2Cooling Concept of the Air Bearing DSR 301 Side view rheometer partTop view rheometer partRheometer head DSRAir and water cooled rheometer head fixtureAir cooled couplingHeat shieldHead mounting bracket is cooled with water from the VT2 Thermostate. The coupling agent is cooled with air, also the DSR is cooled with little nozzles on the upper side of the fixture.(Fluid circulator VT2 running at 20 °C required)Specifications DSR:Max. torque200 mNmMin. torque0.05 µNmMax. speed with FRS300 1/minNormal force range0.01 to50 N
3The Furnace : Carbolite STF 16/180 The temperature control unitWorking TubeX-Axis Movement(vertical)Temp. DisplayPower CableWork Tube is protecting the heating rods and allows a constant inert gas flow. Work tube is a spare part, is easy to change.Specifications Furnace:Max. Temperature1600°CMin. Temperature300°CInert Gase.g.: Ar, N2Specifications Control Unit:Power Connection380V, 21AHeatingPulsed CurrentConnection to DSRSerial
4Preparation and Measurement of the Sample All you have to do is…Reference position, cleaningMeasuring position by NF control, start measurementSample heating, meltingLift position (NF control)Set zero gapLift positionSample filling
5Vertical Movement Concept Reference position for cooling and cleaningPneumatic lift up to final cup positionPneumatic lift down to heating positionHeating positionMeasuring positionNormal force controlled final positioning by stepper motor driven elevating threadFurnace moved to park position
6Overall View Furnace Temperature range 300°C to 1600°C Temperature controlEurothermTotal lenght heat tube600 mmHeated lenght heat tube180 mmConstant temperature80 mmRheometer HeadDSR measuring headAir bearingTest modesRotation and oscillationSoftware controls instrument and furnaceWater measurement at 20 °CFrom very low rotating speeds up to 300 1/sRegarding the 300 mm shaft perfect concentricity and measurement results.
7Measuring Systems for high Viscosity Samples as e. g Measuring Systems for high Viscosity Samples as e.g. Glass melts, Lava, BasaltsCup:Cups for powders and bulk goods(Larger volume in a non-molten state)C-CC Cup-Conc. Cylinder xx Inner Diameter in mm AO Aluminum oxide CA CarbonFRS for FRSC-CC30/AO/FRS d(i): 30 mm, d(o): 40 mm h(i): 60 mmC-CC30/CA/FRS d(i): 30 mm, d(o): 40 mm h(i): 60 mmBob:D-CC Disposable-Conc. Cylinder xx Inner diameter in mm AO Aluminum oxide CA CarbonFRS for FRSC-CC30/CA/FRS/XLC-CC30/OA/FRS/XLd(i): 30 mm, d(o): 40 mm h(i): 80 mmC-CC30/CA/FRS/XLC-CC30/OA/FRS/XLd(i): 30 mm, d(o): 40 mm h(i): 80 mmC-CC30/CA/FRS/XLC-CC30/OA/FRS/XLd(i): 30 mm, d(o): 40 mm h(i): 80 mmD-CC11/AO/FRS d: 11.4 mm L: 30 mmD-CC11/CA/FRS d: 11.4 mm L: 30 mmD-CC15/AO/FRS d: 15 mm L: 20 mmD-CC15/CA/FRS d: 15 mm L: 20 mmOther materials and dimensions on request.
8Standard Measuring Systems for low Viscosity Samples as e. g Standard Measuring Systems for low Viscosity Samples as e.g. Metal MeltsBob:D-CC Disposable-Conc. Cylinder xx Inner cylinder diameter in mm AO Aluminum oxideCA CarboneFRS for FRSD-CC27.6/AO/FRS d: 27.6 mm L: 41.4 mmD-CC25/CA/FRS d: 25 mm L: 37.5 mmD-CC27/CA/FRS d: mm L: 40 mmD-CC27.6/CA/FRS d: 27.6 mm L: 41.4 mmD-CC29/CA/FRS d: 29 mm L: 41.4 mmOther materials and dimensions on request.
9Applications, Impressions and Standards Possible applications:metal meltsglass meltscoal ash, slagslava, basalte, rocks(Withdrawn 2009)( )
10Metal (1)The FRS is the only reasonable decision for metal melts, because of the low viscosities which canonly be measured with an air bearing rheometerPotential costumers:Universities and other research centresMetal industry:Steel and Iron (melting points: ~1510 °C and 1530 °C )Copper (melting point: 1083 °C )Silicium (melting point: 1410 °C)Cross-selling potential: CTD 600 and CTD 1000 (e.g. for Aluminium or Zinc and other lower melting materials)Until now, metal melts are measured with so called Oscillating Vessel Viscometers and Flow Cups (assuming Newtonian behaviour)
11Metal (2): Measurements Argumentation and explanation:Based on the latest scientific findings some metal and alloy melts exhibit non-Newtonian flow behaviourThis is a fundamental finding, as most theories and all measuring techniques are based on the assumption that metal and alloy melts are Newtonian liquidsUntil now this effect could not be measured with competitor instruments, as they are all based on ball bearing rheometer headsThis effect has not only an impact on academia, but also on the metal processing industry. For example during the casting process a wide spectrum of shear rates can be observed, so the exact flow curve needs to be determinedFigure: Quadruple repetition of steel measurements at 1537 °C - Please note the non-Newtonian behaviour!
12Glass (1) The FRS delivers great results measuring glasses Potential costumers:Universities and other research centresIndustry: Development of special glasses (standard glasses don’t need to be measured anymore, as their viscosity can be calculated by equations, if the exact chemical composition is known)
13Glass (2): Measurements Argumentation and explanation:Glass is a Newtonian liquidThe viscosities at different temperatures are from interestedGlass standards are available to conform the validity of the measurementsThe FRS can measure glass according to the following standards:ASTM C1276 (withdrawn)ASTM C965With the FRS one can determine the following additional parameters:Crystallisation pointMelting pointFigure: Viscosity curve of two different glasses during cooling
14Slags and coal ash (1)The FRS can be used to measure slags and coal ash to determine their properties for their further processingPotential costumers:Universities and other research centresIndustry:Slag:By-product of the iron und steel productionRange of application: Additives for cement, street building, glass industry, brigs, fire proved materials, isolation materials….Coal Ash:By-product of coal combustion (e.g. for Power generation or other industrial applications)Range of application: e.g. Alternative to cement, usage in brigs, asphalt, flow able film shingles – building material for monuments (e.g. freedom tower NY-city)….
15Slags an coal ash (2): Measurements Argumentation and explanation:Good and reliable results for slag and coal ashSlag or coal ash is sometimes “splashing” and “bubbling” – the advantage of our instrument is that we are operating in a working tube as protection for the heating elementsThe working tube also protects the heating elements from corrosive gases released by the sample, that may cause severe damageFigure: Viscosity curve of coal ash at 1400 °C
16Conclusion and features (1) High safety, reliability and quality (of the instrument and the results)Large shear rate range because of the air bearingNormal force control: Sample shrinkage or expansion is recognized and measured by the normal force sensor. With this function the melting point can be determinedToolmaster: DSR employs ToolmasterTM functionality.Oscillation measurements are possibleMeasurement of non-Newtonian material down to very low viscosities possibleOperation in a working tube – to handle even splashing and bubbling materials
17Conclusion and features (2) Easy and safe handling (CE certified)Measurement according to the following standards:ASTM C1276 (withdrawn)ASTM C965Disposable measuring systems (for saving time -> no cleaning is required and for solidification experiments)Temperature sensor / Temperature calibration: The FRS comes with a factory temperature calibration. The instrument sets the furnace temperature according to the calibration. The software displays the sample temperatureAGC coefficient: The length change due to temperature of the measuring system is automatically compensated by the AGC function
18How to sell an FRS?Look out for potential costumers (according to the applications mentioned before) in your regionAddress them before their budget runLook for information material like application reports in the extranet or ask for reference measurements and additional information. We are constantly adding new application reports and marketing materialTry to influence tenders according to our features and strengths and prepare yourself with arguments to explain the price differences to the competitorsDemos, installations and the costumer support is handled in teamwork with Graz (Peter Brandes and Elke Riedl)Please update us about your FRS opportunities and give us your and the costumers feedback about the FRS. Your opinion and your information are very valuable for us
19ChancesOne FRS project generates the turnover of two to three MCR projectsIf the customer is really interested there is a good chance to sell a FRSThe FRS ensures safe operation and high quality (also in comparison to the competitors, a list will be handed out to all participants)You will get all the support you need from Graz – together we can win more projectsOur team here in Graz is going to build up collaborations and further application knowledge in the high temperature rheometry area – be part of it!