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Presentation on theme: "ARCHITECTURAL ASSESSMENT"— Presentation transcript:

Mike Jackson, FAIA Deputy SHPO, IHPA

2 FEASIBILITY Architectural/Economics
The architectural, regulatory and fiscal variables that affect feasibility. The resources your Main Street program should have to facilitate feasibility studies. We’re going to look at a building as an architect, and analyze it from several different viewpoints. All of this will be directed towards answering the following questions: What does the building want to be? What is the least complicated method of putting it to use? What possible attributes does the building have that: Make it desirable Make it problematic At the end, you’re not going to be an architect, but you’re going to have many of the instincts of the designer as they begin an assessment. All of this info feeds into a feasibility study, which may test out several different use and development ideas.

3 FEASIBILITY Architecture = Economics
Budget Busters Accessibility - Elevator Structural – Floor load capacity Life Safety Sprinklers Extra exit stairs

4 YOUR BUILDING IS: Real Estate (land & improvements)
Community wealth (tax base) A piece of architecture A part of history (many former owners/uses) A environmental asset: embodied energy Host of environmental hazards The value is a moving target. In hard numbers, the current value of a vacant, unimproved upper story is anywhere from $5 to $20 per sq. ft.

5 VALUE JUDGMENTS Land value Building value (current market)
Depreciated value (adjusted basis)* Increases with improvements Decreases with depreciation Trigger value for tax credit eligibility Insured value (replacement?) Assessed value (property tax basis) If you don’t know it, and you probably don’t. Ask your accountant what your current adjusted basis is. This becomes an important value because it tells you how much you have to spend to be eligible for rehabilitation tax credits.

6 LOCATION Characteristics
Political - City, county, state, township Street address (Highway?) Local designation Main Street district Historic District Special districts TIF, SSA, Enterprise The basic of location should seem obvious to you, but there is one particular item that should be noted, and that is the local zoning ordinance. Most standard zoning ordinances today have rules regarding the provisions for on-site parking. Many downtown buildings have no on-site parking. Even if you have a downtown ordinance that doesn’t require on-site parking that doesn’t mean you’re off the hook. Most residential developers want some kind of identifiable parking for their tenants. Public parking lots in the downtown should have an official policy regarding their use by downtown residents.

7 LOCATION Characteristics
Zoning district Parking requirement No on-site requirement in most downtowns Promote Zero lot line Uses FAR (density) Smart Codes …

8 LOCATION Characteristics
Seismic For most you in the northern part of the state, the seismic zone does not entail any special treatments. In the southern part of the state this becomes a bigger issue. Downtown buildings, as unreinforced masonry buildings are actually pretty poor performers in an earthquake. Currently, efforts are underway to make sure that all essential public services are located in newer buildings that are more earthquake resistant.

9 LOCATION - Flood Plain FEMA - FIRM - Flood Insurance Rate Maps

10 UTILITIES & SERVICES Electric Gas Water (size and pressure)
Sewer (interior and exterior adequacy) Telephone Cable High speed Internet Trash pick up This is a pretty straight forward list. The one item of particular note is the availability of high speed Internet access. This is really a community issue that is beyond the capacity of any individual to solve.

11 BUILDING PROFILE Size Construction type (from building code)
Area Stories Construction type (from building code) Structural system (check for adequacy) Architectural attributes that are code triggers Number of exits Access to light and ventilation Your building is probably 20 feet wide by some length. Older downtown were platted on a lot width throughout most of the 19th century. Unless your ancestors felt pretty prosperous, the height is two-three stories. Heights over this are quite rare in most smaller communities.

12 CODES & STANDARDS Building Codes National Models, adopted by gov’t
American with Disabilities Act Secretary of the Interior’s Standards Code triggers based upon funding source Ex: HUD funding and lead paint Your building exists in a community, county and state that has adopted various building codes. The locally adopted building code is the one that most people think of when they say code, but in reality codes are adopted at the local, state and federal level and the rules of engagement vary considerable among them. If you hire a contractor, there are also a lot of building rules that apply to his workers as well.

13 INT. EXISTING BLDG CODE Proportional (not economic) classification of work: Repair (Ch. 4) Alteration – Level 1 (Ch. 5) Alteration – Level 2 (Ch. 6) Alteration – Level 3 (Ch. 7) Change of Occupancy – Ch. 8) Additions (Ch. 9) Historic Buildings (Ch. 10) Moved & Relocated Buildings (Ch. 11) Compliance Alternatives (Ch. 12)

14 BUILDING USE Current use (zoning classifications)
First floor Upper floors Historic use (city directory, Sanborn map) Vacant (last known legal use) Kitchen and bath indicate residential use The use of your building from both historic and contemporary purposes has to be defined. You can call it storage, but this doesn’t real mean much. It is important if you can identify the “last known legal use.” One very practical test is that of looking for the kitchen and bath as a sign of residential use.

15 HISTORIC USE Sanborn fire insurance maps are a valuable tool to evaluate a buildings original fire safety design attributes. Sanborn fire insurance maps are a great research tool for use and fire protection qualifies. Every local community should have a copy available.

16 BUILDING PROFILE STRUCTURE (IBC 2000) Residential 40 psf
Stairs and exits 100 psf One & two family dwelling 40 psf Office 50 psf, Corridor above 1st fl 80 psf Lobbies and first floor corridor 100 psf Original design (archaic materials) Condition assessment The structural load for residential use has been unchanged for a long time and you can pretty much guess that your building was designed to handle it. The structural load for offices has actually been increasing, in response to the amount of paper and files in buildings, which is quite heavy. Older building may not have been built to handle contemporary office loading. The core issue at play here is that downtown commercial buildings were built to a capacity that is much like that of residential construction of the day. If your building was built for assembly use, such as a lodge hall, chances are pretty good that the floor was not building to handle the structural load based upon today’s standards.

Type III (based upon fire resistance of building elements) Exterior walls are noncombustible materials and interior building elements are of any material permitted by this code. The first building code in most American cities was one establishing the fire limits of the city. This was the part of town where wood frame buildings were prohibited. Galena established its fire limits in 1856, just after a fire burned down several blocks of downtown.

18 CODES – FIRE RATINGS Fire resistance ratings systems for building materials were the next step in the evolution of fire safety. Many historic and archaic materials were built before the modern rating systems were established.

19 INT. EXISTING BLDG CODE Fire Protection – Sprinklers
Classification of work Construction type Non-combustible ? Change of use or not? Fire separation between floors

20 CODE – SPRINKLERS IEBC Historic Buildings 1005.4 Occupancy separation
Occupancy separation of one hour omitted for buildings with approved sprinkler system throughout.

21 Codes – Tin Ceiling Issue
Is a 1 or 2 hr use separation required? Not if the same use hazard Not if there is no change of use Yes if a new residential unit in a former commercial space Not if the building is fully sprinklered

22 Codes – The Tin Ceiling Issue
1. Remove and reinstall over a new 1Hr rating. 2. Cover with an intumescent paint, 1 + hr separation

23 Code – Alternative Compliance
International Existing Building Code Method of quantifying safety Less prescriptive Requires written report by a design professional The role of the architect The role of the code official

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Applied to public accommodations Is retroactive starting in 1990 Readily achievable test (economics) Elevator not required for two-story bldg if: Under 3,000 sq ft except for: Shopping center Medical office Does not apply to housing

25 Building Accessibility
ADA – Scoping provisions In private buildings or facilities that are less than three stories or that have less than 3000 square feet (279 m2) per story, an accessible route shall not be required to connect [upper] stories (ex. shopping mall, health, transit) Alterations made to provide an accessible path of travel to the altered area will be deemed disproportionate to the overall alteration when the cost exceeds 20% of the cost of the alteration to the primary function area. Special provisions for historic buildings

26 Illinois Accessibility Code
VERTICAL ACESS EXCEPTION: However, privately owned public facilities are not required to provide vertical access in a building with two levels of occupiable space where the cost of providing such vertical access is more than 20% of the reproduction cost of the public facility; For the purpose of calculating percentages of reproduction cost, the cost of alteration shall be construed as the total actual combined cost of all alterations made within any period of 30 months. (Section 5, EBA).

27 Illinois Accessibility Code
Privately financed alterations to housing are not covered by the Environmental Barriers Act or this Code Fair Housing Act applies

Fair Housing Act (1991) Does not apply to older buildings. The Act requires all newly constructed multi-family dwellings of four or more units intended for first occupancy after March 13, 1991, to have certain features: an accessible entrance on an accessible route, accessible common and public use areas, doors sufficiently wide to accommodate wheelchairs, accessible routes into and through each dwelling… <>

29 LIGHT & VENTILATION Your typical downtown is made up with lots of long, skinny buildings with little opportunities for side windows. This plays a critical issue in designing for residential occupancies. Building depths greater than 80 feet are more difficult for residential use.

30 LIGHT & VENTILATION Natural light requirement – 8% of floor area
Natural ventilation requirement – 4% of floor area EXAMPLE WINDOW AREA 3’ X 6' = 18 sq. ft. per window x 3 windows 54 sq. ft. of window glazing 27 sq. ft. of vent opening MAXIMUM ROOM SIZE 54 sq. ft. is 8 % of 675 sq. ft. ROOM DIMENSION 19' wide x 35' long The requirement that living spaces have access to natural light and ventilation is another early code requirement that has survived the test of time.

31 LIGHT & VENTILATION Here’s a good example of a plan that takes advantage of the typical dimensions of a downtown building. The mid-block structure with no side windows is the most difficult. Recent changes in codes are allowing additional living spaces that allow for use of artificial light and ventilation.

32 EGRESS REQUIREMENTS Three-story buildings require two means of egress from the third floor. Exits have to directly connect to a public right-of-way. There is a long standing exit code requirement that is triggered between a two-story and a three-story building. Two means of egress are generally required from the third floor.

Asbestos Lead Paint Underground storage tanks Other Prior industrial use (Sanborn map, history) Bird droppings Mold We could have an entire two-day class on the next topic. This is going to be a very brief summary of the critical issues that come. Equally at issue here is the whole question of the trigger mechanism.

ASBESTOS: Regulated by: US Environmental Protection Agency NESHAP (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) State Environmental Protection Agency Disclaimer: I am not professional trained in this. The problem of asbestos exposure is fairly well known, but the specifics of what level of hazard and who regulates it are less obvious.

ASBESTOS – “trigger” points Friable and non-friable materials Minimum quantities of materials USEPA – NESHAP does not apply to: Residential buildings with 4 or fewer units Demolition & Renovation Demolition is the removal of a structural member Notification requirement The critical trigger for asbestos is to avoid air-born exposure. This is a worker protection issue more than it is an occupant exposure issue. Your downtown building is generally considered to be a commercial structure because of the ground floor use. If you convert the ground floor to residential and have four or fewer units it becomes a residential building that is below the NESHAP trigger.

ASBESTOS Survey when demolition or renovation is planned (qualified contractor) $ Abatement (qualified contractor) $ - $$$ Floor tile demolition (special qualifications) $ Critical issue: $$$ Asbestos in plaster What to do: It’s probably worth it to have a survey done to rule out whether or not you have asbestos materials. The older the building, the less likely it is. The most common period for the material was the 1920s-1960s. The most important thing is to rule of the presence of the asbestos in the plaster

LEAD PAINT Regulations EPA renovation rules HUD & Dept. of Public Health Residential units State Environmental Protection Agency Disposal OSHA (worker protection) HUD Guidelines (most well known) Apply only when HUD funding is involved Lead is very different from asbestos in the nature of the hazard and the protocol for dealing with it. The first health care risk is that to small children, which means residential occupancies, even if you don’t think children are every going to live there. There are very few rules regarding lead paint in commercial occupancies other than worker protection. There is also a worker protection issue, particularly during demolition. The regulatory application is changing. You probably have it. Intact lead painted surfaces that are not subject to friction or abrasion are not considered to be hazardous. Lead dust from deteriorating paint in the issue.

LEAD PAINT (IDPH) Identification (XRF, chips, dust wipe) Risk assessment Treatment options No hazard from intact materials Interim control (special paint coatings) Abatement (cover, remove paint or element) Requires specialized contractors) $$$ Disposal (requirements based upon quantity) Lead identification can be done in several different methods. XRF, chips analysis (lab) and dust wipes (lab) The big issue with lead is the protocol for who can do the work. Unlike asbestos, there is a protocol for work that can be done by contractors and there is a protocol for work that has to be done by licensed lead abatement contractors. Follow Lead safe practices, not abatement.

LEAD PAINT Construction EPA Renovation Repair & Painting Residential units in pre-1978 buildings Lead-safe work practices Contractor certification Lead is very different from asbestos in the nature of the hazard and the protocol for dealing with it. The first health care risk is that to small children, which means residential occupancies, even if you don’t think children are every going to live there. There are very few rules regarding lead paint in commercial occupancies other than worker protection. There is also a worker protection issue, particularly during demolition. The regulatory application is changing. You probably have it. Intact lead painted surfaces that are not subject to friction or abrasion are not considered to be hazardous. Lead dust from deteriorating paint in the issue. 39

MOLD This is a new relatively new topic of environmental concern, for which rules and regulations are currently being developed. Controversy over the definition Confusing market place Technical note: Plaster has a high lime content and is not a likely host for mold. Drywall, with its cellulose (paper) surface is a very good host for mold. Mold the moving target

Historic status allows building code alternatives: Status based upon designation or eligibility Local designation National Register listed properties Eligibility to be listed properties Contact your local pres. Comm. or SHPO Illinois has a tool to make it easier to find out if your building is historic or not. Virtually all individual buildings on the NR are on-line and most contributing building within historic districts can be identified on line.

Historic designation status: Individual building Contributing building to a district National Register Local landmark Eligibility (50 years +) Age (pre 1936) Architectural style classification Virtually all building codes have a clause regarding alternative treatments available for historic buildings. The definitions include several different determinations.

43 HISTORIC DESIGN Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation Local commission review of exterior SHPO review if project has state/federal funding, permits or licensing SHPO review of entire building. The code that applies when state or federal funding or permits are involved affecting a designated or eligible property. Another whole conference. I only want to talk about exposed brick. Be sure to test for lead or asbestos in the plaster before you do this.

Facades: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Condition assessment Special features (architectural) Time period of significance/alterations Three part preservation methodology Added to this is the time element. Changes after a certain date are not historic, generally 50 years.

Interiors Primary, secondary, tertiary Special features Architectural elements Fireplaces High ceilings Interiors get the same three part assessment of significance.

Exposing the brick in historically finished spaces does not meet Preservation Standards.

47 The BALCONY ISSUE Condo versus rental units
Urban more than a rural issue

48 Life Cycle Assessment - LCA

49 Life Cycle Assessment – LCA
Main Street Mixed Use 42 – 80 Years

50 ENERGY AUDITS Roof Slope Condition/warranty Gutters & downspouts
Structural adequacy Infrared roof inspection

51 ENERGY EFFICIENCY Renovated buildings are just as energy efficient as new construction. Parks Canada Study

52 FEASIBILITY FACTORS Balancing economic are architectural factors
Capacity limits of the existing building Cost of improving the capacity Financial limits based upon Expected return on investment Availability of incentives I’m going to start with the obvious, you have X thousand square feet, which will hold one to three apartment units. The real issue of feasibility management is figuring out how to put this together with the least possible risk from unknown during construction. Don’t’ start building until you know where you’re going. Avoid the temptation to begin with demolition under the assumption that you’re going to replace everything anyway. Do begin by photographing what you started with. Think about doing a lead and asbestos survey.

53 FEASIBILITY FACTORS Cost is directly related to complexity of use:
Storage Residential (owner’s unit) Multi-family residential (unit count) Office Retail Assembly (restaurant)

54 FEASIBILITY FACTORS What does the building want to be? Original use
Residential, high adequacy if two story Office, medium adequacy (access) Assembly, high inadequacy (access & fire safety) New use with high adequacy Residential Office Structural adequacy Accessibility) Knowing all the various factors, the reason that residential occupancy is the most common renovated you are: High degree of physical adequacy: Structure Exits Spatial All other uses generally trigger more complex building code requirements or some market forces such as the elevator.

55 FEASIBILITY FACTORS Site Factors: Parking Neighborhood Outdoor space
Covered or open Proximity Neighborhood Outdoor space (residential occupancy) Rental or condo potential One of the more critical adequacy issues for residential use is identification of available parking. For the condo and upscale market the ability to have an outdoor space as part of the unit is an important amenity.

56 SUCCESS STORIES Traditional Contemporary Loft Affordable
We’re going to talk about more success at the end of the program It’s not about style. In our survey of units being living in, we have found very tradition units, suburban ranch house living rooms, as well as “loft” type units. There is room for variety downtown for the various parts of the markeplace. Loft Affordable

57 OPPORTUNITY AWAITS There are plenty of opportunities out there. By tomorrow afternoon you’ll be ready to make better able to seize them.

58 THANK YOU Questions ??? Mike Jackson, FAIA
Illinois Historic Preservation Agency


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