? No Yes

51 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 51 SEVEN-STEP INSPECTION METHOD PROCESS MAP (6 of 7) Step 5 Inspection Analysis Review Issues Noted In Inspection Meeting & Major Defects Recorded Change Recommended ? No Yes Complete Inspection Issue Form Recommend Change - Process (Systemic Defects), Standards, Exit Criteria, Requirements, Other Related Documents Review Inspection Process Steps 1 - 5 Recommend Changes To Improve Inspection Process More Issues/ Defects ? Yes No Step 6 Rework Document Record Time 5 STEP 7 Follow-Up From Page 7

52 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 52 SEVEN-STEP INSPECTION METHOD PROCESS MAP (7 of 7) Step 7 Follow-Up Verify Correction Of Defects And Conformance To Standards Ensure Correction Did Not Cause Other Defects Additional Rework ? Yes No 5 Fill Out And Sign Inspection Summary Sheet For Actual Rework And Follow-Up Time Copy And Distribute Summary Sheets, Defect Log Sheets,And Issue Forms STOP 4 Go To Page 1 Significant Rework (Either Known Or Discovered) ? Yes No Go To Page 6

53 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 53 Moderator's Role by Process Step STEP Planning RESPONSIBILITY Inspection entry criteria have been met, the work product is complete and of a reasonable quality level nRework has been completed for a reinspection nInspection team selected and roles assigned nOverview scheduled, if applicable nInspection meeting scheduled nInspection package compiled (work product, standards, requirements, exit criteria, defect type list, etc.) nInspection Announcement sent out

54 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 54 Moderator's Role by Process Step STEP Overview RESPONSIBILITY nPlanning (administrative) time recorded nConduct overview meeting nEnsure inspection team obtains common understanding of the work product nEnsure each team member understands role and responsibility nRecord overview time

55 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 55 Moderator's Role by Process Step (cont.) STEP Preparation RESPONSIBILITY nStudy and understand work product to guide/coach both reader and tester nComplete individual preparation log nPrepare for inspection moderator role (get the most from the team) nNote preparation time

56 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 56 Moderator's Role by Process Step (cont.) STEP Inspection [meeting] RESPONSIBILITY nLead inspection meeting nRecord inspection start time nRecord individual preparation time; if inadequate, reschedule inspection meeting nEnsure focus of meeting remains on identifying defects nEnsure that the reader proceeds at an appropriate pace and all inspectors participate nEnsure each inspector fulfills the role assigned nEnsure defects identified are categorized by severity, type, and class based on team consensus

57 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 57 Moderator's Role by Process Step (cont.) STEP Inspection (cont.) RESPONSIBILITY nRecord work product issues where team consensus cannot be reached nRecord non-product issues as identified nEnsure maximum meeting time is not exceeded (2 hours) nEnsure the entire work product is inspected (or 2 hour limit reached) nEnsure inspection defect list is complete and accurate nReview all issues recorded and record any resolutions nAssign action items for all unresolved issues nDetermine need for reinspection nRecord total inspection time

58 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 58 Moderator's Role by Process Step (cont.) STEP Inspection (after) RESPONSIBILITY nObtain estimate for rework from author nComplete detailed inspection report nCollect all forms and maintain records of inspection

59 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 59 Moderator's Role by Process Step (cont.) STEP Inspection Analysis RESPONSIBILITY n Schedule meeting as soon after inspection as possible n Invite appropriate inspection team members, subject matter experts, and individuals from the areas affected by issues (decision makers) n Conduct meeting n Seek group recommendations for improvement of the software inspection process based on analysis of the results of inspection steps 1 - 5

60 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 60 Moderator's Role by Process Step (cont.) STEP Inspection Analysis (cont.) RESPONSIBILITY n Review each unresolved issue, drive for resolution, assign action items for unresolved issues n Review each major defect recorded and attempt to determine its cause (systemic) n For systemic defects, seek recommendations for improvement of the software development process n For each change recommended, complete an inspection issue form for evaluation in the Process Improvement step. n Review action items assigned and changes recommended

61 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 61 Moderator's Role by Process Step (cont.) STEP Rework Follow-Up RESPONSIBILITY Assure that work product issues/action items are resolved and communicated to the author in a timely manner nMeet with author nVerify that all defects were corrected and no new defects were introduced as a result of the change nAssure that corrections conform to project standards and product exit criteria nDetermine if the rework was significant enough to cause a need for a reinspection nComplete and distribute the inspection summary report nFile completed inspection package

62 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 62 All Inspectors' Roles by Process Step STEP Planning Overview Preparation RESPONSIBILITY nAllocate time for inspection meeting(s) nAttend overview meeting nAsk questions to clarify understanding of the work product nStudy work product to gain understanding, and to fulfill role nReview work product against standards, exit criteria, requirements, and other documents provided in the inspection package nComplete individual preparation log noting questions and any possible defects nRecord preparation time

63 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 63 All Inspectors' Roles by Process Step (cont.) STEP Inspection Inspection Analysis Rework Follow-up RESPONSIBILITY n Attend inspection meeting n Fulfill assigned role n Ask questions to assure understanding of the work product n Remain focused on finding defects n Evaluate the work product, not the author n Accept action items to resolve issues n Attend meeting as required by moderator n Suggest solutions to correct defects n Resolve issues, accept action items n Recommend process changes n None

64 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 64 Author's Role by Process Step STEP Planning Overview Preparation RESPONSIBILITY n Provide work product to be inspected, and all associated material for inspection package to the moderator n Review material with moderator n Work with moderator and team lead to select inspection team n Prepare for overview, if applicable n Present background information, design intent, problem, solution, etc., on the work product n Answer questions presented by inspection team n Provide moderator with time expended in preparation for overview n Prepare for inspection as a peer inspector n Record preparation time

65 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 65 Author's Role by Process Step (cont.) STEP Inspection Inspection (after) Inspection Analysis Rework RESPONSIBILITY nProvide moderator with preparation time nConfirm reader's paraphrasing, interpretation, or presentation of the work product nConfirm tester’s understanding of interfaces and approaches to testing nProvide answers to inspector's questions nFulfill role of peer inspector nProvide moderator with estimated time to correct defects nParticipate in meeting when requested by moderator and provide clarification as required nCorrect all defects nEnsure that all work product related issues/action items are resolved/closed nRecord actual rework time

66 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 66 Author's Role by Process Step (continued) STEP Follow-Up RESPONSIBILITY n Meet with moderator n Confirm for each defect and that the changes correct the defect n Verify that changes do not introduce additional defects n Determine with the moderator if changes were significant enough to indicate a need for reinspection n Provide moderator with actual rework time

67 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 67 Reader's Role by Process Step STEP Preparation Inspection All other steps RESPONSIBILITY n Prepare to paraphrase/interpret the work product in the inspection meeting n Determine path to be taken through the work product n Perform duties required of all inspectors n Guide the inspection team through the work product n Paraphrase, confirming understand with the author, tester, and other inspectors n Point out areas of difficulty with understanding n Relate back to higher level work product as required n Fulfill responsibilities of inspector

68 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 68 Tester's Role by Process Step STEP Preparation Inspection All other steps RESPONSIBILITY nStudy work product from testability aspect nConfirm external interaction, both control and data nPrepare to describe test approaches nFulfill responsibilities of inspector nDescribe test approaches as required nConfirm external linkages with reader and author nFulfill responsibilities of inspector

69 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 69 Fagan's Inspections – Expected Results Informal Summary "Fagan's Inspections for Documents” –CONSENSUS definition of DEFECTS –Exit Criteria: Their content and their importance –Designed, structured team process and roles BASED ON RESULTS DATA –Fagan's Inspection (an informal defintion): A "PRIVATE", IN-PROCESS product improvement process. –MASTER IT BEFORE MODIFYING IT.

70 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 70 Fagan's Inspections – Expected Results What’s coming Informal Summary: "Fagan's Inspections for Documents” Fagan's "Goal Levels" Since 1988 Development Process and Inspections – Flow Chart For context for “Goal Levels” What’s Next Exit Criteria for 1st Assignment Forms for 1st Assignment

71 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 71 Fagan's "Goal Levels" Since 1988

72 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 72 Development Process and Inspections – Flow Chart

73 © 1999-2001 USC-CSE & A. Winsor Brown BES/MSEE Fagan’s Inspections v3.0 - 09/25/01 - 73 Summary Topics – Fagan’s continuous process improvement cycle – Fagan’s formal process definition including exit criteria – Defect categories: Severity, class and type – Fagan’s inspection: Seven step process including roles, actions and responsibilities – Expected Results – Fagan’s Goals since 1988 Objectives – Sufficient knowledge and skills to participate in productive software code inspections – Understand the objectives, principles and methods of Fagan’s inspections – Skills/knowledge to fulfill an author, reader or tester role: » Planning & Organizing a Fagan's Inspection » Preparing for a Fagan's Inspection Meeting » Participating in a Fagan's Inspection


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