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TXA in trauma patients: who should we treat and when?

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Presentation on theme: "TXA in trauma patients: who should we treat and when?"— Presentation transcript:

1 TXA in trauma patients: who should we treat and when?

2 ● Tranexamic Acid (TXA) ● Tranexamic Acid (TXA) is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine. ● It has a very high affinity for the lysine binding sites of plasminogen. ● It blocks these sites and prevents binding of plasmin to the fibrin surface, thus exerting its antifibrinolytic effect. Tranexamic acid and bleeding

3 TXA reduces bleeding in surgery (Henry et al, 2011) TXA TXA betterTXA worse 0.61 ( ) RR (95% CI) Transfusion TXA RR (95% CI) TXA betterTXA worse ( ) Mortality TXA and bleeding 65 trials (4,842 patients)30 trials (2,917 patients)

4 Insufficient evidence to either support or refute a clinically important treatment effect. Further RCTs of tranexamic acid in trauma are needed. TXA and bleeding Does TXA reduce mortality in trauma?

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6 The CRASH-2 trial A randomized, placebo controlled trial among trauma patients with significant hemorrhage, of the effects of tranexamic acid on death and vascular occlusive events

7 10,096 allocated TXA10,115 allocated placebo 10,093 baseline data10,114 baseline data Followed up = 10,060 (99.7%) Followed up = 10,067 (99.5%) 20,211 randomised 1 consent withdrawn 47 lost to follow-up 33 lost to follow-up 3 consent withdrawn CRASH-2 trial profile

8 TXA n (%)Placebo n (%) Gender Male8,439 (83.6)8,496 (84.0) Female1,654 (16.4)1,617 (16.0) [not known]01 Age (years) <252,783 (27.6)2,855 (28.2) 25–343,012 (29.8)3,081 (30.5) 35–441,975 (19.6)1,841 (18.2) >442,321 (23.0)2,335 (23.1) [not known]22 Baseline characteristics

9 TXA n (%)Placebo n (%) Time since injury (hours) ≤1 hour3,756 (37.2)3,722 (36.8) >1 to ≤3 hours3,045 (30·2)3,006 (29·7) >3 hours3,006 (29·7)3,380 (33.4) [not known]56 Type of injury Blunt6,812 (67.5)6,843 (67.7) Penetrating3,281 (32.5)3,271 (32.3) Baseline characteristics

10 TXA n (%)Placebo n (%) Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) >896,901 (68.4)6,791 (67.1) 76–891,615 (16.0)1,697 (16.8) ≤751,566 (15.5)1,608 (15.9) [not known]1118 Respiratory rate (breaths per minute) >291,491 (14.8)1,429 (14.1) 10–298,355 (82.8)8,436 (83.4) <10160 (1.6)149 (1.5) [not known]87 (0.9)100 (1.0) Baseline characteristics

11 TXA n (%)Placebo n (%) Capillary Refill Time (seconds) 2 or less3,432 (34.0)3,406 (33.7) 3–44,665 (46.2)4,722 (46.7) >41,699 (16.8)1,672 (16.5) [not known]297 (2.9)314 (3.1) Heart rate (beats per minute) >1074,872 (48.3)4,853 (48.0) 92–1072,556 (25.3)2,546 (25.2) 77–911,727 (17.1)1,770 (17.5) <77875 (8.7)871 (8.6) [not known]63 (0.6)74 (0.7) Baseline characteristics

12 Death: When patients die

13 Cause of death Cause of deathTXAPlacebo RR for deathP value 10,060 10,067 Bleeding ·85 (0·76–0·96) 0·0077 Vascular occlusion ·69 (0·44–1·07) 0·096 Multiorgan failure ·90 (0·75–1·08) 0·25 Head injury ·97 (0·87–1·08) 0·60 Other ·94 (0·74–1·20) 0·63 Any death ·91 (0·85–0·97) 0·0035

14 Any cause of death TXA worseTXA better RR (95% CI) TXA (n= 10,060) 1,463 (14.5%) Placebo (n= 10,067) 1,613 (16.0%) 0.91 (0.85–0.97) 2P=0.0035

15 Death due to bleeding TXA worseTXA better RR (95% CI) TXA (n= 10,060) 489 (4.9%) Placebo (n= 10,067) 574 (5.7%) 0.85 (0.76–0.96) 2P=0.0077

16 RR (99% CI) p= ≤1 hour 0.68 (0.54–0.86) >1 to ≤ 3 hours 0.79 (0.60–1.04) >3 hours 1.44 (1.04–1.99) 0.85 (0.76–0.96) Bleeding death: early treatment is better

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18 Effect of early TXA on death due to bleeding (by geographical region) EU, Australia, Canada48 Asia 114 Latin America 56 Africa 52 World RR (95% CI) P=0.70 TXA worse TXA better Hospitals 0.72 (0.63–0.83)

19 TXA worseTXA better –10% 10–20% >20% All.5 RR (95% CI) p= (0.63–0.83) Effect of early TXA on death due to bleeding (by baseline risk of death)

20 TXA worseTXA better –10% 10–20% >20% All.5 RR (95% CI) p= (0.53–0.89) Effect of early TXA on vascular occlusion (by baseline risk of death)

21 TXA reduces mortality in bleeding trauma patients TXA should be given as soon as possible (<3 hours) No increased risk of vascular occlusive events Conclusion


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