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Basics in Medical Literature Searching By: MJ Zare.

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1 Basics in Medical Literature Searching By: MJ Zare

2 List of databases atabases_and_search_engines Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

3 Medical litretures Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

4 Search formulation Dissecting the question into its component parts and restructuring it so that it is easy to find the answers is an essential first step in Evidence Based Medicine. Many questions can be divided into 4 parts: P I C O T Example Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

5 Search formulation Not all research questions are about interventions. Other types of questions may arise: What causes the problem? AETIOLOGY, RISK FACTORS What is the frequency of the problem? FREQUENCY Does this person have the problem? DIAGNOSIS Who will get the problem? PROGNOSIS, PREDICTION Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

6 Example: A 28-year-old male presents with recurrent furunculosis (skin boils) for past 8 months; these episodes have been treated with drainage and several courses of antibiotics but keep recurring. He asks if recurrences can be prevented. To convert this to an answerable question, use the P I C O method as follows : Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

7 Example: Question:‘In patients with recurrent furunculosis, do prophylactic antibiotics, compared to no treatment, reduce the recurrence rate?’ Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

8 Example: George wants to discuss the possibility of a vasectomy. He says he has heard something about vasectomy causing an increase in testicular cancer later in life. You know that the risk of this is low but want to give him a more precise answer. Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

9 Example: Question:‘In men, does having a vasectomy (compared to not having one) increase the risk of getting testicular cancer in the future?’ Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

10 Example: Mabel is a 6-week-old baby at her routine follow-up. She was born prematurely at 35 weeks. You want to tell the parents about her chances of developing hearing problems. Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

11 Example: Question:‘In infants born prematurely, compared to those born at full term, what is the subsequent lifetime prevalence of sensory deafness?' Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

12 Example: Julie is pregnant for the second time. She had her first baby when she was 33 and had amniocentesis to find out if the baby had Down's Syndrome. The test was negative but it was not a good experience as she did not get the result until she was 18 weeks pregnant. She is now 35, one month pregnant and asks if she can have a test that would give her an earlier result. The local hospital offers serum biochemistry plus nuchal translucency ultrasound as a first trimester test for Down's Syndrome. You wonder if this is as reliable as conventional amniocentesis. Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

13 Example: Question:‘For pregnant women, is nuchal translucency ultrasound plus serum biochemistry testing in the first trimester as accurate (ie with equal or better sensitivity and specificity) as conventional amniocentesis for diagnosing Down's Syndrome?’ Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

14 Example: Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

15 Example: Mary is a mother who is concerned about her 3-year-old. He has a fever. After you have examined him you conclude that he has a viral infection. Mary asks ‘But what if he has a fever again during the night?’ You want to understand her concerns so that you can reassure her. Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

16 Example: Question:For mothers of children with a fever, what are the principal concerns? Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

17 Example: Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

18 Example: Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

19 Google Scholar Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

20 Google Scholar Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

21 PubMed Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

22 Scopus Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

23 Web of Science Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

24 یافتن ژورنال های ISI Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

25 Cochrane Library Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

26 Cochrane Library The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) The Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness [DARE] The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [CENTRAL] NHS Economic Evaluations Database [NHS EED] Health Technology Assessment Database [HTA] The Cochrane Database of Methodology Reviews (CDMR) The Cochrane Methodology Register (CMR) Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

27 Directory of Open Access Journals Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

28 OpenSIGLE Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

29 arXiv Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

30 Biological Abstracts Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

31 CAB Abstracts Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

32 CINAHL: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

33 CHBD: Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

34 EMBASE Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

35 Global Health Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

36 GoPubMed Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

37 HubMed Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

38 IEEE Xplore Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

39 Index Copernicus Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

40 IngentaConnect Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health Dr. M.J. Zare Department of Occupational Health

41 JournalSeek

42 JSTOR: Journal Storage

43 MedlinePlus

44 POPLINE

45 PsycINFO

46 ScienceDirect

47 Scirus

48 SpringerLink

49 Web of Knowledge


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