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D-DAY D-DAY OPERATION OVERLORD: THE ALLIED INVASION OF NORTHWESTERN EUROPE JUNE, 1944.

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Presentation on theme: "D-DAY D-DAY OPERATION OVERLORD: THE ALLIED INVASION OF NORTHWESTERN EUROPE JUNE, 1944."— Presentation transcript:

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2 D-DAY D-DAY OPERATION OVERLORD: THE ALLIED INVASION OF NORTHWESTERN EUROPE JUNE, 1944

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4 PLANNING FOR “D-DAY” PLANNING FOR “D-DAY” LATE 1943-EARLY ‘44: LATE 1943-EARLY ‘44: –ALLIED LEADERS HAVE DECIDED TO BEGIN PREPARATIONS FOR AN INVASION OF N.W. EUROPE –ALLIED LAND, AIR, & NAVAL UNITS ARE MOVED TO ENGLAND FOR TRAINING –SO WHAT? UNITS ARE WITHDRAWN FROM OTHER OPERATIONAL AREAS UNITS ARE WITHDRAWN FROM OTHER OPERATIONAL AREAS EX: ITALY & N. AFRICA EX: ITALY & N. AFRICA –WHY? MANY OF THEM HAVE COMBAT EXPERIENCE AGAINST GERMANS MANY OF THEM HAVE COMBAT EXPERIENCE AGAINST GERMANS MANY ARE FAMILIAR W/ AMPHIBIOUS TACTICS MANY ARE FAMILIAR W/ AMPHIBIOUS TACTICS RESULT? RESULT? –MASSIVE TROOP INCREASE IN ENGLAND –GERMANS ARE ALERTED TO COMING INVASION

5 PLANNING FOR D-DAY PLANNING FOR D-DAY PROBLEM: PROBLEM: –GERMANS KNOW ALLIED INVASION WILL BE ACROSS THE ENGLISH CHANNEL –QUESTION? WHERE WILL THE INVASION LAND HITLER: CONVINCED INVASION WILL BE AT NARROWEST POINT ACROSS THE CHANNEL (the “Pas de Calais”) HITLER: CONVINCED INVASION WILL BE AT NARROWEST POINT ACROSS THE CHANNEL (the “Pas de Calais”) RESULT? RESULT? –HITLER WON’T ALLOW REINFORCEMENTS MOVED INTO NORMANDY –ANY TROOP MOVEMENT MUST HAVE HIS PERSONAL APPROVAL –RESULT? GERMAN TROOP NUMBERS IN NORMANDY ARE NOT AS STRONG AS POSSIBLE

6 OPERATION OVERLORD OPERATION OVERLORD JUNE 6, 1944 JUNE 6, 1944 GOAL: GOAL: –ALLIED INVASION OF NORTHERN EUROPE –MASSIVE AMPHIBIOUS & AIRBORNE INVASION –TO ESTABLISH AN ALLIED ”BEACHHEAD” IN N. FRANCE WHO? ALLIES (156,000 TROOPS, 4,000 LANDING CRAFT, 6000 SHIPS, 11,000 PLANES) WHO? ALLIES (156,000 TROOPS, 4,000 LANDING CRAFT, 6000 SHIPS, 11,000 PLANES) –U.S.: U.S. ARMY: AIRBORNE, AIR CORPS, INFANTRY, RANGERS U.S. ARMY: AIRBORNE, AIR CORPS, INFANTRY, RANGERS U.S. NAVY U.S. NAVY U.S. COAST GUARD U.S. COAST GUARD –BRITS.: ARMY: AIRBORNE, INFANTRY ARMY: AIRBORNE, INFANTRY R.A.F. R.A.F. ROYAL NAVY ROYAL NAVY –CANADIANS: INFANTRY –FREE FRENCH: INFANTRY, NAVY WHERE? NORMANDY BEACHES, FRANCE WHERE? NORMANDY BEACHES, FRANCE GERMANS EXPECTED ATTACK TO ARRIVE IN DIFFERENT PART OF FRANCE GERMANS EXPECTED ATTACK TO ARRIVE IN DIFFERENT PART OF FRANCE WHY? WHY? –GEORGE S. PATTON USED AS “DECOY” –HITLER WOULD NOT ALLOW REINFORCEMENTS MOVED TO NORMANDY

7 HITLER’s ATLANTIC WALL, 1944

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10 ALLIED ASSAULT AREAS, NORMANDY, 1944

11 OPERATION OVERLORD OPERATION OVERLORD

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14 U.S. WAR DEPARTMENT PULBIC SERVICE POSTER, 1944

15 U.S. “DAKOTA” C-47 TRANSPORT PLANE U.S. “DAKOTA” C-47 TRANSPORT PLANE

16 DAKOTA C-47 & RE-ENACTORS, PRESENT-DAY DAKOTA C-47 & RE-ENACTORS, PRESENT-DAY

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20 U.S. AIRBORNE TROOPERS PREPARE FOR DROP, D-DAY

21 U.S. AIRBORNE DROP, NORMANDY, JUNE 6, 1944

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24 U.S. AIRBORNE DROP, ST. MERE-EGLISE, NORMANDY, JUNE 6, 1944 U.S. AIRBORNE DROP, ST. MERE-EGLISE, NORMANDY, JUNE 6, 1944

25 ST. MERE-EGLISE, NORMANDY, FRANCE, PRESENT-DAY

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28 U.S. ARMY ASSAULT AREAS, D-DAY UTAH BEACH, POINTE-DU-HOC, AND OMAHA BEACH U.S. ARMY ASSAULT AREAS, D-DAY UTAH BEACH, POINTE-DU-HOC, AND OMAHA BEACH

29 POINTE-DU-HOC, NORMANDY

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31 U.S. ARMY 2 nd RANGER BATTALION SCALING POINTE-DU-HOC CLIFFS, JUNE 6, 2014

32 U.S. ARMY RANGER TRAINING ON CLIFF- SCALING LADDER, 1944

33 U.S. ARMY 2 nd RANGERS ASSAULT POINTE-DU-HOC U.S. ARMY 2 nd RANGERS ASSAULT POINTE-DU-HOC

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37 POINTE-DU-HOC, NORMANDY, FRANCE

38 WWII GERMAN BEACH OBSTACLES, NORMANDY WWII GERMAN BEACH OBSTACLES, NORMANDY

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41 U.S. INFANTRY APPROACH OMAHA BEACH, NORMANDY JUNE 6, 1944

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49 U.S ARMY SECOND WAVE ASSAULTS OMAHA BEACH U.S ARMY SECOND WAVE ASSAULTS OMAHA BEACH

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52 BRIGADIER GENERAL THEODORE ROOSEVELT, JR. U.S. 4 th INFANTRY DIVISION, RECIPIENT – MEDAL OF HONOR

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54 CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: 4 TH INFANTRY DIV., 1 ST INFANTRY DIV., 29 TH INFANTRY DIV.

55 OPERATION OVERLORD OPERATION OVERLORD ATTACK BEGINS: ATTACK BEGINS: –NIGHT, JUNE 5-6: ALLIED AIRBORNE ASSAULT –0600, JUNE 6: ALLIED AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT ON NORMANDY BEACHES –HEAVY CASUALTIES ON BOTH SIDES: ALLIES: 4500 KIA ALLIES: 4500 KIA U.S.: 2500 KIA U.S.: 2500 KIA GERMANS: EXACT FIGURE UNKOWN; 4000 – 9000KIA GERMANS: EXACT FIGURE UNKOWN; 4000 – 9000KIA –EISENHOWER ALMOST CANCELS ATTACK GERMAN PROBLEMS: -GERMANS AT NORMANDY CALL FOR REINFORCEMENTS -HITLER CAN’T BE REACHED – REINFORCEMENTS AREN’T MOVED QUICKLY –ALLIES TAKE BEACHES – ESTABLISH BEACHHEAD, MOVE INLAND

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72 BREAKOUT FROM NORMANDY BREAKOUT FROM NORMANDY June – August, 1944: Allies slowly drive Germans form Normandy June – August, 1944: Allies slowly drive Germans form Normandy August, 1944: Allies seize Paris August, 1944: Allies seize Paris Early Fall, 1944: Allies prepare to: Early Fall, 1944: Allies prepare to: –Attack German forces in Low Countries –Move into Germany RESULT? OPERATION MARKET GARDEN WHEN? September, 1944 WHAT? MASSIVE ALLIED AIRBORNE/ARMORED ASSAULT INTO HOLLAND/N.W. GERMANY OBJECTIVE: SEIZE RHINE RIVER BRIDGES TO LAUNCH ATTACK INTO GERMANY RESULT? FAILURE – HEAVY ARIBORNE LOSSES

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75 OPERATION MARKET GARDEN, SEPTEMBER, 1944

76 OPERATION MARKET GARDEN OBJECTIVES, SEPTEMBER, 1944

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78 THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE NOV./DEC., 1944: GERMANS ARE LOSING WAR ON ALL FRONTS NOV./DEC., 1944: GERMANS ARE LOSING WAR ON ALL FRONTS –Eastern Front: Soviets rapidly advancing through Hungary and Poland towards Germany –Western Front: U.S./U.K. forces have liberated France and the Low Countries and have stopped at German border –Mediterranean Front: German forces have been reduced to small pockets in N. Italy –Scandinavia: Germans have withdrawn from Norway and pulled back into Denmark, N. Germany Germany is going to lose war, UNLESS… Germany is going to lose war, UNLESS… –They can win decisive battle, giving them time to regroup –They can convince the U.S./U.K. to agree to an armistice, separate from Russians

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81 THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE HITLER ORDERS WINTER OFFENSIVE HITLER ORDERS WINTER OFFENSIVE WHERE? THE ARDENNES REGION – FRANCE-BELGIUM- LUXEMBOURG BORDER WHERE? THE ARDENNES REGION – FRANCE-BELGIUM- LUXEMBOURG BORDER WHY THERE? WHY THERE? –U.S. FORCES THERE ARE THINLY SPREAD ON THE FRONT –U.S. FORCES THERE ARE UNDERSTRENGTH –ALLIES THINK GERMANS CAN’T LANUCH A WINTER OFFENSIVE GOALS: GOALS: –MASSIVE ARMORED/INFANTRY THRUST TO ANTWERP, BELGIUM –SPLIT ALLIED FORCES IN TWO –FORCE ANGLO-ALLIES TO SIGN AN ARMISTICE

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87 GRUPPENFUHRER JOACHIM PEIPER, COMMANDING OFFICER, 1 st S.S. PANZER REGIMENT

88 DEAD U.S. TROOPERS, MALMEDY, BELGIUM; MEN WERE EXECUTED BY PEIPER’s S.S. UNIT

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90 WAFFEN-SS TROOPER, THE ARDENNES, DECEMBER, 1944

91 NEW YORK TIMES HEADLINE, DEC., 1944 NEW YORK TIMES HEADLINE, DEC., 1944

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93 GERMAN “PANTHER” TANK, PRESENT-DAY GERMAN “PANTHER” TANK, PRESENT-DAY

94 GERMAN “KING TIGER” TANK GERMAN “KING TIGER” TANK

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99 BATTLE OF THE BULGE (cont’d.) DEC., 1944: DEC., 1944: –GERMANS LAUNCH MASSIVE ASSAULT ON U.S. FORCES –200,000+ TROOPS; 600+ ARMORED VEHICLES (TANKS, APCs, etc.) INTIAL ATTACK PUSHES U.S. BACK INTIAL ATTACK PUSHES U.S. BACK FURTHEST GERMAN PENETRATION IS approx Miles FURTHEST GERMAN PENETRATION IS approx Miles BAD WEATHER PREVENTS ALLIED AIR SUPPORT UNTIL LATE DEC./EARLY JAN. BAD WEATHER PREVENTS ALLIED AIR SUPPORT UNTIL LATE DEC./EARLY JAN. JANUARY: JANUARY: –WEATHER/VISIBILITY IMPROVES –ALLIED AIR COVER ATTACKS GERMAN SUPPLY LINES LATE JAN., 1945: GERMANS WITHDRAW LATE JAN., 1945: GERMANS WITHDRAW

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101 BATTLE OF THE BULGE (cont’d.) FINAL RESULTS: FINAL RESULTS: –GERMANS HAVE USED UP THEIR LAST SIZEABLE RESERVES –PERMANENTLY ON THE DEFENSIVE – OFFENSIVE CAMPAIGNS IMPOSSIBLE –GERMANS WITHDRAW INSIDE GERMAN BORDERS –CONQUEST OF GERMANY IS INEVITABLE CASUALTIES: CASUALTIES: –GERMANS: 67,000 – 100, 000 (approx. KIA, WIA, MIA, etc.) –U.S.: 90,000 (approx. total) KIA: 19,000; WIA: 48,000; MIA/POW: 23,000 KIA: 19,000; WIA: 48,000; MIA/POW: 23,000


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