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81 BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS by Don L. F. Nilsen.

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Presentation on theme: "81 BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS by Don L. F. Nilsen."— Presentation transcript:

1 81 BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS by Don L. F. Nilsen

2 82 LIN 516 CARDS Your name (first name first) LIN 516 Fall, 2009 Local address & zip Permanent Address & zip Non-ASU Languages you’ve studied 1 st six years of life: State or Country Tentative title of research paper (see next slide)

3 83 LIN 516 Research Paper Must Deal with Sophisticated Discourse Allusion Communicative Competence Conversational Implicatures Double Entendre Epiphany Ethnic Differences Formality Differences Gender Differences Hyperbole Humor Interactional Sociolinguistics Intertextuality Irony Jargon Lexical Packing Language Acquisition Linguistic Relativity Metaphor Metonymy Naming of Persons, Places or Things Paradox Parody Prose Styles Prototype Theory Regional Differences Rhetorical Devices (Schemes & Tropes) Satire Signifying Speech Acts Symbolism Synecdoche VARIES model

4 84 Some Research-Paper Guidelines The The Impotence of Proofreading (Taylor Mali): Victor Borge Phonetic Punctuation

5 85 WORD-ATTACK SKILLS: Analysis vs. Synthesis: Parsing vs. Generative Grammar Denotation vs. Connotation: Pro-Choice vs. Pro-Life views of “abortion” Systematic vs. Accidental Gaps: “schplick” vs. “blick”

6 86 LEVELS OF ADEQUACY: Prescriptive Adequacy: What people should do Descriptive Adequacy: What people do do Explanatory Adequacy: Patterns, Trends, and Predictions Evaluative Adequacy: Based on Elegance Simplicity Completeness Internal Consistency Generative Power

7 87 SURFACE STRUCTURE: SyntaxAllotagTagmeme MorphologyAllomorphMorpheme GraphologyAllographGrapheme PhonologyAllophonePhoneme

8 88 DEEP STRUCTURE: PragmaticsAllobehaviorBehavioreme Pragmatics (Context, Deictics, Anaphora, Speech Acts, Conversational Implicatures, Intent, Felicity Conditions) SemanticsAllosemeSememe

9 89 !LANGUAGE VARIATION SPEAKING, PARLANT, VARIES: V-Vocational Differences A-Age Differences Individual Language R-Regional Differences I-Informality Differences E-Ethnic Differences S-Sex Differences

10 810 !!FORM-MEANING CORRELATION CONTRAST SOUNDS, SPELLINGS AND MEANINGS: Antonyms: tall vs. short Converses: buy vs. sell Cognates: embarrassed vs. embarazada Heteronyms: minute vs. minute Homographs: bank vs. bank Homonyms: Homographs or Homophones Homophones: too vs. two vs. to Hyponyms: metaphor vs. metaphor Synonyms: big vs. large

11 811 !!!WORD-LEVEL VS. SENTENCE-LEVEL GRAMMAR LEXICAL:SYNTACTIC: AMBIGUITY:Take your pick!Call me a taxi! ANOMALY:She wanted a gnepf. John me cow a gave. PARAPHRASE: William hit a policeman.Bill hit John. vs. Bill slugged a cop. vs. John was hit by Bill.

12 812 References: Clark, Virginia P., Paul A. Eschholz, and Alfred F. Rosa, eds. Language: Readings in Language and Culture, 6 th Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, Eschholz, Paul, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark, eds. Language Awareness: Readings for College Writers, 10 th Edition. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins, Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language, 8 th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, Mey, Jacob. Pragmatics: An Introduction, 2 nd Edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.


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