Presentation on theme: "ARCHITECTURAL ASSESSMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1 ARCHITECTURAL ASSESSMENT Mike Jackson, FAIADeputy SHPO, IHPA
2 FEASIBILITY Architectural/Economics The architectural, regulatory and fiscal variables that affect feasibility.The resources your Main Street program should have to facilitate feasibility studies.We’re going to look at a building as an architect, and analyze it from several different viewpoints.All of this will be directed towards answering the following questions:What does the building want to be?What is the least complicated method of putting it to use?What possible attributes does the building have that:Make it desirableMake it problematicAt the end, you’re not going to be an architect, but you’re going to have many of the instincts of the designer as they begin an assessment.All of this info feeds into a feasibility study, which may test out several different use and development ideas.
4 YOUR BUILDING IS: Real Estate (land & improvements) Community wealth (tax base)A piece of architectureA part of history (many former owners/uses)A environmental asset: embodied energyHost of environmental hazardsThe value is a moving target. In hard numbers, the current value of a vacant, unimproved upper story is anywhere from $5 to $20 per sq. ft.
5 VALUE JUDGMENTS Land value Building value (current market) Depreciated value (adjusted basis)*Increases with improvementsDecreases with depreciationTrigger value for tax credit eligibilityInsured value (replacement?)Assessed value (property tax basis)If you don’t know it, and you probably don’t. Ask your accountant what your current adjusted basis is. This becomes an important value because it tells you how much you have to spend to be eligible for rehabilitation tax credits.
6 LOCATION Characteristics Political - City, county, state, townshipStreet address (Highway?)Local designationMain Street districtHistoric DistrictSpecial districtsTIF, SSA, EnterpriseThe basic of location should seem obvious to you, but there is one particular item that should be noted, and that is the local zoning ordinance. Most standard zoning ordinances today have rules regarding the provisions for on-site parking. Many downtown buildings have no on-site parking. Even if you have a downtown ordinance that doesn’t require on-site parking that doesn’t mean you’re off the hook. Most residential developers want some kind of identifiable parking for their tenants. Public parking lots in the downtown should have an official policy regarding their use by downtown residents.
7 LOCATION Characteristics Zoning districtParking requirementNo on-site requirement in most downtownsPromoteZero lot lineUsesFAR (density)Smart Codes …
8 LOCATION Characteristics SeismicFor most you in the northern part of the state, the seismic zone does not entail any special treatments. In the southern part of the state this becomes a bigger issue. Downtown buildings, as unreinforced masonry buildings are actually pretty poor performers in an earthquake. Currently, efforts are underway to make sure that all essential public services are located in newer buildings that are more earthquake resistant.
10 UTILITIES & SERVICES Electric Gas Water (size and pressure) Sewer (interior and exterior adequacy)TelephoneCableHigh speed InternetTrash pick upThis is a pretty straight forward list. The one item of particular note is the availability of high speed Internet access. This is really a community issue that is beyond the capacity of any individual to solve.
11 BUILDING PROFILE Size Construction type (from building code) AreaStoriesConstruction type (from building code)Structural system (check for adequacy)Architectural attributes that are code triggersNumber of exitsAccess to light and ventilationYour building is probably 20 feet wide by some length. Older downtown were platted on a lot width throughout most of the 19th century.Unless your ancestors felt pretty prosperous, the height is two-three stories. Heights over this are quite rare in most smaller communities.
12 CODES & STANDARDS Building Codes National Models, adopted by gov’t American with Disabilities ActSecretary of the Interior’s StandardsCode triggers based upon funding sourceEx: HUD funding and lead paintYour building exists in a community, county and state that has adopted various building codes. The locally adopted building code is the one that most people think of when they say code, but in reality codes are adopted at the local, state and federal level and the rules of engagement vary considerable among them.If you hire a contractor, there are also a lot of building rules that apply to his workers as well.
14 BUILDING USE Current use (zoning classifications) First floorUpper floorsHistoric use (city directory, Sanborn map)Vacant (last known legal use)Kitchen and bath indicate residential useThe use of your building from both historic and contemporary purposes has to be defined. You can call it storage, but this doesn’t real mean much. It is important if you can identify the “last known legal use.”One very practical test is that of looking for the kitchen and bath as a sign of residential use.
15 HISTORIC USESanborn fire insurance maps are a valuable tool to evaluate a buildings original fire safety design attributes.Sanborn fire insurance maps are a great research tool for use and fire protection qualifies. Every local community should have a copy available.
16 BUILDING PROFILE STRUCTURE (IBC 2000) Residential 40 psf Stairs and exits 100 psfOne & two family dwelling 40 psfOffice 50 psf, Corridor above 1st fl 80 psfLobbies and first floor corridor 100 psfOriginal design (archaic materials)Condition assessmentThe structural load for residential use has been unchanged for a long time and you can pretty much guess that your building was designed to handle it.The structural load for offices has actually been increasing, in response to the amount of paper and files in buildings, which is quite heavy. Older building may not have been built to handle contemporary office loading.The core issue at play here is that downtown commercial buildings were built to a capacity that is much like that of residential construction of the day.If your building was built for assembly use, such as a lodge hall, chances are pretty good that the floor was not building to handle the structural load based upon today’s standards.
17 BUILDING PROFILE CONSTRUCTION TYPE (IBC 2000) Type III (based upon fire resistance of building elements)Exterior walls are noncombustible materials and interior building elements are of any material permitted by this code.The first building code in most American cities was one establishing the fire limits of the city. This was the part of town where wood frame buildings were prohibited. Galena established its fire limits in 1856, just after a fire burned down several blocks of downtown.
18 CODES – FIRE RATINGSFire resistance ratings systems for building materials were the next step in the evolution of fire safety. Many historic and archaic materials were built before the modern rating systems were established.
19 INT. EXISTING BLDG CODE Fire Protection – Sprinklers Classification of workConstruction typeNon-combustible ?Change of use or not?Fire separation between floors
20 CODE – SPRINKLERS IEBC Historic Buildings 1005.4 Occupancy separation Occupancy separation of one hour omitted for buildings with approved sprinkler system throughout.
21 Codes – Tin Ceiling Issue Is a 1 or 2 hr use separation required?Not if the same use hazardNot if there is no change of useYes if a new residential unit in a former commercial spaceNot if the building is fully sprinklered
22 Codes – The Tin Ceiling Issue 1. Remove and reinstall over a new 1Hr rating.2. Cover with an intumescent paint, 1 + hr separation
23 Code – Alternative Compliance International Existing Building CodeMethod of quantifying safetyLess prescriptiveRequires written report by a design professionalThe role of the architectThe role of the code official
24 BUILDING ACCESSIBILITY Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)Applied to public accommodationsIs retroactive starting in 1990Readily achievable test (economics)Elevator not required for two-story bldg if:Under 3,000 sq ft except for:Shopping centerMedical officeDoes not apply to housing
25 Building Accessibility ADA – Scoping provisionsIn private buildings or facilities that are less than three stories or that have less than 3000 square feet (279 m2) per story, an accessible route shall not be required to connect [upper] stories (ex. shopping mall, health, transit)Alterations made to provide an accessible path of travel to the altered area will be deemed disproportionate to the overall alteration when the cost exceeds 20% of the cost of the alteration to the primary function area.Special provisions for historic buildings
26 Illinois Accessibility Code VERTICAL ACESS EXCEPTION: However, privately owned public facilities are not required to provide vertical access in a building with two levels of occupiable space where the cost of providing such vertical access is more than 20% of the reproduction cost of the public facility;For the purpose of calculating percentages of reproduction cost, the cost of alteration shall be construed as the total actual combined cost of all alterations made within any period of 30 months. (Section 5, EBA).
27 Illinois Accessibility Code Privately financed alterations to housing are not covered by the Environmental Barriers Act or this CodeFair Housing Act applies
28 BUILDING ACCESSIBILITY Fair Housing Act (1991)Does not apply to older buildings.The Act requires all newly constructed multi-family dwellings of four or more units intended for first occupancy after March 13, 1991, to have certain features: an accessible entrance on an accessible route, accessible common and public use areas, doors sufficiently wide to accommodate wheelchairs, accessible routes into and through each dwelling…<>
29 LIGHT & VENTILATIONYour typical downtown is made up with lots of long, skinny buildings with little opportunities for side windows. This plays a critical issue in designing for residential occupancies.Building depths greater than 80 feet are more difficult for residential use.
30 LIGHT & VENTILATION Natural light requirement – 8% of floor area Natural ventilation requirement – 4% of floor areaEXAMPLEWINDOW AREA3’ X 6' = 18 sq. ft. per windowx 3 windows54 sq. ft. of window glazing27 sq. ft. of vent openingMAXIMUM ROOM SIZE54 sq. ft. is 8 % of675 sq. ft.ROOM DIMENSION19' wide x 35' longThe requirement that living spaces have access to natural light and ventilation is another early code requirement that has survived the test of time.
31 LIGHT & VENTILATIONHere’s a good example of a plan that takes advantage of the typical dimensions of a downtown building. The mid-block structure with no side windows is the most difficult.Recent changes in codes are allowing additional living spaces that allow for use of artificial light and ventilation.
32 EGRESS REQUIREMENTSThree-story buildings require two means of egress from the third floor. Exits have to directly connect to a public right-of-way.There is a long standing exit code requirement that is triggered between a two-story and a three-story building. Two means of egress are generally required from the third floor.
33 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AsbestosLead PaintUnderground storage tanksOtherPrior industrial use (Sanborn map, history)Bird droppingsMoldWe could have an entire two-day class on the next topic. This is going to be a very brief summary of the critical issues that come.Equally at issue here is the whole question of the trigger mechanism.
34 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ASBESTOS:Regulated by:US Environmental Protection AgencyNESHAP (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants)State Environmental Protection AgencyDisclaimer: I am not professional trained in this.The problem of asbestos exposure is fairly well known, but the specifics of what level of hazard and who regulates it are less obvious.
35 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ASBESTOS – “trigger” pointsFriable and non-friable materialsMinimum quantities of materialsUSEPA – NESHAP does not apply to:Residential buildings with 4 or fewer unitsDemolition & RenovationDemolition is the removal of a structural memberNotification requirementThe critical trigger for asbestos is to avoid air-born exposure. This is a worker protection issue more than it is an occupant exposure issue.Your downtown building is generally considered to be a commercial structure because of the ground floor use. If you convert the ground floor to residential and have four or fewer units it becomes a residential building that is below the NESHAP trigger.
36 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ASBESTOSSurvey when demolition or renovation is planned (qualified contractor) $Abatement (qualified contractor) $ - $$$Floor tile demolition (special qualifications) $Critical issue: $$$Asbestos in plasterWhat to do:It’s probably worth it to have a survey done to rule out whether or not you have asbestos materials.The older the building, the less likely it is.The most common period for the material was the 1920s-1960s.The most important thing is to rule of the presence of the asbestos in the plaster
37 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT LEAD PAINT RegulationsEPA renovation rulesHUD & Dept. of Public HealthResidential unitsState Environmental Protection AgencyDisposalOSHA (worker protection)HUD Guidelines (most well known)Apply only when HUD funding is involvedLead is very different from asbestos in the nature of the hazard and the protocol for dealing with it.The first health care risk is that to small children, which means residential occupancies, even if you don’t think children are every going to live there. There are very few rules regarding lead paint in commercial occupancies other than worker protection.There is also a worker protection issue, particularly during demolition.The regulatory application is changing.You probably have it.Intact lead painted surfaces that are not subject to friction or abrasion are not considered to be hazardous. Lead dust from deteriorating paint in the issue.
38 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT LEAD PAINT (IDPH)Identification (XRF, chips, dust wipe)Risk assessmentTreatment optionsNo hazard from intact materialsInterim control (special paint coatings)Abatement (cover, remove paint or element)Requires specialized contractors) $$$Disposal (requirements based upon quantity)Lead identification can be done in several different methods. XRF, chips analysis (lab) and dust wipes (lab)The big issue with lead is the protocol for who can do the work. Unlike asbestos, there is a protocol for work that can be done by contractors and there is a protocol for work that has to be done by licensed lead abatement contractors.Follow Lead safe practices, not abatement.
39 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT LEAD PAINT ConstructionEPA Renovation Repair & PaintingResidential units in pre-1978 buildingsLead-safe work practicesContractor certificationLead is very different from asbestos in the nature of the hazard and the protocol for dealing with it.The first health care risk is that to small children, which means residential occupancies, even if you don’t think children are every going to live there. There are very few rules regarding lead paint in commercial occupancies other than worker protection.There is also a worker protection issue, particularly during demolition.The regulatory application is changing.You probably have it.Intact lead painted surfaces that are not subject to friction or abrasion are not considered to be hazardous. Lead dust from deteriorating paint in the issue.39
40 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT MOLDThis is a new relatively new topic of environmental concern, for which rules and regulations are currently being developed.Controversy over the definitionConfusing market placeTechnical note:Plaster has a high lime content and is not a likely host for mold. Drywall, with its cellulose (paper) surface is a very good host for mold.Mold the moving target
41 HISTORIC CLASSIFICATION Historic status allows building code alternatives:Status based upon designation or eligibilityLocal designationNational Register listed propertiesEligibility to be listed propertiesContact your local pres. Comm. or SHPOIllinois has a tool to make it easier to find out if your building is historic or not. Virtually all individual buildings on the NR are on-line and most contributing building within historic districts can be identified on line.
42 HISTORIC CLASSIFICATION Historic designation status:Individual buildingContributing building to a districtNational RegisterLocal landmarkEligibility (50 years +)Age (pre 1936)Architectural style classificationVirtually all building codes have a clause regarding alternative treatments available for historic buildings. The definitions include several different determinations.
43 HISTORIC DESIGNSecretary of the Interior’s Standards for RehabilitationLocal commission review of exteriorSHPO review if project has state/federal funding, permits or licensingSHPO review of entire building.The code that applies when state or federal funding or permits are involved affecting a designated or eligible property.Another whole conference.I only want to talk about exposed brick.Be sure to test for lead or asbestos in the plaster before you do this.
44 ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Facades: Primary, Secondary, TertiaryCondition assessmentSpecial features (architectural)Time period of significance/alterationsThree part preservation methodologyAdded to this is the time element. Changes after a certain date are not historic, generally 50 years.
45 ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES InteriorsPrimary, secondary, tertiarySpecial featuresArchitectural elementsFireplacesHigh ceilingsInteriors get the same three part assessment of significance.
46 ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Exposing the brick in historically finished spaces does not meet Preservation Standards.
47 The BALCONY ISSUE Condo versus rental units Urban more than a rural issue
51 ENERGY EFFICIENCYRenovated buildings are just as energy efficient as new construction.ParksCanadaStudy
52 FEASIBILITY FACTORS Balancing economic are architectural factors Capacity limits of the existing buildingCost of improving the capacityFinancial limits based uponExpected return on investmentAvailability of incentivesI’m going to start with the obvious, you have X thousand square feet, which will hold one to three apartment units. The real issue of feasibility management is figuring out how to put this together with the least possible risk from unknown during construction.Don’t’ start building until you know where you’re going.Avoid the temptation to begin with demolition under the assumption that you’re going to replace everything anyway.Do begin by photographing what you started with.Think about doing a lead and asbestos survey.
53 FEASIBILITY FACTORS Cost is directly related to complexity of use: StorageResidential (owner’s unit)Multi-family residential (unit count)OfficeRetailAssembly (restaurant)
54 FEASIBILITY FACTORS What does the building want to be? Original use Residential, high adequacy if two storyOffice, medium adequacy (access)Assembly, high inadequacy (access & fire safety)New use with high adequacyResidentialOfficeStructural adequacyAccessibility)Knowing all the various factors, the reason that residential occupancy is the most common renovated you are:High degree of physical adequacy:StructureExitsSpatialAll other uses generally trigger more complex building code requirements or some market forces such as the elevator.
55 FEASIBILITY FACTORS Site Factors: Parking Neighborhood Outdoor space Covered or openProximityNeighborhoodOutdoor space(residential occupancy)Rental or condo potentialOne of the more critical adequacy issues for residential use is identification of available parking.For the condo and upscale market the ability to have an outdoor space as part of the unit is an important amenity.
56 SUCCESS STORIES Traditional Contemporary Loft Affordable We’re going to talk about more success at the end of the programIt’s not about style. In our survey of units being living in, we have found very tradition units, suburban ranch house living rooms, as well as “loft” type units. There is room for variety downtown for the various parts of the markeplace.LoftAffordable
57 OPPORTUNITY AWAITSThere are plenty of opportunities out there. By tomorrow afternoon you’ll be ready to make better able to seize them.
58 THANK YOU Questions ??? Mike Jackson, FAIA Illinois Historic Preservation Agency