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Middle Childhood Chapter 7 Adapted from Arnett’s Human Development: A Cultural Approach, 1 st Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle Childhood Chapter 7 Adapted from Arnett’s Human Development: A Cultural Approach, 1 st Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle Childhood Chapter 7 Adapted from Arnett’s Human Development: A Cultural Approach, 1 st Edition

2 Guiding Questions How do children think and learn during middle childhood? What is intelligence? What common social issues affect children during middle childhood?

3 Piaget’s Contribution: The Concrete Operational Stage According to Piaget, children undergo a major shift in the way that they think when they reach middle childhood Child is able to use mental operations to organize and manipulate information mentally New abilities in conservation, classification and seriation

4 Conservation Typically understands the conservation of liquid and mass early during this stage and other forms later during this stage Can engage in decentering Can engage in reversibility

5 Classification Can classify objects mentally—not just visually

6 Seriation Ability to arrange things in a logical order, such as shortest to longest, thinnest to thickest, or lightest to darkest Can arrange things visually and mentally Transitive inference—ability to place objects in a logical order mentally

7 Issues with Piaget’s Theory Piaget may have underestimated ages Piaget focused on mastery and not basic ability Exposure to tasks and materials impacts concrete operational thought

8 Contributions from Information Processing/Memory Increased use of mnemonics Understanding of how memory works increases (metamemory)

9 Intelligence Testing Intelligence testing examines individual differences in cognitive development Most widely used test is the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

10 Intelligence Testing Intelligence is impacted by a combination of genes and environment Adoption and twin studies help to unravel the relationship Research indicates each child has a reaction range for intelligence

11 Intelligence Testing Environmental influences stronger for poor children than affluent families Median IQ scores rose in 20 th century—Flynn effect Environmental improvements include:

12 Alternate Theories of Intelligence Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences Linguistic Intelligence Logical-mathematical Intelligence Spatial Musical Bodily-kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal

13 Alternate Theories of Intelligence Sternberg’s theory focused on three distinct but related forms of intelligence _________________________—what most IQ tests measure _________________________—combine information in new ways _____________________________—apply information to everyday problems

14 Emotional Being in Middle Childhood High emotional well-being Emotional self-regulation grows New contexts demand more self-control and cooperation Understanding of ambivalence Increased ability to understand others emotions

15 Self-concept is how we view and evaluate ourselves Children begin to describe themselves in more psychological or personality related terms Social comparisons also become more accurate

16 Self-esteem is a person’s overall sense of worth and well being Self-esteem declines slightly Self-concept also develops as children identify areas of life important for them Parenting based on cultural influences also impacts self-esteem

17 Independent Self Encourage reflection about self Be an independent person Interdependent Self Encourage importance of group Focus on interests of others Most cultures are not purely one or the other

18 Traditional cultures- gender roles are defined by difference in daily activities of men and women Gender specific personality traits are also socialized Men—independent and tough Women—nurturing and compliant Gender Roles and Development

19 Modern cultures—gender roles are less rigid and more flexible during middle childhood While flexibility increases, attitudes and behaviors become more stereotyped Personality traits are gender specific as in developing countries Occupations also become associated with gender

20 Play groups become more gender segregated Interactions seen in opposite gender play tend to be antagonistic or quasi romantic

21 Gender self-perceptions drive boys to avoid feminine activities Girls may add masculine traits to their self- perception and consider occupations associated with men

22 Family Life in Middle Childhood Parenting moves from direct control towards coregulation More freedom and more responsibility during this time period Sibling rivalry also peaks in middle childhood

23 Family comes in many forms 20% of gay and 33% lesbian couples were living with children Single motherhood has increased over the years Increases likelihood of growing up in poverty Family Life in Middle Childhood

24 Potential Effects of Divorce Numerous effects of divorce include Externalizing behaviors—impulsive and conflicts with family Internalizing problems—depression, anxiety, phobias, and sleep disturbances Low point occurs about one year Buffer for negative effects includes minimal parental conflict

25 Potential Effects of Divorce Family processes affected by divorce: Mother’s parenting becomes more punitive Mother and son’s relationships turn into a coercive cycle Fathers who remain involved have children with fewer post divorce problems

26 Remarriage Most stepfamilies involve entrance of stepfather Mother’s lives improve but children’s outcomes worsen Causes for negative outcomes include Disruption of family systems Perception of stepfathers interfering Children may resent stepfathers

27 Friendships Main basis for friendship is similarity Selective association—prefer being around others like ourselves Friendship can change from early childhood to middle childhood Trust becomes important and not just shared activity Shared activity becomes more complex and rule based

28 Friendships Social status becomes important ________________________—most often liked ________________________—disliked by other children Aggressive rejected—lack impulse control Aggressive withdrawn—internalize problems ________________________—neither liked nor disliked ________________________—liked by some, disliked by others, can be aggressive

29 Bullies Three components: Two general types of bullies Victims most often rejected—withdrawn children

30 Media Use Television effects Prosocial effects include self-control and altruism Effects of television impact by use or exposure Heavy use associated with poor school performance, higher anxiety, and social isolation Research supports link between television watching and aggressive behavior

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