Presentation on theme: "Mandy Sanghera. Honour violence is a form of violence against women committed with the motive of protecting or regaining the honour of the perpetrator,"— Presentation transcript:
Honour violence is a form of violence against women committed with the motive of protecting or regaining the honour of the perpetrator, family, or community 2
While victims of honour violence are often female, males may also be targeted by this kind of oppression and violence for a number of reasons: Actual or perceived homosexuality Dating outside of the cultural community Resisting an arranged marriage 3
Victims of honour violence are targeted because their actual or perceived behaviour is deemed by their family or community to be shameful or to violate cultural or religious norms. Honour violence can take many forms, including verbal/emotional abuse, threats, stalking, harassment, false imprisonment, physical violence, sexual abuse, and homicide. 4
A forced marriage occurs when an individual is forced, coerced, threatened, or tricked to marry without her informed consent. A marriage conducted without the valid consent of one or both parties and where duress is a factor. The DIFFERENCE between ‘arranged’ and ‘forced’ An ‘arranged marriage’ is one where parents or other relatives would have chosen the person they are to be with, but both individuals involved have the final say and CAN SAY NO to the suitors they are presented with. Forced marriage is an abuse of human rights. 5
Physical abuse. Sexual abuse. Emotional / Psychological abuse. Financial / material abuse. Discriminatory. Institutional. Neglect and acts of omission. Over-medicated. Forced marriage
Who might be forced to marry? There is no ‘typical’ picture of a person forced to marry 82% female/18% male (reported to FMU) Majority reported to date in UK involve South Asian families There have been cases involving East Asian, Middle Eastern, European, African and Gypsy and Traveller communities. People with learning and/or physical disabilities or mental health difficulties
Where do forced marriages take place? Some take place in the UK in registry offices or places of worship, some involve no overseas element, others involve a person coming from overseas Others take place abroad Reports of engagements and marriages taking place over the telephone
2012: FMU gave advice or support to almost 1500 cases related to possible forced marriage. Oldest victim was 71; youngest was 2. 13% of calls involved victims below 15 yrs. 22% involved victims aged 49% involved victims aged 8% involved victims aged % involved female victims and 18% involved male victims. 114 instances involving those with disabilities and cases are almost equal 48% Male and 52% female 22 instances involved victims who identified as LGBT 9
Problems encountered Fear Isolation No trusted person to talk to Might not speak English Might have communication impairment Might not understand what is happening May not know who to contact
Motivators for a person with learning disabilities Same as previous plus: Obtaining a carer for the person with learning disability Obtaining physical assistance for ageing parents Believing marriage will cure disability Belief that marriage is a rite of passage for all young people Obtain financial security for the person with learning disability Mistrust of the ‘system’ Fear young siblings will be seen as ‘undesirable’ Obtaining financial reward (eg Reading case) Marriage seen as ‘right’ and/or ‘only’ option
Grooming Honour violence Jinn/ Juju – Witchcraft Additional cultural factors which could motivate a vulnerable adult
EducationHealth Police Involvement Family History Employment 13 Truancy or extended absence Withdrawn from school Surveillance by siblings Prevented from going to higher education Not allowed to work Confiscation of wages/income Accompanied to/from work Siblings forced to marry Death of a parent Family disputes Running away from home “House arrest” Self harm or attempted suicide Eating disorders Depression Isolation Accompanied to doctor’s Victim reported missing by family Reports of DV Threats to kill Victim reported for offences
Warning signs Person with learning disability talking about marriage, jewellery, wedding clothes Family member raising concerns that a relative may be/has been forced into marriage or informing a professional that their relative is to be married Family member asking front line professional to sign a passport application form or visa immigration form Being taken away from the school or day centre/out of the country without explanation. Change in emotional/behavioural presentation, e.g. becoming anxious, depressed, frightened and emotionally withdrawn or exhibiting joy/excitement.
May only have one chance to speak to the person threatened with forced marriage/already married - may only have one chance to protect or even prevent death. ADSS have agreed that local authorities will do well being checks and mental capacity assessments
“One chance rule” take it seriously, make it your problem Ensure Confidentiality – including electronic data systems Follow multi-agency Safeguarding Board Procedures Establish contact arrangements Always think – is this child at risk? If so, ACT
Concern around cultural sensitivity Lack of understanding and awareness of issue and risk Underground issue - reluctance of victims to come forward Confidentiality & resourcefulness of perpetrators Complexity - requires a multi-agency response International dimension - unsure how to react The Children’s Act required to fix problems through family, leads to mediation Risks to victims does not end.
Forced Marriage offence Maximum penalty on conviction on indictment will imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years and/or a fine. Maximum penalty on summary conviction will be imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months imprisonment and/or a fine. FMPO breach Maximum penalty on conviction on indictment will imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years and/or a fine. Maximum penalty on summary conviction will be imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months imprisonment and/or a fine. Future for Victims....
Although forcing someone into a marriage and/or luring someone overseas for the purpose of marriage will become a criminal offence – the civil route and the use of FMPOs will still be available and can be used as an alternative to entering the Criminal Justice System. It may be the case that perpetrators will automatically be prosecuted if it is overwhelmingly in the public interest to do so, however, victims should be able to choose how they want to be assisted.
All procedures which involve the partial or total removal of the external genitalia or injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons The World Health Organisation
Type 1 - removal of the clitoral hood with or without the removal of the clitoris Type 2 - removal of the clitoris and partial or total removal of the vaginal lips Type 3 - removal of the clitoris, vaginal lips and the stitching of the vagina, leaving a 1-2cm opening Type 4 - piercing the clitoris, cauterisation, cutting the vagina, inserting corrosive substances
2 million girls around the world every year are mutilated Mainly African and Middle Eastern countries and alarmingly now in the immigrant population of Europe, America and Australia It is estimated that as many as 6500 girls are at risk of FGM within the UK every year Any girl is at risk – usually between 4-14
28 practising countries in particular Somalia – 98% Sierra Leone – 90% Ethiopia - 90% Sudan – 91% In Middle East – Egypt – 97%
Religion is NOT a basis for FGM Cultural identity – A tribal initiation into adulthood Gender Identity – Moving from girl to woman – enhancing femininity Sexual control – believed to reduce the woman’s desire for sex and therefore the possibility of sex outside marriage Hygiene/cleanliness – unmutilated women are regarded as unclean and not allowed to handle food or water
Haemorrhage Severe pain & shock Urine retention Infection including tetanus & HIV Injury to adjacent tissue Fracture or dislocation to limbs as a result of restraint
Long-Term Difficulty with passing urine & chronic urinary tract infections which can lead to renal problems or renal failure Difficulties with menstruation Acute & chronic pelvic infections which can lead to infertility Sexual dysfunction/Psychological/Flashbacks Complications during pregnancy Chronic scar formations
“ Female Genital Mutilation is a fundamental human rights issue with adverse health and social implications… (it) violates the rights of girls and women to bodily integrity and results in perpetuating gender inequality” UK All Parliamentary Group on Population Development and Reproductive Health (2000 )
Summer is for Fun……Not for Pain The school summer holidays are a time when it is known that girls are taken out of the country to undergo FGM Report any concerns. Child protection is everyone’s responsibility FGM is a serious crime and can be fatal
The family come from a community that is known to practise FGM Parents state they will take the child out of the country for a prolonged period A child may talk about a long holiday to a country where the practice is prevalent A child may confide that she is to have a “special procedure” or celebration
A child may spend long periods of time away from the classroom during the day with bladder or menstrual problems Prolonged absences from School plus a noticeable behaviour change The child requiring to be excused from physical exercise without the support of their GP
Any further questions? Call us: National Helpline out of hours Global Response Centre will assist on same number. Follow 31