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Overview of the New Basel Capital Accord Basel Committee on Banking Supervision R94723073 陳世樺 R93723093 蘇郁惠 R94723051 郭于綺.

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Presentation on theme: "Overview of the New Basel Capital Accord Basel Committee on Banking Supervision R94723073 陳世樺 R93723093 蘇郁惠 R94723051 郭于綺."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview of the New Basel Capital Accord Basel Committee on Banking Supervision R 陳世樺 R 蘇郁惠 R 郭于綺

2 2 Agenda Capital Adequacy Review of Basel I Overview of Basel II Implementation and future prospect

3 3 Capital Protects Against Insolvency Importance of Capital Adequacy Protection from Credit and Interest Rate Risks ASSETSLIABILITIES Long-Term Securities Long-Term Loans $8020$100 Liabilities (Deposits) Net Worth $9010$100 ASSETSLIABILITIES Long-Term Securities Long-Term Loans $7513$88 Liabilities (Deposits) Net Worth $90-2$88

4 4 Enforcement of Capital Adequacy Two Capital Requirements -Leverage Ratio -Risk-Based Capital Ratio Leverage Ratio = Core Capital / Assets Risk-Based Approach implemented by Bank of International Settlements (BIS) -Basel Agreement

5 5 Basel I to Basel II Basel I’ s Risk Assessment -Market Risk -Different Credit Risks of Assets Basel II -3 Pillars -Unchanged – Market Risk -Reassessed Credit Risk Methods *Standardised Approach / Internal Ratings Based / Securitisation -Added Operational Risk

6 6 Outline of the Basel II Framework Implementation: End of 2006

7 7 3 Pillars Pillar 1 Pillar 2 Pillar 3 Calculation of regulatory minimum capital requirements Regulatory supervisory review so as to complement and enforce minimum capital requirements calculated under Pillar 1 Requirements on rules for disclosure of capital structure, risk exposures and capital adequacy so as to increase FI transparency and enhance market/investor discipline 1. Credit Risk 2. Market Risk 3. Operational Risk

8 8 Market Risk Standardised Method -BIS Standards Internal Models -Regulatory Approval -Risk Metrics / History / Monte Carlo Simulation -Subject to Audits and Reviews

9 9 Core (Tier I) and Supplementary (Tier II) Capital On Balance Sheet and Off Balance Sheet Assets Assigns risk weighting to different asset classes to obtain a Credit Risk Adjusted Asset Value Credit Risk - Basel I

10 10 Credit Risk - Capital

11 11 Credit Risk – On Balance Sheet Credit Risk Adjusted On Balance Sheet Assets w i = Risk Weight of Asset a i = Book Value of Asset on Balance Sheet

12 12 On BS Weightings – Basel I

13 13 On BS Weightings – Basel II Basel I categories too broad Standardised Approach Better differentiation of assets Introduces external credit rating (S&P) Improves Risk Sensitivity

14 14 On BS Weightings – Basel II

15 15 Credit Risk – Off Balance Sheet Contingent, not actual claims Not Face Value, but an amount equivalent to an eventual on-balance-sheet credit risk -Convert to Credit Equivalent Amount (CEA) -Conversion Factors Guaranty Contracts Basel II introduces Derivative Contracts

16 16 Off BS – Guaranty Contracts Face Value * Conversion Factor = CEA CEA * Risk Weight = Risk Adjusted Value

17 17 Off BS Conversion Factors

18 18 Guaranty Contracts - Basel II Unused portion of loan commitments with original maturity of one year or less will be 20%. (Previously 0%) Uses the Basel II assigned credit risk weights

19 19 Derivative Contracts - Basel II FI is exposed to “Counterparty Credit Risk” Distinction between Exchange Traded and Over-the-Counter contracts Credit Risk of Exchange-Traded Derivatives is ~zero OTC Contract Credit Risk in two element Potential Exposure / Current Exposure

20 20 CEA for Derivative Contract Potential ($) + Current ($) = CEA CEA * Risk Weight = Risk Adjusted Value Current Exposure, if Replacement Value is –ve, then zero. If +ve, then use that value Conversion for Potential Exposure Remaining Maturity Interest Rate Contracts Exchange Rate Contracts Less than one year 01.0% One to five years 0.5%5.0% Over five years 1.5%7.5%

21 21 Credit Risk – Risk Based Ratio

22 22 IRB Approach Banks’ internal assessment Some risk weights and formulas still given Covers a range of portfolios with different exposures. -Corporate, Bank and Sovereign Exposures -Retail Exposure -Specialized Lending -Equity Exposures

23 23 IRB – Data Inputs Probability of Default (PD) Loss Given Default Exposure at Default Maturity Provided by bank based on own estimates Supervisory values set by the Committee Foundation IRB – Use BIS values (except PD) Advanced IRB – Use own estimates

24 24 IRB – Implementation Relies on internally generated inputs Still a minimum standard to ensure comparability across banks Requires bank have strong control environment and process to collect data

25 25 Securitization absorb losses on the underlying pool exposure

26 26 Treatment of the securitisation exposures : recognition of risk transfer K IRB : capital required on underlying pool had it not securitised

27 27 Rating based approach External RatingBase risk weight AAA12% AA15% A20% BBB+50% BBB75% BBB-100% BB+250% BB425% BB-650% < BB- & unratedDeduction

28 28 Supervisory Formula Approach

29 29 Inputs for the Supervisory formula Credit enhancement level (L) Degree of the exposure (T) Capital requirement for the underlying assets ( K IRB )

30 30 Operational Risk (Def) risk of loss from inadequate or failed ‧ internal processes ‧ internal processes ‧ people ‧ people ‧ systems ‧ systems ‧ external events ‧ external events Basic Indicator Approach Standardised Approach Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) (more risk sensitive FI’s) Internal Measurement Approach (IMA) Loss Distribution Approach (LDA) Scorecard Approach (SA)

31 31 Basic Indicator Approach Operational capital =  * I  =0.15  =0.15 I = Gross income (Avg. over the previous 3 years) I = Gross income (Avg. over the previous 3 years) Standardized Approach Proxy for risk exposure (scale of business operation) Operational capital =   i * I i i=1,2,…,8 (business lines) i=1,2,…,8 (business lines)  i = supervisory factor, ranging from 12~18%  i = supervisory factor, ranging from 12~18% I i = exposure indicator I i = exposure indicator

32 32 Business lines (Standardised Approach) Business units Business lines Factors Investment Banking Corporate Finance β1β1β1β1 Trading and Sales β2β2β2β2 Banking Retail Banking β3β3β3β3 Commercial Banking β4β4β4β4 Payment and Settlement β5β5β5β5 Agency Services and Custody β6β6β6β6 Others Retail Brokerage β7β7β7β7 Asset Management β8β8β8β8

33 33 Recent modification after QIS3 QIS3 (Quantitative Impact Study 3) : QIS3 (Quantitative Impact Study 3) : – the most recent quantitative exercise – the most recent quantitative exercise – conducted in 2002 – conducted in 2002 – gather information from banks of varying size – gather information from banks of varying size from more than 40 countries from more than 40 countries on the impact of Basel proposals on the impact of Basel proposals on their existing portfolios on their existing portfolios

34 34 Modification to the Pillar One 1.Recognition of provisions (for IRB) ‧ provision(P)= general provision + specific provision ‧ provision(P)= general provision + specific provision ‧ expected loss(EL)= 12.5*PD*LGD(%)*EAD ‧ expected loss(EL)= 12.5*PD*LGD(%)*EAD (1) general provisions will be removed from the numerator (1) general provisions will be removed from the numerator (2) Let k = EL – P (2) Let k = EL – P If k<0 (provision shortfall) If k<0 (provision shortfall) 0.5*|k| deducted from Tier 1 capital, 0.5*|k| deducted from Tier 2 capital 0.5*|k| deducted from Tier 1 capital, 0.5*|k| deducted from Tier 2 capital If k>0 (provision excess) If k>0 (provision excess) amount of k added to Tier 2 capital amount of k added to Tier 2 capital (up to a limit of 0-6% of the risk-weighted assets at national discretion) (up to a limit of 0-6% of the risk-weighted assets at national discretion)

35 Each year, recognize Loan Loss Provision ( 提列壞帳損失 ) and Allowances for Loan Loss ( 備抵壞帳, same as Loan Loss Reserve 壞帳準備 ) on a accrual basis. Each year, recognize Loan Loss Provision ( 提列壞帳損失 ) and Allowances for Loan Loss ( 備抵壞帳, same as Loan Loss Reserve 壞帳準備 ) on a accrual basis. Loan loss expenseXXX Loan loss expenseXXX Allowances for Loan Loss XXX When actual loan loss occurs Allowances for Loan Loss XXX LoanXXX Expense Reduction of net loan asset

36 36 Recent modification after QIS3 2. Recognition of provisions (for standardized) -different risk weights for past due loans with -different risk weights for past due loans with specific provision specific provision(Ex) Specific provision level of the past due loan Risk weight ≧ 20% 100% none150%

37 37 Recent modification after QIS3 3. Operational risk: partial adoption of AMA - Advanced Measurement Approach is required for large international banks and banks with significant risk exposures - Advanced Measurement Approach is required for large international banks and banks with significant risk exposures - allowed partial adoption: partially AMA, partially basic indicator approach or standardized approach - allowed partial adoption: partially AMA, partially basic indicator approach or standardized approach

38 38 Recent modification after QIS3 4. Operational risk: risk reduced by insurance (for AMA) - recognition of insurance as risk mitigant : insurance amount deducted from capital requirement (up to 20% of total operational risk capital requirement ) insurance amount deducted from capital requirement (up to 20% of total operational risk capital requirement )

39 39 Pillar 2 : Supervisory review Guiding Principals - For Banks : assess their capital adequacy positions relative to their overall risks. relative to their overall risks. -For Supervisors : review and take appropriate actions in response to those assessments. in response to those assessments.

40 40 Principle 1: Banks should have a process for assessing their overall capital adequacy in relation to their risk profile and a strategy for maintaining their capital levels. Principle 2: Supervisors should review and evaluate banks’ internal capital adequacy assessments and strategies, as well as their ability to monitor and ensure their compliance with regulatory capital ratios. Supervisors should take appropriate supervisory action if they are not satisfied with the result of this process.

41 41 Principle 3: Supervisors should expect banks to operate above the minimum regulatory capital ratios and should have the ability to require banks to hold capital in excess of the minimum. Principle 4: Supervisors should seek to intervene at an early stage to prevent capital from falling below the minimum levels required to support the risk characteristics of a particular bank and should require rapid remedial action if capital is not maintained or restored.

42 42 Update of Pillar 2 Update of Pillar 2 -stress testing Estimate the extent to which the IRB capital requirements Estimate the extent to which the IRB capital requirements could increase during a stress scenario. could increase during a stress scenario. -banks’ review of concentration risks and the treatment of residual risks that arise from the use of collateral, of residual risks that arise from the use of collateral, guarantees and credit derivatives. guarantees and credit derivatives.

43 43 Pillar 3 : Market discipline Purpose -Complement the minimum capital requirements of Pillar 1 and the supervisory review process addressed in Pillar 2. and the supervisory review process addressed in Pillar 2. Disclosures requirements -allow market participants to assess key information about a bank’s risk profile and level of capitalization. bank’s risk profile and level of capitalization.

44 44 Table : Disclosures in the New Accord SubjectTypeLocation in Supporting Document Scope of ApplicationStrong recommendationsPillar 3 CapitalStrong recommendationsPillar 3 Credit Risk-generalStrong recommendationsPillar 3 Credit Risk-Standardised Approach Requirements and strong recommendations Pillar 3 Credit Risk Mitigation Techniques Requirements and strong recommendations Pillar 3 Credit Risk-IRB ApproachesRequirementsPillar 3 Market RiskStrong recommendationsPillar 3 Operational RiskStrong recommendations and, in future, requirements Pillar 3 Interest Rate Risk in the Banking Book Strong recommendationsPillar 3 Capital AdequacyStrong recommendationsPillar 3 Asset SecuritizationRequirementsAsset Securitization ECAI RecognitionRequirementsStandardized Approach Supervisory TransparencyStrong recommendationsStandardized Approach and Pillar 2

45 45 Dialogue with market participants and supervisors supervisors - avoid potentially flooding the market with information that would be hard to use in understanding a bank’s actual risk profile. - avoid potentially flooding the market with information that would be hard to use in understanding a bank’s actual risk profile. Align with national accounting standards

46 46 Implementation of New Accord Transition to New Accord -Committee members within the G10 -Committee members within the G10 Implementation date for New Accord of year-end Implementation date for New Accord of year-end outside the G10 -outside the G10 *The minimum capital requirements will be implemented after year-end *The minimum capital requirements will be implemented after year-end *The first priority is implementing key elements of the supervisory review and market discipline components of the New Accord. *The first priority is implementing key elements of the supervisory review and market discipline components of the New Accord.

47 47 Forward looking aspects -AIG (the Accord Implementation Group) -AIG (the Accord Implementation Group) for national supervisors to exchange information on for national supervisors to exchange information on the practical implementation challenges of Basel 2 and the practical implementation challenges of Basel 2 and on the strategies they are using to address these issues. on the strategies they are using to address these issues. -CTF (Committee’s Capital Force) -CTF (Committee’s Capital Force) responsible for considering substantive modifications responsible for considering substantive modifications to and interpretations of the New Accord. to and interpretations of the New Accord.

48 48 -reconciling any major unintended inconsistencies in the treatment of similar exposures. treatment of similar exposures. -close any loopholes and unintended effects of the new framework. framework. -banks adopting the more advanced approaches to risk assessment will be required to run them in parallel with the assessment will be required to run them in parallel with the existing Accord for 1 year prior to the implementation of Basel II. existing Accord for 1 year prior to the implementation of Basel II.

49 49 Cross-border implementations -enhance cooperation between supervisors on a practical -enhance cooperation between supervisors on a practical basis. basis. -supervisors should avoid performing uncoordinated approval -supervisors should avoid performing uncoordinated approval and validation work in order to reduce the implementation and validation work in order to reduce the implementation burden for banks. burden for banks. -the legal responsibilities of supervisors for the regulation of -the legal responsibilities of supervisors for the regulation of their domestic banking organizations and the arrangements their domestic banking organizations and the arrangements of consolidated supervision will not change. of consolidated supervision will not change. -mutual recognition -mutual recognition

50 50 Conclusion Capital adequacy -capital requirement -capital requirement Basel I to Basel II Pillar1 : minimum capital requirements - Credit Risk - Credit Risk *On BS & Off BS *On BS & Off BS *IRB APPROACH *IRB APPROACH *Securitization *Securitization *Rating based approach *Rating based approach *Supervisory Formula Approach *Supervisory Formula Approach

51 51 -Market Risk -Market Risk *Standardised Method *Standardised Method *Internal Models *Internal Models -Operational Risk -Operational Risk *Basic Indicator Approach *Basic Indicator Approach *Standardized Approach *Standardized Approach -Recent modification after QIS3 -Recent modification after QIS3 Pillar2 : Supervisory review Pillar3 : Market discipline Implementation of New Accord


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