Presentation on theme: "INDIRECT STATEMENT Understanding the SEQUENCE of TENSES."— Presentation transcript:
INDIRECT STATEMENT Understanding the SEQUENCE of TENSES
Indirect Statement review Reports in an indirect way (i.e. no quotes) what someone has said, thought, felt, etc. Often used after verbs of: Speech Dico, dicere, dixi, dictus Inquit Affirmo, are, avi, atus Refero, referre, retuli, relatus Mental activity Puto, are, avi, atus Cognosco, ere, cognovi, cognitus Sense perception Audio, ire, ivi, itus Video, - ē re, vidi, visus Sentio, sentire, sensi, sensus
How it looks in Latin… Verb of speech, mental activity, or sense perception + Subject accusative Infinitive Domitianus dicit pueros bene discere. Domitian says that the boys learn well. Ego puto Romanos vincere. I think that the Romans are winning. Polla audit Helvidium necatum esse Polla hears that Helvidius has been killed.
Types of Infinitives You average verb has SIX infinitive forms: Present Active putareten ē reagereaud ī re Present Passive putar ī ten ē reag ī aud ī r ī Perfect Active Putavissetenuisseegisseaudivisse Perfect Passive Putatum essetentum esseactum esseauditum esse Future Active Putaturum esse tenturum esseacturum esseauditurum esse Future Passive Putatum iritentum iriactum iriauditum iri
Cont. The present and perfect active and passive are the most common, followed by the future active. The future passive infinitive is VERY rare. We won’t talk about it much more than that.
Infinitive patterns Present active End in -re Present passive End in - ī Perfect active Perfect active stem (3 rd principal part) + isse ONE WORD Perfect passive Perfect passive stem (4 th principal part) + esse TWO WORDS Future active Perfect passive stem + urus, a, um + esse TWO WORDS
Tense of Infinitives This is the tricky part: Present infinitives express an action that happens AT THE SAME TIME as the MAIN verb. nuntius dicit Romanos vincere. The messenger says that the Romans are winning. Perfect infinitives express an action that happened BEFORE the main verb nuntius dicit Romanos vicisse. The messenger says that the Romans have won. Future infinitives express action that WILL HAPPEN AFTER the action of the main verb. nuntius dicit Romanos victuros esse. The messenger says that the Romans will win.
Cont. That’s not too bad. But there’s more… We have only been looking at the MAIN VERB in the present tense, but it could also be in other tenses, too… Nuntius dixit Romanos vincere. The messenger said that the Romans were winning. Nuntius dixit Romanos vicisse The messenger said that the Romans had won. Nuntius dixit Romanos victuros esse The messenger said that the Romans would win.
Sequence of tenses Notice that the RELATIONSHIP between the verb and infinitive in both sets of sentences is the same: nuntius dicit Romanos vincere. The messenger says that the Romans are winning. Nuntius dixit Romanos vincere. The messenger said that the Romans were winning. In each example the winning is occurring at the same time that the messenger is speaking. This is because the infinitive used preserves the original, direct statement.
Meet Steve and the messenger Hic est Steve. “Romani vincunt.” Nuntius dixit Romanos vincereNuntius dicit Romanos vincere Notice that the original statement, “The Romans are winning (at the moment I am saying this) is the same…whether it is the messenger says that they are…or the messenger said that they were…
Tips This takes practice to get straight Luckily, there are TONS of examples in your packet to help you get the hang of it :) Let’s try some now… Milites dixerunt hostes recessisse. The soldiers say that the enemy has withdrawn. The soldiers said that the enemy was withdrawing The soldiers said that the enemy had withdrawn. The soldiers say that the enemy withdrew.
How to Translate an Indirect Statement Memorize the chart below to assist you in translating an indirect statement.