2What did the Ku Klux Klan, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses have as a common intent? (A) preventing Southern black citizens from voting (B) keeping poor whites under control (C) keeping the Republican Party in power in the South (D) preventing labor unions from forming (E) preventing Southern states from rejoining the Union
3Answer: (A) preventing Southern black citizens from voting Explanation: The Ku Klux Klan terrorized blacks and Republicans throughout the South. Literacy tests were applied to blacks to prevent them from voting, as were grandfather clauses which stated that one was eligible to vote only if his grandfather could vote. All were effective means to counter the political gains made by blacks following the Civil War.
4The Compromise of 1877 (A) proved to be a huge victory for the ex-slaves and Freedmen's Bureau programs (B) awarded the presidency to Tilden, the Democratic candidate (C) marked the first time a presidential election had been disputed (D) effectively ended Reconstruction, as federal troops were withdrawn from the South and Hayes was named president (E) provided for the continued occupation of Southern states by the U.S. military
5Answer:(D) effectively ended Reconstruction, as federal troops were withdrawn from the South and Hayes was named presidentExplanation: The disputed election of 1876 provided an opportunity to end the military governance of the South and provide Republicans with the presidency. Democrat William Tilden gathered more popular votes than Republican Rutherford Hayes, but several state electoral slates were disputed. An electoral commission awarded the presidency to Hayes and federal troops left the South in what was termed the Compromise of 1877.
6Western farmers (A) usually specialized in a single cash crop such as wheat or corn because of the high cost of setting up farm operations (B) frequently used African- American sharecroppers to farm portions of their large landholdings (C) were not dependent on external forces such as the railroads and the international grain market (D) represented the U.S. dream because they needed only a few hundred dollars and a parcel of land from the government to get rich in agribusiness (E) were generally welcomed by the sheep and cattle ranchers of the west
7Answer: (A) usually specialized in a single cash crop such as wheat or corn because of the high cost of setting up farm operationsExplanation: The economic and geographic realities of the West made single cash crops the most popular choice for farmers. Unlike previous American farmers who had usually diversified their plantings, most western farmers chose one crop, usually wheat or corn.
8By the year 1876 the Indians of the Great Plains (A) rarely had effective weapons (B) had completely equal tasks for men and women (C) organized into one large and powerful tribal group (D) constituted a complicated assortment of tribes and cultures that often fought with neighboring groups (E) were very few in number compared to Indians in the eastern half of the U.S.
9Answer:(D) constituted a complicated assortment of tribes and cultures that often fought with neighboring groupsExplanation:Though confronting common challenges to their lifestyle and survival, the Plains Indians usually did not organize intertribal opposition to white settlers or the U.S. Army. In addition, neighboring tribes often could not communicate easily with one another.
10The 1875 Page Act was the first federal law restricting immigration The 1875 Page Act was the first federal law restricting immigration. Which group was effectively barred from immigrating to the U.S. with its passage? (A) Italian stonemasons (B) Chinese women (C) Irish farmers (D) Basque sheepherders (E) Russian Jews
11Answer: (B) Chinese women Explanation: The Page Act was designed to exclude "undesirable" individuals from Asia coming to America to be contract laborers, any Asian woman who would engage in prostitution, and all people considered to be convicts in their own country. In effect, it greatly reduced the number of Chinese women immigrating to the U.S. In 1882, for example, 39,579 Chinese entered the U.S., and only 136 of them were women.
12In the 1890s which of the following would most likely have advocated the abolition of child labor, better working conditions for women, one day off during the week, and the right of every worker to a living wage? (A) a member of the Grange (B) a Wall Street banker (C) a Social Gospel minister (D) a factory owner (E) a western cattle rancher
13Answer: (C) a Social Gospel minister Explanation: The leaders of the Social Gospel movement which emerged in the late 19th century attempted to apply biblical teachings to problems associated with industrialization and urbanization. Under the leadership of Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch the movement gained strengthen among liberal Protestant denominations.
14The 1916 Adamson Act, which established an eight-hour work day for railroad workers, was the first federal law that regulated the hours of workers in private companies. Which of the following 19th century labor groups supported the concept of the eight-hour work day?I. Knights of Labor II. American Federation of Labor III. National Labor Union IV. United Mine Workers (A) I, II, and III only (B) I and III only (C) II, III, and IV only (D) all of the choices (E) none of the choices
15Answer: (D) all of the choices Explanation: The eight-hour work day became a chief goal of many 19th century labor organizations. While some demanded it as early as the 1830s when 10 and 12-hour work days were much more common, it wasn't until the 1860s that local and national labor groups made it a central demand. In 1866, the National Labor Union proclaimed "The first and great necessity of the present to free labour of this country from capitalist slavery, is the passing of a law by which eight hours shall be the normal working day in all States of the American Union. We are resolved to put forth all our strength until this glorious result is achieved."While local union groups and some national unions, such as the United Mine Workers (1898) won eight-hour day fights, the Adamson Act which was ruled constitutional in Wilson v. New (1917) marked the first national legislation granting the protection to some private industrial concerns.
16All but which of the following statements are true about railroads in the last half of the 19th century? (A) the limited liability of stock purchases allowed for significant capital to be raised to help finance construction (B) a standard track gauge was adopted throughout the U.S. by the end of the 1880s (C) four U.S. time zones were applied by the railroads in 1883 to help improve railroad scheduling (D) the cost per ton-mile in freight shipping dropped between 1870 and (E) the main area of growth was in New England
17Answer: (E) the main area of growth was in New England Explanation: Even though by there were more miles of railroad track in the U.S. than any nation in the world, construction continued to expand in the last third of the 19th century. In 1870 there were 53,000 miles of rail track; in there were 167,000 miles. The main areas of growth were the South and the trans-Mississippi West.
18Which of the following was not a problem of American cities in the last decades of the 19th century? (A) corrupt city governments (B) declining tax base as residents moved to rural areas (C) lack of health support systems for the urban poor (D) sewage system breakdowns (E) overcrowded housing
19Answer: (B) declining tax base as residents moved to rural areas Explanation: The urban centers of the U.S. grew at a rapid pace at the end of the 19th century as America moved from being a rural to an urban nation. Problems, including corruption, overcrowding, the lack of adequate sewage systems, and the lack of adequate medical care for the urban poor, plagued the cities.
20Frederick Law Olmstead, who designed Central Park and the White City at Chicago's Columbian Exposition of 1893, helped inspire the City Beautiful Movement which included which of the following in its attempt to promote city planning and architectural cohesion in America's urban centers?I. broad boulevards and parkways II. zoning laws III. planned suburbs IV. modern skyscrapers V. Beaux Arts architecture(A) I, II, and IV only (B) II, III, and IV only (C) I, III, and V only (D) I, II, III, and V only (E) I and III only
21Answer: (D) I, II, III, and V only Explanation: The City Beautiful Movement helped reform American cities at the beginning of the 20th century by instituting urban planning, beautfication, and monumental architecture in the beaux-arts and neoclassical style.
22 Which American educational reformer associated with the progressive education movement wrote the following? "The actual interests of the child must be discovered if the significance and worth of his life is to be taken into account and full development achieved. Each subject must fulfill present needs of growing children The business of education is not, for the presumable usefulness of his future, to rob the child of the intrinsic joy of childhood involved in living each single day." A) Horace Mann B) Henry Adams C) Charles Eliot D) John Dewey E) Jane Addams
23Answer: D) John DeweyExplanation: John Dewey influenced American education by insisting that school was not only as a place to gain content knowledge, but also a place to learn how to live. The purpose of education should not revolve around the acquisition of a pre-determined set of skills, but the ability to use those skills for the greater good. He inissted that every lesson should be focused directly on the child.
24American cities at the end of the 19th century (A) were becoming less congested (B) resisted any attempt to improve transportation issues (C) were free of the corruption of political machines and boss politics (D) witnessed the emergence of social reformers and movements intending to improve urban life for residents (E) trailed their European counterparts in electricity usage
25Answer:(D) witnessed the emergence of social reformers and movements intending to improve urban life for residentsExplanation: The many problems of late 19th century urban life (traffic congestion, sanitation, overcrowding, political corruption of city bosses) inspired a variety of secular and religious individuals and organizations to provide aid and comfort to urban residents. Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago, a settlement house supporting the poor and immigrant population. Churches and religious organizations, including the YMCA, offered programs, meals, and housing to city residents.