Presentation on theme: "Research ethic workshop,Yazd, 29-30 Ordibehesht 1389 Ethics of Publication H Mozaffari-Khosravi, PhD, Associate Professor In the."— Presentation transcript:
Research ethic workshop,Yazd, Ordibehesht 1389 Ethics of Publication H Mozaffari-Khosravi, PhD, Associate Professor In the Name of GOD
The major references George M Hall, How to Write a Paper, 3rd Ed, BMJ Publishing Group 2003, London Jennifer P et al. Scientific Writing easy when you know how, 4 Ed, BMJ Publishing Group 2007, London Clinical Trial Magnifier Vol. 2:12 Dec 2009 Some useful websites
Ethics in Biomedicine Research ethics Bioethics Medical ethics Publication Ethics
Why? do we publish? do scientific frauds happen? is it important now, especially in IRAN?
Why Publish?.... It's unethical to enrol participants in a research with understanding that you will answer an important question. It's also unethical to accept a grant from a funding body and then fail to publish the results
1. Pressure to publish and stress: 1. I must get a grant 2. I must publish 3. I must promote 4. I must …… 2. Inadequate training. 3. Evaluating a CV and Paper Emphasis Why do scientific frauds happen?
Evaluating a CV Paper Emphasis Number of papers Rate of publication Quality of journals H-index and the others Position in list of authors
Why is it important now, especially in IRAN? During the past 10 years we have seen a remarkable change in biomedical research output. For instance, the number of published biomedical articles was 480,000 in By the end of 2009, that tally reached 800,000 representing 67% growth. Clinical Trial Magnifier Vol. 2:12 Dec 2009
Why is it important now, especially in IRAN? Who gained and who lost? China, South Korea, Brazil, India, Turkey, Taiwan and Iran gained most in the proportion of articles between 2000 and 2009; together 9.0% or 79,000 articles. The US, Japan and UK lost most in the proportion of biomedical articles published between 2000 and 2009; together 6.6% or 53,000 articles. Clinical Trial Magnifier Vol. 2:12 Dec 2009
Trend of Iranian Articles in PubMed Updated 2009/12/15 طی ده سال تقریبا 21 برابر
Trend of Iranian Articles in Scopus Updated 2009/12/15 طی ده سال تقریبا 12 برابر
Trend of Iranian Articles in ISI Updated 2009/12/15 طی ده سال تقریبا 12 برابر
Authorship ethic aspects author The word author came to the English language during the 14 th century via Latin word auctor which means ‘‘creator, originator’’ the first modern research journal was initiated in 1665 by the Royal Society of London. Before mid-1900, most scientific efforts and authorships could be clearly traced to single individuals.
The criteria for authorship of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors are "substantial contributions to: (a) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; (b) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; (c) final approval of the version to be published. Conditions (a), (b) and (c) must all be met." In an American study of 200 papers published in or before 1989 one quarter of authors did not contribute substantially. BMJ Volume 309 Saturday 3 December
Authorship ethic aspects Some journals now request and publish information about the contributions of each person named as having participated in a submitted study
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not justify authorship. Authorship ethic aspects
The order of authorship on the byline should be a joint decision of the co-authors. The first author has made the greatest contribution to the project (empirical work) the last author listed is the senior scientist of the team, the team leader (intellectual force) Janet DiMarci, Louis Hernandez, Arthur Smith, and Wen Zhou Authorship Order day to day responsibility head of lab/PI
Who and what is the “Corresponding Author”? The Corresponding Author is the person who is responsible for the manuscript as it moves through the journal’s submission process. This person must be registered with Editorial Manager, as all correspondence pertaining to the manuscript will be sent to him or her via the system. The Corresponding Author is, by default, the author who initially uploads the manuscript into Editorial Manager.
acknowledgment All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments section Technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support
acknowledgment under a heading such as : scientific advisors critically reviewed the study proposal collected data provided and cared for study patients.
acknowledgment According to the Medical Research Council (MRC): All persons must give written permission to be acknowledged.
Coercion authorship This occurs when ‘‘superiors’’ who have no direct involvement in the research or publication presume that they should be authors of any article that originates within their department or on which they have given advice.
Mutual support/admiration authorships This practice results when two authors wanting ‘‘to pad their bibliographies’’ agree to place each other’s names on papers even though one made no direct contributions to the other’s paper.
The gift authorship It may be an attempt to help the paper appear more legitimate Respect for the colleague who has had a great influence on the career of the primary author
The ‘‘ghostwriter’’ This is the inverse of most authorship problems. In this case, an individual who has a major influence on a paper, especially in any written conclusions or recommendations, refuses or for other reasons is not listed as an author
Honorary vs Ghost ! Honorary authors: named authors who have not met authorship criteria Ghost authors : individuals not named as authors but who contributed substantially to the work
Duplicate production authorships Duplicate production occurs when an author or group of authors publishes the same study in more than one journal, book, newspaper, or internet page with or without acknowledging the dual publications.
Duplicate production In some cases, secondary publication in another language is justifiable but only with the permission of the journal editor. The rules of duplicate publication do not preclude an abstract or oral communication at a scientific meeting
Privacy and Confidentiality
Privacy and Confidentiality Patients and Study Participants Identifying information, including patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless: the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication.
Privacy and Confidentiality Authors and Reviewers Manuscripts must be reviewed with due respect for authors’ confidentiality. Reviewers also have rights to confidentiality, which must be respected by the editor Confidentiality may have to be breached if dishonesty or fraud is alleged but otherwise must be honored.
Privacy and Confidentiality Authors and Reviewers Reviewers should return or destroy copies of manuscripts after submitting reviews. Editors should not keep copies of rejected manuscripts.
TYPES OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Fabrication Making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
TYPES OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT.... Falsiﬁcation Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
TYPES OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT ……… conﬂict of interest : 4 Conflict of interest exists when an author, reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions 4 The person is normally required to either avoid or openly acknowledge
TYPES OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT …….. Failure to get ethical approval Not including data on side effects in a clinical trial Conducting research on humans without informed consent Not attempting to publish completed research Failure to do an adequate search of existing research before beginning new research Redundant publication
Shotgunning The simultaneous submission of a manuscript to more than one journal. Most journals request a signed statement that the work has not been submitted elsewhere
Salami-slicing The practice of dividing the results of a research project into a series of articles to maximize the number of publications If the research project has been large and complex it may be justiﬁable to split it into several papers and ideally send them to the same journal to publish as a series of articles.
Plagiarism The simplest definition of plagiarism:
Did You Know? San Jose State University, Plagiarism Tutorial, The word plagiarism comes from the Latin plagiarius meaning "kidnapper"
TYPES OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT.... Plagiarism is taking someone else’s work without attributing the source and claiming it to be one’s own. Several defnitions of plagiarism exist. One is the repetition of 11 words, or even seven to 10 words
TYPES OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT… Self-plagiarism refers to the practice of an author using portions of their previous writings on the same topic in another of their publications, without specifically citing it formally in quotes. This practice is widespread and sometimes unintentional, particularly when writing the Methods section of an article. Although this usually violates the copyright that has been assigned to the publisher, there is no consensus as to whether this is a form of scientific misconduct
Two types of plagiarism: Intentional Copying a friend’s work Cutting and pasting blocks of text from electronic sources without documenting Media “borrowing”without documentation Web publishing without permissions of creators Unintentional Careless paraphrasing Poor documentation Quoting excessively
Use these three strategies, Quoting Paraphrasing Summarizing
Quoting Quotations are the exact words of an author, copied directly from a source, word for word. Quotations must be cited! Use quotations when: You want to add the power of an author’s words to support your argument You want to disagree with an author’s argument You want to highlight particularly eloquent or powerful phrases or passages You are comparing and contrasting specific points of view You want to note the important research that precedes your own Carol Rohrbach and Joyce Valenza
Paraphrasing Paraphrasing means rephrasing the words of an author, putting his/her thoughts in your own words. When you paraphrase, you rework the source’s ideas, words, phrases, and sentence structures with your own. Like quotations, paraphrased material must be followed with in- text documentation and cited on your Works-Cited page. Paraphrase when: You plan to use information on your note cards and wish to avoid plagiarizing You want to avoid overusing quotations
Summarizing Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) of one or several writers into your own words, including only the main point(s). Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. Again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to their original sources. Summarize when: You want to establish background or offer an overview of a topic You want to describe knowledge (from several sources) about a topic You want to determine the main ideas of a single source
Problems Resulting from Misconduct Paranoia Degradation of the science as a whole
Prevention of research and publication misconduct Education The research The publication
Prevention of , Education Research training Research ethics Publication ethics
Prevention of , The research Protocol driven Establish contributors and collaborators Define roles Agree protocol Agree presentation of results Define methodology for data analysis Statistical advice Ethical approval Supervision Identify guarantor Good communication Ensure good clinical practice Meticulous record keeping
Prevention of , The publication Disclose conflict of interest Disclose previous publications Approval by all contributors Submit to one journal at a time Assume research data audit
گر حکم شود که مست گیرند در شهر هر آنچه هست گیرند در شهر هر آنچه هست گیرند از توجه شما سپاسگزارم