YOUR BUILDING IS: Real Estate (land & improvements) Community wealth (tax base) A piece of architecture A part of history (many former owners/uses) A environmental asset: embodied energy –Host of environmental hazards
VALUE JUDGMENTS Land value Building value (current market) Depreciated value (adjusted basis)* –Increases with improvements –Decreases with depreciation –Trigger value for tax credit eligibility Insured value (replacement?) Assessed value (property tax basis)
LOCATION Characteristics Political - City, county, state, township Street address (Highway?) Local designation –Main Street district –Historic District Special districts –TIF, SSA, Enterprise
LOCATION Characteristics Zoning district –Parking requirement No on-site requirement in most downtowns Promote –Zero lot line –Uses –FAR (density) –Smart Codes …
UTILITIES & SERVICES Electric Gas Water (size and pressure) Sewer (interior and exterior adequacy) Telephone Cable High speed Internet Trash pick up
BUILDING PROFILE Size –Area –Stories Construction type (from building code) Structural system (check for adequacy) Architectural attributes that are code triggers –Number of exits –Access to light and ventilation
CODES & STANDARDS Building Codes National Models, adopted by gov’t American with Disabilities Act Secretary of the Interior’s Standards Code triggers based upon funding source Ex: HUD funding and lead paint
BUILDING USE Current use (zoning classifications) –First floor –Upper floors Historic use (city directory, Sanborn map) –First floor –Upper floors Vacant (last known legal use) Kitchen and bath indicate residential use
HISTORIC USE Sanborn fire insurance maps are a valuable tool to evaluate a buildings original fire safety design attributes. OT=/sanborn
BUILDING PROFILE STRUCTURE (IBC 2000) Residential 40 psf Stairs and exits 100 psf One & two family dwelling 40 psf –Office 50 psf, Corridor above 1 st fl 80 psf –Lobbies and first floor corridor 100 psf –Original design (archaic materials) –Condition assessment
BUILDING PROFILE CONSTRUCTION TYPE (IBC 2000) –Type III (based upon fire resistance of building elements) Exterior walls are noncombustible materials and interior building elements are of any material permitted by this code.
CODES – FIRE RATINGS Fire resistance ratings systems for building materials were the next step in the evolution of fire safety. Many historic and archaic materials were built before the modern rating systems were established.
INT. EXISTING BLDG CODE Fire Protection – Sprinklers Classification of work Construction type Non-combustible ? Change of use or not? Fire separation between floors
CODE – SPRINKLERS IEBC Historic Buildings Occupancy separation –Occupancy separation of one hour omitted for buildings with approved sprinkler system throughout.
Codes – Tin Ceiling Issue Is a 1 or 2 hr use separation required? –Not if the same use hazard –Not if there is no change of use –Yes if a new residential unit in a former commercial space –Not if the building is fully sprinklered
Codes – The Tin Ceiling Issue 1. Remove and reinstall over a new 1Hr rating. 2. Cover with an intumescent paint, 1 + hr separation
Code – Alternative Compliance International Existing Building Code Method of quantifying safety Less prescriptive Requires written report by a design professional The role of the architect The role of the code official
BUILDING ACCESSIBILITY Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Applied to public accommodations Is retroactive starting in 1990 Readily achievable test (economics) Elevator not required for two-story bldg if: Under 3,000 sq ft except for: Shopping center Medical office Does not apply to housing
Building Accessibility In private buildings or facilities that are less than three stories or that have less than 3000 square feet (279 m2) per story, an accessible route shall not be required to connect [upper] stories (ex. shopping mall, health, transit) Alterations made to provide an accessible path of travel to the altered area will be deemed disproportionate to the overall alteration when the cost exceeds 20% of the cost of the alteration to the primary function area. Special provisions for historic buildings ADA – Scoping provisions
Illinois Accessibility Code VERTICAL ACESS EXCEPTION: However, privately owned public facilities are not required to provide vertical access in a building with two levels of occupiable space where the cost of providing such vertical access is more than 20% of the reproduction cost of the public facility; For the purpose of calculating percentages of reproduction cost, the cost of alteration shall be construed as the total actual combined cost of all alterations made within any period of 30 months. (Section 5, EBA).
Illinois Accessibility Code Privately financed alterations to housing are not covered by the Environmental Barriers Act or this Code Fair Housing Act applies
BUILDING ACCESSIBILITY Fair Housing Act (1991) <> Does not apply to older buildings. The Act requires all newly constructed multi-family dwellings of four or more units intended for first occupancy after March 13, 1991, to have certain features: an accessible entrance on an accessible route, accessible common and public use areas, doors sufficiently wide to accommodate wheelchairs, accessible routes into and through each dwelling…
LIGHT & VENTILATION Building depths greater than 80 feet are more difficult for residential use.
LIGHT & VENTILATION EXAMPLE WINDOW AREA 3’ X 6' = 18 sq. ft. per window x 3 windows 54 sq. ft. of window glazing 27 sq. ft. of vent opening MAXIMUM ROOM SIZE 54 sq. ft. is 8 % of 675 sq. ft. ROOM DIMENSION 19' wide x 35' long Natural light requirement – 8% of floor area Natural ventilation requirement – 4% of floor area
LIGHT & VENTILATION
EGRESS REQUIREMENTS Three-story buildings require two means of egress from the third floor. Exits have to directly connect to a public right-of-way.
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Asbestos Lead Paint Underground storage tanks Other –Prior industrial use (Sanborn map, history) –Bird droppings –Mold
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ASBESTOS: Regulated by: –US Environmental Protection Agency NESHAP (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) State Environmental Protection Agency
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ASBESTOS – “trigger” points –Friable and non-friable materials –Minimum quantities of materials USEPA – NESHAP does not apply to: –Residential buildings with 4 or fewer units Demolition & Renovation –Demolition is the removal of a structural member –Notification requirement
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ASBESTOS –Survey when demolition or renovation is planned (qualified contractor) $ –Abatement (qualified contractor) $ - $$$ –Floor tile demolition (special qualifications) $ –Critical issue: $$$ – Asbestos in plaster
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT LEAD PAINT Regulations EPA renovation rules –HUD & Dept. of Public Health Residential units –State Environmental Protection Agency Disposal –OSHA (worker protection) –HUD Guidelines (most well known) Apply only when HUD funding is involved
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT LEAD PAINT (IDPH) –Identification (XRF, chips, dust wipe) –Risk assessment –Treatment options No hazard from intact materials Interim control (special paint coatings) Abatement (cover, remove paint or element) –Requires specialized contractors) $$$ Disposal (requirements based upon quantity)
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT LEAD PAINT Construction EPA Renovation Repair & Painting Residential units in pre-1978 buildings Lead-safe work practices Contractor certification
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT MOLD –This is a new relatively new topic of environmental concern, for which rules and regulations are currently being developed. –Controversy over the definition –Confusing market place –Technical note: Plaster has a high lime content and is not a likely host for mold. Drywall, with its cellulose (paper) surface is a very good host for mold.
HISTORIC CLASSIFICATION Historic status allows building code alternatives: –Status based upon designation or eligibility –Local designation –National Register listed properties –Eligibility to be listed properties Contact your local pres. Comm. or SHPO
HISTORIC CLASSIFICATION Historic designation status: –Individual building –Contributing building to a district –National Register –Local landmark –Eligibility (50 years +) –Age (pre 1936) Architectural style classification
HISTORIC DESIGN Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation Local commission review of exterior SHPO review if project has state/federal funding, permits or licensing SHPO review of entire building.
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Facades: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Condition assessment Special features (architectural) Time period of significance/alterations
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Interiors Primary, secondary, tertiary Special features –Architectural elements –Fireplaces –High ceilings
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Exposing the brick in historically finished spaces does not meet Preservation Standards.
The BALCONY ISSUE Condo versus rental units Urban more than a rural issue
Life Cycle Assessment - LCA reen-lab/valuing-building-reuse.html
Life Cycle Assessment – LCA Main Street Mixed Use 42 – 80 Years
ENERGY EFFICIENCY Renovated buildings are just as energy efficient as new construction. Parks Canada Study
FEASIBILITY FACTORS Balancing economic are architectural factors –Capacity limits of the existing building –Cost of improving the capacity Financial limits based upon –Expected return on investment –Availability of incentives
FEASIBILITY FACTORS Cost is directly related to complexity of use: Storage Residential (owner’s unit) Multi-family residential (unit count) Office Retail Assembly (restaurant)
FEASIBILITY FACTORS What does the building want to be? –Original use Residential, high adequacy if two story Office, medium adequacy (access) Assembly, high inadequacy (access & fire safety) New use with high adequacy Residential Office Structural adequacy Accessibility)
FEASIBILITY FACTORS Site Factors: –Parking Covered or open Proximity –Neighborhood –Outdoor space –(residential occupancy) Rental or condo potential
SUCCESS STORIES Traditional Contemporary Loft Affordable