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2 41. How much water do humans use? The answer depends on where they live and on their socioeconomic status. Under primitive conditions a person will consume three to five gallons per day for drinking and subsistence farming. In a city where water is also used for cleaning, manufacturing, and sanitation, per capita use is around 150 gallons per day. In the United States, which has among the highest water consumption rates in the world, each person uses an average of 1,340 gallons of water per day.

3 This Nigerian woman is gathering water from a local pond, which is used as a source of drinking water. But because of a Guinea worm larvae infestation, this water must be filtered to remove the water fleas that carry the parasitic larvae of the Guinea worm. Photo by E. Staub, courtesy of the CDC and The Carter Center A child collecting drinking water from a water source in a slum in Kenya.

4 42. Global circulation patterns create wet and dry climate zones, and in some regions seasonal or multi-annual climate cycles generate distinct wet and dry phases. As a result, some regions have larger freshwater endowments than others. / Wheat is irrigated in the Saudi desert with a roving sprinkler system.

5 https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/national/2013/13

6 43. Altogether developed nations generally have more water available than many countries in Africa and the Middle East. High-intensity water uses in industrialized nations include agricultural production and electric power generation, which requires large quantities of water for cooling. In the United States electric power production accounts for 39 percent of all freshwater withdrawals, although almost all of this water is immediately returned to the rivers from which it is withdrawn. Agriculture consumes much more water because irrigation increases transpiration to the atmosphere.

7 The Hungry Horse Dam in Montana. Photo: The Department of Interior

8 High-intensity water uses in industrialized nations include agricultural production High-intensity water uses in industrialized nations include agricultural production.

9 44. As of 2002, 1.1 billion people around the world (17 percent of global population) did not have access to safe drinking water and 2.6 billion people (42 percent of global population) lived without adequate sanitation. As a result, millions of people die of people die each year of each year of preventable preventable water-related water-related diseases diseases.

10 What if your drinking water came from this drainage ditch? https://waterjournalistsafrica.wordpress.com/tag/water-in-africa/

11 45. The basic geologic unit that scientists focus on to characterize an area's water supply and water quality with precision is the watershed or catchment area —an area of land that drains all streams and rainfall to a common outlet such as a bay or river delta. Photos from Google Earth

12 46.Currently 10,000 to 12,000 cubic kilometers of freshwater are available for human consumption each year worldwide. In the year 2000 humans withdrew about 4,000 km 3 from this supply. About half of the water withdrawn was consumed, meaning that it was evaporated, transpired by plants, or contaminated beyond use, and so beyond use, and so became temporarily became temporarily unavailable for unavailable for other users. other users. Gathering Water at village in the western Indian state of Gujarat.

13 47. Of the water withdrawn for human use, 65 percent went to agriculture, 10 percent to domestic use (households, municipal water systems, commercial use, and public services), 20 percent to industry (mostly electric power production), and 5 percent evaporated from reservoirs 47. Of the water withdrawn for human use, 65 percent went to agriculture, 10 percent to domestic use (households, municipal water systems, commercial use, and public services), 20 percent to industry (mostly electric power production), and 5 percent evaporated from reservoirs.

14 48. Both population levels and economic development are important drivers of world water use. During the 20th century, world population tripled but water use rose by a factor of six.


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