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Team Motivation! By: Ian Schaefer and Shannon Coyne.

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1 Team Motivation! By: Ian Schaefer and Shannon Coyne

2 Shannon Coyne Ian Schaefer  Mission: To increase motivation for a healthy lifestyle in students through education  DV – motivation for a healthy lifestyle  TP – students  IV – education  Agency – Capac Jr.-Sr. High School  Mission: to prepare all of our students to be life-long learners, educating them for success in the 21 st Century.  JOB: Physical Education Teacher http://education- portal.com/articles/Physical_Education_Teacher_Job_Descripti on_and_Requirement_for_Becoming_a_Physical_Ed_Teacher.h tml

3 Assess General Need In our literature we have found there is a general need to increase motivation for a healthy lifestyle through the following:  Being motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle is something adolescents should be aware of. There is a pertinent need for this and it can be expressed in the above literature. A lack of healthy lifestyle habits in adolescents such as watching too much television relates to unhealthy behaviors at the current age [ Lowry, Weschesler, Galuska, Fulton, Kann,, 2009]  and can lead to chronic disease later in life [ National Center for Disease Control Prevention and Health Promotion, 2011].  This need is further advanced considering as adolescents get older their levels of physical activity is shown to decrease [Butt, Weinber, Breckon, Claytor, 2011].  The need for students to be motivated for a healthy lifestyle is then assessed as “students should achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness” [Placek,, Griffin, Dodds, Raymond, Termino, 2001].  It is equally important for the students to have the support of the school system and teachers. Many teachers realize students are unmotivated on many levels [Kirk, 2013].  Students see their teachers as role models and working to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle and educating students how to prevent future chronic disease [Autism Research Foundation, 2012]  is something teachers should strive for. As it is, a majority of the population is unmotivated and this is something that can change at a young age [Greene, 2009].

4 Theoretical Definition of Motivation for A healthy lifestyle  Theoretical - The activation, persistence and intensity (Cherry 2013) of thinking, acting and/or feeling in those ways that promote well-being. Well-being can be spiritual, psychological and/or physical which will be exercise and nutrition. (Hogan 2013) http://justfitness-training.co.uk/well-being/top-10-reasons-to-be-more-active/

5 http://myplate.gov/ http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/ guidelines/children.html

6 Motivation Questionnaire  Instructions: On the following page you will find the Motivation Questionnaire. Please answer the questions based on the following criteria using number values only: 1…….I strongly disagree with this statement 2…….I disagree with this statement 3…….I neither agree nor disagree with this statement 4…….I agree with this statement 5…….I strongly agree with this statement  After answering the questions add up total scores in each column individually and place total value at the top of the page where required

7 Physical Activity ACTIVATON I am more inclined to be physically active when I have a reason to do so:__ I am more inclined to be physically active when I understand the importance of a healthy lifestyle:__ I am more inclined to be physically active when I enjoy the activity:__ PERSISTENCE I am more likely to continue being physically active even though I could be watching television or on the internet:__ I am more likely to continue a physical activity even when it is not the popular choice:__ I am more likely to continue a physical activity even when the activity takes away from other responsibilities:__ INTENSITY I am more likely to find new ways to be physically active:__ I am more likely to find new activities to be physically active:__ I am more likely to put my all into physical activities:__ Motivation Questionnaire: PA Score: __/45 Nutrition Score __/45

8 Nutrition ACTIVATION I am more likely to eat nutritiously when I have a reason for doing so:__ I am more likely to eat nutritiously when I understand the importance of a healthy lifestyle:__ I am more likely to eat fruits and vegetables when there may be other options because I understand the importance of a healthy lifestyle:__ PERSISTENCE I am more likely to continue eating nutritiously even though my friends may not necessarily do the same:__ I am more likely to continue eating nutritiously even when it may not be the popular choice:__ I am more likely to continue eating nutritiously even though it may not always be the most cost effect way:__ INTENSITY I am more likely to find new ways to eat nutritiously:__ I am more likely to find new recipes to make eating healthy more exciting: __ I am more likely to eat nutritiously if a variety of foods are offered to me:__

9 Assess Specific Need  Students in classroom A scored 5/15 on the Activation portion of the Physical Activity section of the Motivation Questionnaire  Students in classroom A scored 5/15 on the Persistence portion of the Physical Activity section of the Motivation Questionnaire  Students in classroom A scored 5/15 on the Intensity portion of the Physical Activity section of the Motivation Questionnaire  Students in classroom A scored 5/15 on the Activation portion of the Nutrition section of the Motivation Questionnaire  Students in classroom A scored 5/15 on the Persistence portion of the Nutrition section of the Motivation Questionnaire  Students in classroom A scored5/15 on the Intensity portion of the Nutrition section of the Motivation Questionnaire

10 Identify Measurable Objectives  Students in Classroom A will increase their physical activity scores on the Motivation Questionnaire from 15/45 to 40/45 by the end of our 8 week program.  Students in Classroom A will increase their activation scores on the physical activity section on the Motivation Questionnaire from 5/15 to 13/15 by the end of our 8 week program.  Students in Classroom A will increase their persistence scores on the physical activity section on the Motivation Questionnaire from 5/15 to 13/15 by the end of our 8 week program.  Students in Classroom A will increase their intensity scores on the physical activity section on the Motivation Questionnaire from 5/15 to 13/15 by the end of our 8 week program.  Students in Classroom A will increase their nutritional scores on the Motivation Questionnaire from 15/45 to 40/45 by the end of our 8 week program.  Students in Classroom A will increase their activation scores on the nutritional section on the Motivation Questionnaire from 5/15 to 13/15 by the end of our 8 week program.  Students in Classroom A will increase their persistence scores on the nutritional section on the Motivation Questionnaire from 5/15 to 13/15 by the end of our 8 week program.  Students in Classroom A will increase their intensity scores on the nutritional section on the Motivation Questionnaire from 5/15 to 13/15 by the end of our 8 week program.

11 Plan an Evidence Based Program  To increase motivation for a healthy lifestyle in students through education we will use the Motivated But Not Active model by Zan Gao. [Gao, 2012]

12 Program Model Team Motivation! Model WEEK 1 Monday – Students will have a lecture type class during the first day of each of the activities. The students will formally learn about the history of each sport, followed by the rules and standard procedures of each game. The last ten minutes of class will be for answering student’s questions about the sport and providing feedback on any confusion they may have at this time. Tuesday – During the second day, students will go over the basics of each sport/activity and begin practicing. The first half of the class will be a lecture with question and answers about the given activity. The second half of the class will allow students to do and learn the sport, meaning they will be paired with a partner to start practicing (i.e. if the activity is basketball, the students will begin dribbling leading them into shooting the ball) Wednesday – The importance of exercise in each sport is highly critical when trying to motivate students for a healthy lifestyle. For instance, dodge ball is about dodging the ball to try to not get hit. Another important aspect of the sport is to throw the ball as fast and hard as possible to get the opponents out. During this day, we will teach the students the importance of intensity during each activity and show them how to succeed in the game. Thursday – Eating healthy is important in all aspects of life, especially as an athlete. During this class period, we will have nutritional samples of fruits, veggies and other nutrient dense foods that are available at the local co-op. We will provide a PowerPoint presentation of what these foods do for our body, such as provide proper vitamins and nutrients and fuel our body for physical activity Friday – On the last day of the first week of the activity we will begin practicing the sports. By now, we have covered rules, basics, intensity and nutrition. We will split the students into two groups and have practice rounds of each activity. There will be three games during this class period with students switching groups to get a good feel for each sport. Motivated But Not Active Model Zan Gao Model Program: Motivated But Not Active is a 2 week program using Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) in the gym classes of 7 th, 8 th, and 9 th graders in the Mountain west region of the United States. [Gao, 2012]  Prior to students arrival 8 Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) stations are set up in the gym  Students arrived  Teacher took attendance and distributed accelerometers  Students participate in a warm up activity and were then assigned to separate DDR Stations.  2 Students were randomly assigned to master dance stations to lead the class for each game.  Prior to the start of the Program Students reported their experience with DDR. Week 1 Day 1-5: Researchers were introduced and assistants demonstrated how to play DDR, the PE teacher and the assistants walked around and monitoring and encouraging students to stay on task. Students rotated and moved the master dance stations. This process continued for the entire first week. Week 2: 3 days were assigned to assess students’ physical activity levels and collect data. On the first day of data collection, students were assigned an accelerometer and were instructed to wear it for the 3 days. At the end of class on those 3 days, students reported their motivation levels using questionnaires and the accelerometers.

13 Program Model (Cont.)

14 Implement the Program  For our purposes we will extend the Gao program to eight weeks in order to incorporate multiple physical activities as well as nutritional lessons throughout the intervention.  Prior to the start of the semester students will be split up into two groups. Classroom A, a PE class, will act as our program group, While Classroom B an English class will act as our control group. (Both groups will complete pretest and post test)  We are planning four different activities for Classroom A: basketball, soccer, dodge ball and capture the flag. Each “sport” will consist of a two week session performed by taught to and then performed by students in the program group and each session will follow the below schedule.

15 Behavior Change  Do students know what to do? Students will be instructed on how to participate actively in each activity per part of the program.  Do students know how to do it? Students will be educated on how to incorporate 60 minutes of physical activity and how to implement healthy eating practices through the program.  Do students want to do it? Getting students eating healthy and active is the goal of the program. Those students who sign up for participation are more than likely to want to do it.  Do students believe they can do it? With the proper support and encouragement students are more likely to believe in themselves.  Do students have a supportive environment? Yes, students have the supportive environment of teachers and faculty of the school as a whole.

16 Evaluation Design O Pretest Motivation Questionnaire X Intervention Motivation Program O Posttest Motivation Questionnaire Classroom A (program group) Physical 15/45 Nutrition 10/45 8 week program Based on Motivated But Not Active [Gao, 2012] Physical 35/45 Nutrition 30/45 Classroom B (control group) Physical 15/45 Nutrition 10/45 Physical 15/45 Nutrition 10/45

17 Threats to internal validity  Internal validity is whether my program made the difference or did something else? (Oprah)  Some threats are students dropping the class right away (mortality).  Another threat is the separate groups (program group A and control group B) interacting outside of the classroom.  Selection – whether our students choose to sign up for our class/program.

18 Mission Fit  Mission Fit question: did we increase motivation for a healthy lifestyle in students through education? We will know that our mission was accomplished if our students test higher on the posttest than the pretest. If our program students are willing and more motivated to live a healthy lifestyle throughout their lives and our control students remain the same.

19 Marketing/Communication  Facebook page – Communication https://www.facebook.com/groups/392134 690917534/  Poster – Marketing

20 Grant Information  The granting agency we have selected to help fund our program is SPARK. http://www.sparkpe.org/grants/pep-grant-info/ http://www.sparkpe.org/grants/pep-grant-info/  The SPARK mission: "SPARK is a research-based, public health organization dedicated to creating, implementing, and evaluating programs that promote lifelong wellness. SPARK strives to improve the health of children and adolescents by disseminating evidence-based physical activity and nutrition programs that provide curriculum, staff development, follow- up support, and equipment to teachers of Pre-K through 12th grade students. SPARK is committed to providing outstanding customer satisfaction through timely delivery and exceptional service. SPARK believes in fostering a positive working environment that values professional growth, upward mobility, and opportunities for people to work together toward common goals."  We have selected is the Carol M. White Physical Education Program (PEP) grant. It is compatible with our mission because the award is to be used to “initiate, expand and improve physical education programs” [Spark, 2013] in schools. Increasing motivation for a healthy lifestyle in students starts in the school setting and with the support of the PEP grant our school would be able to implement our program and begin improving the overall wellbeing of the students.  The grant awards $100,000- $750,000 to schools that qualify. http://www.tiogasteps.com/images/logos/sparklogo.gifhttp://www.tiogasteps.com/images/logos/sparklogo.gif  http://www.tiogasteps.com/images/logos/sparklogo.gif http://www.tiogasteps.com/images/logos/sparklogo.gif

21 Webliography Alderman. (2011). 9 Secrets of Motivated People. Retrieved September 2013, from http://www.realsimple.com/work-life/life-strategies/inspiration-motivation/secrets-of-motivated-people-00000000026714/index.html Autism Research Foundation. (2012). Start Motivating Your Kids Early to Live a Healthy Lifestyle. Retrieved September 2013, from http://www.athletes-4-autism.org/start-motivating- your-kids-early-to-live-a-healthy-lifestyle/http://www.athletes-4-autism.org/start-motivating- your-kids-early-to-live-a-healthy-lifestyle/ Butt, J., Weinber RS, Breckon JD, Claytor RP. (2011). Adolescent physical activity participation and motivational determinants across gender, age, and race. Retrieved September 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22039125 Capac Jr.-Sr. High School, 2013, capac.k12.mi.ushttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22039125 Center For Disease Control. (2013). Guidelines for School Health Programs to Promote Lifelong Healthy Eating. Retrieved September 2013, from wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/m0042446/m0042446.asp Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Retrieved September 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr6005.pdfhttp://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr6005.pdf Center for Disease Control, (2013). Physical Actvity. Retrieved October 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/guidelines/children.html Cherry, K. (2013). What is Motivation? Retrieved October, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm Gao, Z. (2012). Motivated but not active: the dilemmas of incorporating interactive dance into gym class. Retrieved September 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21953352http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21953352 Greene. (2009). Healthy Living Inside and Out. Retrieved September 2013, from http://ahealthylifestyleworks.com/archives/3004 Hart KHHart KH, Herriot A, Bishop JA, Truby H. (2003) Promoting healthy diet and exerciseHerriot ABishop JATruby H patterns amongst primary school children: a qualitative investigation of parental perspectives. Retrieved September 2013, From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12662367http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12662367] Hogan, P. (2013). Personal Interview Kirk. (2013). Motivating Students. Retrieved Septemeber 2013, From http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/affective/motivation.html Lowry, R., Weschesler, H., Galuska, D.A., Fulton, J.E., Kann, L. (2009). Television Viewing and its Associations with Overweight, Sedentary Lifestyle, and Insufficient Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables Among US High School Students: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender. Retrieved September 2013, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2002.tb03551.x/pdf]http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2002.tb03551.x/pdf Mushkin. (2009). Coordinated School Health- Motivation for Change. Retrieved September 2013, from http://www.sparkpe.org/blog/coordinated-school-health-motivation-for-change/http://www.sparkpe.org/blog/coordinated-school-health-motivation-for-change/ National Center for Disease Control Prevention and Health Promotion. (2011). School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Retrieved September 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/npao/pdf/PAN_Guidelines_Executive_Summary.pdfhttp://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/npao/pdf/PAN_Guidelines_Executive_Summary.pdf]

22 Webliography (Cont.) Patterson. (2013). Treadmill challenge encourages healthier lifestyles at Carter High School Retrieved September 2013, from http://www.wate.com/story/21759636/treadmill-challenge-encourages-healthier-lifestyles-at-carter- high-schoolhttp://www.wate.com/story/21759636/treadmill-challenge-encourages-healthier-lifestyles-at-carter- high-school Placek, J.A., Griffin, L.L., Dodds, P., Raymond, C., Termino, F. (2001). Middle School Students’ Conceptions of Fitness: The Long Road to a Healthy Lifestyle Retrieved September 2013, from http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=pes_facpub&sei- redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fq%3Dmotivation%2Bfor%2Ba%2Bhealthy%2Blifestyle%2Bfor%2Bhigh %2Bschool%2Bstudents%26btnG%3D%26hl%3Den%26as_sdt%3D0%252C5#search=%22motivation%20healthy%20lifestyle%20high%20sch ool%20students%22 Sellers. (2013). How to Motivate Secondary School Students Retrieved September 2013, from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/motivate-secondary-school-students-9772.html Wenzel. (2013). Live Blog: Motivating Your Community to Choose Healthy Lifestyles.Live Blog: Motivating Your Community to Choose Healthy Lifestyles Retrieved September 2013, fromhttp://fitbloggin.com/2013/06/live-blog-motivating- your-community-to-choose-healthy-lifestyles/http://fitbloggin.com/2013/06/live-blog-motivating- your-community-to-choose-healthy-lifestyles/ Wilson, LF. (2007) Adolescents' attitudes about obesity and what they want in obesity Prevention programs. Retrieved September 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17676971 Ultimate. (2012). Fun Ways of Motivating Kids to Lead a Healthy Lifestyle Retrieved September 2013, from http://www.ultimate-health-fitness.com/healthy-living/fun-ways-of- motivating-kids-to-lead-a-healthy-lifestyle.htmlhttp://www.ultimate-health-fitness.com/healthy-living/fun-ways-of- motivating-kids-to-lead-a-healthy-lifestyle.html United States Department of Agriculture. (2013). My Plate Physical Activity guidelines and Nutrition Information. Retrieved October 2013, from http://www.choosemyplate.govhttp://www.choosemyplate.gov

23 Reflection This project was extremely helpful to our professional intellect because it made us think deeply about an abstract idea and how to realistically implement such a big program. It provided us with real-life experiences and made us think in-depth as if we were really going to implement the program. We had to create a project from nothing and turn it into a valid and reliable program that will motivate students for a healthy lifestyle. Although we were confused the majority of the time, we spent a lot of time figuring out how to truly motivate students for the rest of their high school career, if not the rest of their lives. This major project forced our dyad group to be independent by working many hours outside of the classroom and constantly reviewing the literature for ideas to implement our motivation program. We had to become critical thinkers by thinking of internal validity threats to our program and whether or not our tests would be valid and reliable. These were concepts that we were not previously familiar with and had to constantly go back to our literature for theoretical definitions. Overall, this project made us think critically about what our mission was and how we were going to get our target population to our target goal through our independent variable.

24 Reflection (Cont.)  In addition to the positive impact this project had on our group we also ran into many issues. It took us time to get off the ground and really understand what we were doing. Building up to the last few weeks of the project, however, we were able to finally see it all coming together as we came closer to meeting our goal. As we stated, the project was extremely time consuming and much work but that was not always a bad thing. This project and class really forced us to grow as learners and it only helped to enhance our learning experience. We both agree that the work done in this class has had the biggest impact on a majority of our college career and it is helping to set the stage for what we hope to accomplish in the future. Reaching out to others through our project would be something of importance and with more work and planning it is a likely possibility.


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