Presentation on theme: "TXA in trauma patients: who should we treat and when?"— Presentation transcript:
1TXA in trauma patients: who should we treat and when?
2Tranexamic acid and bleeding Tranexamic Acid (TXA) is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine.It has a very high affinity for the lysine binding sites of plasminogen.It blocks these sites and prevents binding of plasmin to the fibrin surface, thus exerting its antifibrinolytic effect.The use of an anti-fibrinolytic agent aimed at blocking the lysine binding site such as tranexamic acid could potentially help reduce bleeding which occurs in trauma patients.
3TXA reduces bleeding in surgery (Henry et al, 2011) TXA and bleedingTXA reduces bleeding in surgery (Henry et al, 2011)TXATXA better TXA worse0.61 ( )RR (95% CI)0.40.81.21.6TransfusionTXARR (95% CI)TXA better TXA worse0.40.81.21.60.57 ( )MortalityThere is good evidence that antifibrinolytics are useful in elective surgery. A systematic review of the randomised trials of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing elective surgery identified 53 studies which included about 3800 participants.Tranexamic acid reduced the need for blood transfusion by a third. And where transfusion was needed, it reduced the amount of blood transfused by about one unit.Death is a rare event in elective surgery so although there was a trend to reduction, this was not statistically significant.65 trials (4,842 patients) 30 trials (2,917 patients)
4Does TXA reduce mortality in trauma? TXA and bleedingDoes TXA reduce mortality in trauma?Insufficient evidence to either support or refute a clinically important treatment effect.Further RCTs of tranexamic acid in trauma are needed.Because the haemostatic responses to surgery and trauma are similar, we hypothesised that antifibrinolytics might reduce bleeding in trauma patients.However, the systematic review we conducted showed that there was insufficient evidence to support or refute a clinically important effect and that further randomised controlled trials of antifibrinolytics were needed.
6The CRASH-2 trialA randomized, placebo controlled trial among trauma patients with significant hemorrhage, of the effects of tranexamic acid on death and vascular occlusive events
7CRASH-2 trial profile 20,211 randomised 10,096 allocated TXA 10,115 allocated placebo3 consent withdrawn1 consent withdrawn10,093 baseline data10,114 baseline datapatients were randomly assigned to tranexamic acid or placebo.The data from four patients were removed from the trial because their consent was withdrawn after randomisation.Primary outcome data were available for 20,127 (99·6%) randomised patients.33 lostto follow-up47 lostto follow-upFollowed up = 10,060 (99.7%)Followed up = 10,067 (99.5%)
8Baseline characteristics TXA n (%)Placebo n (%)GenderMale8,439 (83.6)8,496 (84.0)Female1,654 (16.4)1,617 (16.0)[not known]1Age (years)<252,783 (27.6)2,855 (28.2)25–343,012 (29.8)3,081 (30.5)35–441,975 (19.6)1,841 (18.2)>442,321 (23.0)2,335 (23.1)2The trial was very well balanced for the key baseline characteristics.Serious injury was much more common in men than women. This is because in general men have higher rates of car crashes and serious violence.77% of patients were under 45 years old.
9Baseline characteristics TXA n (%)Placebo n (%)Time since injury (hours)≤1 hour3,756 (37.2)3,722 (36.8)>1 to ≤3 hours3,045 (30·2)3,006 (29·7)>3 hours3,380 (33.4)[not known]56Type of injuryBlunt6,812 (67.5)6,843 (67.7)Penetrating3,281 (32.5)3,271 (32.3)The majority of patients were randomised within 3 hours of injury.
10Baseline characteristics TXA n (%)Placebo n (%)Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)>896,901 (68.4)6,791 (67.1)76–891,615 (16.0)1,697 (16.8)≤751,566 (15.5)1,608 (15.9)[not known]1118Respiratory rate (breaths per minute)>291,491 (14.8)1,429 (14.1)10–298,355 (82.8)8,436 (83.4)<10160 (1.6)149 (1.5)87 (0.9)100 (1.0)
11Baseline characteristics TXA n (%)Placebo n (%)Capillary Refill Time (seconds)2 or less3,432 (34.0)3,406 (33.7)3–44,665 (46.2)4,722 (46.7)>41,699 (16.8)1,672 (16.5)[not known]297 (2.9)314 (3.1)Heart rate (beats per minute)>1074,872 (48.3)4,853 (48.0)92–1072,556 (25.3)2,546 (25.2)77–911,727 (17.1)1,770 (17.5)<77875 (8.7)871 (8.6)63 (0.6)74 (0.7)
12Death: When patients die Another reason why early treatment is needed – if you look at this bar chart – you will see that:Of the 3076 patients who died, 35% died on the day of randomisation.There were 1063 deaths due to bleeding, 60% was on the day of randomisation.
13Cause of death Cause of death TXA Placebo RR for death P value 10, ,067Bleeding ·85 (0·76–0·96) 0·0077Vascular occlusion ·69 (0·44–1·07) 0·096Multiorgan failure ·90 (0·75–1·08) 0·25Head injury ·97 (0·87–1·08) 0·60Other ·94 (0·74–1·20) 0·63Any death ·91 (0·85–0·97) 0·0035We believed from the information on mechanism of action and the results from surgery that TXA might work by reducing bleeding – so what was the effect on deaths from bleeding?We saw a highly significant reduction on death from bleeding – a 15% relative reduction.One of the concerns we had was that there might be an increase in vascular occlusive deaths, bearing in mind that TXA acts by stabilising clots – so what did we see? There was no increase in vascular occlusive deaths .What was the effect on deaths from multiorgan failure? We saw a non-significant reduction.Deaths from head-injury and other – again all going in the same direction.So the effect on all cause mortality was a significant reduction. In the trial there was 150 less deaths in the treatment group compared to placebo.
14Any cause of death TXA (n= 10,060) 1,463 (14.5%) Placebo (n= 10,067) 1,613 (16.0%)RR (95% CI)0.91 (0.85–0.97) 2P=0.0035This is just reiterating the main effect on all cause mortality.The bottom line is that this is very good news for trauma patients.The vertical line crossing 1 signifies the line of no-effect.0.80.91.01.1TXA betterTXA worse
15Death due to bleeding TXA (n= 10,060) 489 (4.9%) Placebo (n= 10,067) 574 (5.7%)RR (95% CI)0.85 (0.76–0.96) 2P=0.0077This is just reiterating the main effect on all cause mortality.The bottom line is that this is very good news for trauma patients.The vertical line crossing 1 signifies the line of no-effect.0.80.91.01.1TXA betterTXA worse
16Bleeding death: early treatment is better p=RR (99% CI)≤1 hour0.68 (0.54–0.86)>1 to ≤ 3 hours0.79 (0.60–1.04)>3 hours1.44 (1.04–1.99)0.85 (0.76–0.96).7.8.9220.127.116.11.41.5
18Effect of early TXA on death due to bleeding (by geographical region)RR (95% CI) P=0.70TXA worseTXA better.18.104.22.1681.1.5HospitalsAsia 114Latin America 56Africa 52EU, Australia, Canada 48World0.72 (0.63–0.83)
19Effect of early TXA on death due to bleeding (by baseline risk of death)RR (95% CI) p=0.090–10%10–20%>20%All0.72 (0.63–0.83).22.214.171.124.9126.96.36.199TXA betterTXA worse
20Effect of early TXA on vascular occlusion (by baseline risk of death)RR (95% CI) p=0.930–10%10–20%>20%All0.69 (0.53–0.89).188.8.131.52.9184.108.40.206TXA betterTXA worse
21Conclusion TXA reduces mortality in bleeding trauma patients TXA should be given as soon as possible (<3 hours)No increased risk of vascular occlusive events