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Financing Right to Education 2009 Anugula N. Reddy Assistant Professor, Department of EMIS NUEPA, 17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110016

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Presentation on theme: "Financing Right to Education 2009 Anugula N. Reddy Assistant Professor, Department of EMIS NUEPA, 17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110016"— Presentation transcript:

1 Financing Right to Education 2009 Anugula N. Reddy Assistant Professor, Department of EMIS NUEPA, 17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi

2 RTE-2009: A Culmination of Long Journey  Provision of Free and Compulsory Education to All Children till Fourteen Years of Age as Directive Principle of Constitution (Article 45)  Inadequate quantitative expansion,  deteriorating infrastructure, declining quality, persistent inequalities  Though many norms and parameters were specified to realize the provision of Free and Compulsory Education but these lack legal sanctity  No mechanism to monitor the implementation and progress

3 RTE-2009: A Culmination of Long Journey  The Unnikrishnan Judgment delivered by supreme court of India galvanized the efforts to universalize elementary education and put it as high priority agenda in policy debates  Following Unnikrishnan judgment the civil society put enormous pressure on Government to amend the Constitution to make elementary education a fundamental right in its own right  Relenting to the pressures the Government of India amended the Constitution to make elementary education a right of children aged 6-14 years (Article 21 (A)  The right shall come into force from the date of notification of an Act specifying various aspects of provision of free and compulsory education. RTE 2009 was enacted and implemented from April 2011

4 RTE-2009: A Culmination of Long Journey  The Act purportedly intended to specify norms and standards and targets with regard to provision of Free and Compulsory Education  However many of them left to be defined by appropriate authorities (provincial governments, local authority or professional bodies) or imprecisely defined Definition of school –schedule but items can be added or deleted through an executive orderDefinition of school –schedule but items can be added or deleted through an executive order Definition of teacher and qualifications to become teacher by NCTEDefinition of teacher and qualifications to become teacher by NCTE Adequacy teaching learning material available in school, etcAdequacy teaching learning material available in school, etc

5 Financing RTE  Financing universal elementary education as a fundamental right requires paradigm shift The state can no longer take excuse of scarcity of resources, fiscal capacity, etcThe state can no longer take excuse of scarcity of resources, fiscal capacity, etc This raises questions particularly how to determine the adequacy of resourceThis raises questions particularly how to determine the adequacy of resource Shifts in criteria from financing from equity to adequacy (in US) – linking with outputsShifts in criteria from financing from equity to adequacy (in US) – linking with outputs

6 Financing RTE  Criterion to Examine the Adequacy of Resource allocation to UEE Proportion of GDP/GNPProportion of GDP/GNP Policy Recommendations like Kothari Commission recommendation to allocate public resources to education to the tune of 6 per cent of GNP; which was reiterated nearly by all committees subsequentlyPolicy Recommendations like Kothari Commission recommendation to allocate public resources to education to the tune of 6 per cent of GNP; which was reiterated nearly by all committees subsequently Latest policy recommendations to apportion 3 per cent of GNP to universal elementary education, 1.5 per cent to secondary education and the remaining 1.5 per cent to higher and technical education (Majumdar Committee, 1999, 2005; CABE Committee on Higher Education, 2005)Latest policy recommendations to apportion 3 per cent of GNP to universal elementary education, 1.5 per cent to secondary education and the remaining 1.5 per cent to higher and technical education (Majumdar Committee, 1999, 2005; CABE Committee on Higher Education, 2005)

7 Financing RTE  Norm Based Criteria (Majumdar 1999, CABE Committee on RTE 2005, NUEPA 2009) Resource requirements may be estimated by different components of RTE – warding off dilution of commitmentsResource requirements may be estimated by different components of RTE – warding off dilution of commitments The Estimated resource requirements can be used to safeguard any dilution of norms and standards specified in the Schedule of the Act and items.The Estimated resource requirements can be used to safeguard any dilution of norms and standards specified in the Schedule of the Act and items.

8 Financing RTE  Criterion to Examine the Adequacy of Resource allocation to UEE Estimating Resource requirements on the basis of norms of RTEEstimating Resource requirements on the basis of norms of RTE  Taking stock of current status, identify gaps and resource required to fill the gaps  Estimating-Total, Item wise, State wise, Central and State Shares

9 Financing RTE  Some estimates Rs thousand million over 10 years constituting a little over 3 per cent of GNP (Majumdar committee 1999)Rs thousand million over 10 years constituting a little over 3 per cent of GNP (Majumdar committee 1999) Over Rs 2000 to 4000 thousand million over five years constituting about 3 to 3.5 per cent of GNP (CABE Committee, 2005)Over Rs 2000 to 4000 thousand million over five years constituting about 3 to 3.5 per cent of GNP (CABE Committee, 2005) About Rs million over five years constituting less than 3 per cent of GNP (NUEPA, 2009)About Rs million over five years constituting less than 3 per cent of GNP (NUEPA, 2009)  The 3% GNP arrived by various committees may be bottom-line-any additional resources required may have to be allocated from budget other than without cutting other levels of education

10 Financing RTE  Some tensions Federal RelationsFederal Relations  All layers of government are responsible  Central Government to estimate resource requirements from time to time  Central Government to refer to President to include allocations to RTE under Finance Commission and decide a formula to share resource burden with provincial governments in consultation

11 Financing RTE  Some Tensions  Notwithstanding above the Act places the entire responsibility squarely on provincial government  Limited capacity of provincial government and constrained by Acts relating to budgetary deficit  As several components are left to be defined by appropriate authorities, these dilute the commitments subsequently Financing through cess-Less support from general budgetary supportFinancing through cess-Less support from general budgetary support

12 Per cent of GNP to Education

13 As per cent Total Budget


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