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Drugs, man…. Drugs Recently, has this been you? Withdrawn, depressed, tired, and careless about personal grooming Hostile and uncooperative Relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "Drugs, man…. Drugs Recently, has this been you? Withdrawn, depressed, tired, and careless about personal grooming Hostile and uncooperative Relationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drugs, man…

2 Drugs Recently, has this been you? Withdrawn, depressed, tired, and careless about personal grooming Hostile and uncooperative Relationships with family members have deteriorated Hanging around with a new group of friends Irregular school attendance, slipping grades Lost interest in hobbies, sports, other favorite activities Eating and sleeping patterns changed Hard time concentrating Money been disappearing Red-rimmed eyes and runny nose without having a cold

3 Drugs These are signs your child might be using drugs—from US Dept of Education’s “Growing up Drug-free: A Parent’s Guide to Prevention” Withdrawn, depressed, tired, and careless about personal grooming Hostile and uncooperative Relationships with family members have deteriorated Hanging around with a new group of friends Irregular school attendance, slipping grades Lost interest in hobbies, sports, other favorite activities Eating and sleeping patterns changed Hard time concentrating Money been disappearing Red-rimmed eyes and runny nose without having a cold

4 Drugs Most Knowledge is Based on Rhetoric: Billions spent annually to convince people that drugs are bad.

5 Drugs Foundations of American Anti-Drug Culture Anti-hedonism Racism Alcohol-Southern/Eastern European Catholics Opiates-Chinese Marijuana-Mexicans Crack-African Americans Club Drugs-Sexually active youth Prohibition is sold with anti-crime rhetoric. Linking drugs to crime “sells” “cracking down.”

6 Drugs Most Knowledge is Based on Rhetoric Billions spent annually to convince people that drugs are bad. To feel like they are being responsible, most text writers insert negative adjectives next to references to drug use. (e.g., unfortunately, drug abuse, infested with drugs, addicted, on drugs, etc.) Media actively pursue anti-drug campaigns to satisfy “public service” requirements. Paid placement of anti-drug messages in entertainment.

7 Drugs Most Knowledge is Based on Rhetoric Federal government controls access to illegal drugs for research purposes. Federal government permits only research intended to “prove” that drugs cause harm. But FDA will not approve drugs (such as medical marijuana) unless research proves effectiveness.

8 Drugs

9 Most Knowledge is Based on Rhetoric Federal government controls access to illegal drugs for research purposes. Federal government permits only research intended to “prove” that drugs cause harm. But FDA will not approve drugs (such as medical marijuana) unless research proves effectiveness. Most of what we know about “druggies” come from hard- core users, criminals, and addicted persons (sampling on the dependent variable) Everyday Americans, politicians blame drugs for most ills.

10 Drugs Most Knowledge is Based on Rhetoric Drug epidemics are typically “manufactured” by media, police, or concerned parents

11 Drugs Drug Use, Drug Abuse, and Drug Sells are Separate Dimensions of the Drug Issue. For example, some people eat chocolate for pleasure, some binge on chocolate, and others sell chocolate. So we will treat use, abuse and sells as separate phenomena. Why do persons use drugs?

12 Drugs Drug Use, Drug Abuse, and Drug Sells are Separate Dimensions of the Drug Issue. For example, some people eat chocolate for pleasure, some binge on chocolate, and others sell chocolate. So we will treat use, abuse and sells as separate phenomena. Why do persons abuse drugs?

13 Drugs Drug Use, Drug Abuse, and Drug Sells are Separate Dimensions of the Drug Issue. For example, some people eat chocolate for pleasure, some binge on chocolate, and others sell chocolate. So we will treat use, abuse and sales as separate phenomena. Why do persons sell drugs?

14 Drugs Drug-Crime Links 1.Recreational users are not linked to crime. 2.Criminals are more likely to use drugs. 3.Addicts, a much smaller number of users, turn to low-grade crime to get more drugs. Their crimes typically follow behaviors they already had. For example: selling drugs, prostituting self, or petty theft. 4.Violence is on the business side of drugs, like during alcohol prohibition and prohibitions on gambling. Persons involved in drug business cannot turn to police to settle disputes and remedy their own criminal victimization or turn to civil court to make and enforce contracts.

15 Drugs But since so many criminals have drugs in their systems, doesn’t that indicate that drugs cause crime? No: 1.Many Americans use drugs, many people have drugs in their systems 2.We do not attempt to associate other common behaviors with crime. Criminals would have experienced these things too: Ate Fast FoodDrank ColaSmoked cigarettes Watched “WWE” Had SexRode public transit 3.Persons in crime are often un- or underemployed. Drugs are used, like other entertainment such as TV or alcohol, to help pass the time. 4.Drug use is more common in evenings and weekends when other types of misbehavior are common 5.Among criminals, criminal involvement typically precedes drug involvement 6.Criminals have greater access to drugs because the drug trade is relegated to criminal networks 7.Having and dealing drugs is a crime for which persons are arrested, placing drug users in the ranks of counted criminals. Analogous to prostitutes having had sex.

16 Drugs Damage from “War on Drugs” Ruins lives of those caught versus those who are not Intervention is racist and classist, affecting disadvantaged more Generation and perpetuation of stereotypes Increases violence surrounding drugs Breaks up some families Increases social problems for those living in poor and minority neighborhoods Weakens protections of civil liberties, especially for kids Costs billions of dollars to incarcerate the guilty (in addition to the billions spent on prevention efforts)

17 Drugs Special Case: Marijuana Not a gateway drug

18 Drugs Special Case: Marijuana Not a gateway drug Rates of use of all drugs follow availability

19 Drugs Special Case: Marijuana Not a gateway drug Rates of use of all drugs follow availability Not Dangerous

20 Drugs Special Case: Marijuana Not a gateway drug Rates of use of all drugs follow availability Not Dangerous Effects on thinking and social skills

21 Drugs

22 Special Case: Marijuana Not a gateway drug Rates of use of all drugs follow availability Not Dangerous Effects on thinking and social skills Effects on work and industriousness

23 Drugs Special Case: Marijuana Not a gateway drug Rates of use of all drugs follow availability Not Dangerous Effects on thinking and social skills Effects on work and industriousness Does not cause psychosis and amotivational personality (reversed causality)

24 Drugs Special Case: Marijuana Not a gateway drug Rates of use of all drugs follow availability Not Dangerous Effects on thinking and social skills Effects on work and industriousness Does not cause psychosis and amotivational personality (reversed causality) Drug testing is most likely to catch these users Drug Testing Programs are Ineffective and Inaccurate: Because urine testing is based on an analysis of metabolites associated with the drug in question, and because alcohol and cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine all pass through the body within hours, leaving no metabolites, marijuana is the only substance that is easily detected with urinalysis. Drugs that have a more significant impact on employment or work performance, such as alcohol and other illegal drugs, are not effectively tested for with urinalysis. Source: "Drug Testing: A Bad Investment," ACLU pamphlet on drug testing in the workforce (hereafter, "Drug Testing," pg. 13, et. al., link provided below

25 Drugs Special Case: Marijuana Use and Crime Serious Violent Crime Offending among 12 – 17 year-olds.

26 Drugs Marijuana: Trends in Annual Use

27 Drugs Marijuana Cost? Highs (good weed/exotic): dime-$15 dub bag-$25 eighth-$40 quarter-$80 half ounce-$150 ounce-$250 Pound-$3000 Mode of transfer? Smoke, eat Effects on Persons? Friendly, social, laugh, anxiety for hours Typical Users? Everyone

28 Drugs Crack: Trends in Annual Use Annual Review of Public Health Vol. 17: (Volume publication date January 1996) Crack Cocaine Abuse: An Epidemic with Many Public Health Consequences J W Cornish, and C P O'Brien

29 Drugs Crack Cost? $10/ hit Mode of transfer? Smoke Effects on Persons? Quick, intense high, fades fast Typical Users? Urban poor

30 Drugs MDMA (Ecstasy)

31 MDMA (Ecstasy): Trends in Annual Use Drugs

32 Drugs Ecstasy Cost? $40/ tablet Mode of transfer? oral Effects on Persons? In love, sensational, hours Typical Users? Partiers

33 Drugs Methamphetamine May 13, 2005 Another Epidemic!!!

34 Drugs Methamphetamine: Trends in Annual Use

35 Drugs Methamphetamines Cost? $75 Mode of transfer? Smoke, inject Effects on Persons? High energy, talkative, enhanced sexuality, weight loss, hours Typical Users? Partiers, rural, whites

36 Drugs

37 Drugs Cocaine Powder: Trends in Annual Use

38 Drugs Cocaine Cost? $300 per night Mode of transfer? snort Effects on Persons? High energy, heightened senses Typical Users? Wealthier, cosmopolitan, white

39 Drugs Amphetamines (speed): Trends in Annual Use

40 Drugs Amphetamines, Speed Cost? $20 (?) Mode of transfer? Snort Effects on Persons? Alert, hyped Typical Users? Partiers and Truck Drivers ABC News: Need for Speed Did Amphetamines Play a Role in Afghanistan Friendly Fire Incident? Dec. 20 — Preliminary court- martial proceedings begin next month against two U.S. fighter pilots involved in a tragic incident over Afghanistan that cost four lives and exposed a little-known fact about the way America fights its long-distance air wars.

41 LSD: Trends in Annual Use Drugs

42 Drugs LSD Cost? $10/hit Mode of transfer?Place on tongue Effects on Persons?Psychedelic trip Typical Users?Music Scene, dropouts Secret FBI Files On Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane Nov. 22 — The ABC7 News I-Team obtained once secret FBI files concerning San Francisco's Summer of Love. The reports show how J. Edgar Hoover and his G-men were very concerned about the effect the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane were having on America's youth. Jefferson Airplane's Grace Slick told the I- Team she had no idea the FBI was trailing her and looking into her background, including her private school days at Castilleja High in Palo Alto.FBIGrateful DeadJefferson AirplaneGrace Slick Castilleja High The files focused on both bands apparent involvement with LSD, and the potential "Internal Security" threats from the "New Left." One FBI report says that, "LSD originates from San Francisco?through a renowned rock group known as Grateful Dead."

43 Drugs Hallucinogens other than LSD: Trends in Annual Use

44 Drugs Hallucinogens Cost? Free Mode of transfer?Tea, Eat Effects on Persons?Psychedelic Typical Users?Cross-cutting

45 Sgurd

46 Heroin: Trends in Annual Use Drugs

47 Drugs Heroin Cost? $20 Mode of transfer? Sniff, smoke, or inject Effects on Persons?Life is mellow and extremely pleasant Typical Users?Urban Poor, Hopeless, Entertainers

48 Drugs Inhalants: Trends in Annual Use

49 Drugs Inhalants Cost? Cheap Mode of transfer?Inhale Effects on Persons?Loopy Typical Users?Youngsters

50 Drugs


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