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SOME BASIC ELEMENTS ©2012 TEXAS CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY, W.L. ADAMS CENTER FOR WRITING AMA STYLE.

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Presentation on theme: "SOME BASIC ELEMENTS ©2012 TEXAS CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY, W.L. ADAMS CENTER FOR WRITING AMA STYLE."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOME BASIC ELEMENTS ©2012 TEXAS CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY, W.L. ADAMS CENTER FOR WRITING AMA STYLE

2 Table of Contents AMA Style Summary…………… AMA Manuscript Form………… The Title Page………………….. Abstracts………………………… Levels of Headings……………… Superscripts in AMA…………… Direct Quotations…….. Block Quotations……………… Citing Page Numbers…………… Use of Numerals……. Units of Measurement…………….. Proprietary Names………….. Reference List….. Abbreviations of Periodicals…. Journals………………… Government Bulletins.. Books… Chapters in Books………………… Electronic Sources……………. E-Books………………………………… Online Journals………………………… Citing Databases………………….. DOIs……………………………………….. PMID Numbers……………………….. Newspapers………………………………… Websites…………………………………… Package Inserts…………………………..

3 AMA Style Summary 3 “AMA style” refers to the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 10 th edition. Some features that distinguish it from other documentation styles: In-text citation of sources with superscript numerals assigned by the order in which you first refer to them in a document. (AMA ) Consistent use within a document of the assigned superscript for all your citations of a single source. (AMA 3.6) Inclusion of page numbers in superscripts, for any direct quotations you use. (AMA3.6) A reference page that lists each source once in the order in which you first referred to it in the body of your paper, preceded by the assigned superscript. (AMA 3.2) Consistent use of abbreviations standardized by the National Library of Medicine for medical journal titles in references. (AMA 14.10)

4 AMA Manuscript Form 4 Many AMA manuscripts follow the the “IMRAD” model for section headings and structure: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Some Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) guidelines: Use a conventional 10-, 11-, or 12-point font, Courier or Times New Roman. Double-space entire text, including references. Do not indent paragraphs. Do not justify the right margins; leave them “ragged.” Use a title page and a running head. Include an abstract after the title page. For a complete checklist of manuscript submission tips, see the table on page 37 of the AMA Manual of Style, 10 th edition. JAMA also recommends the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, published on the International Committee of Medical Editors website.

5 The Title Page: 5 The AMA Manual encourages the use of a title page, but suggests that writers refer to the specific guidelines of various publishing venues before formatting a document for submission. Many AMA manuscripts follow APA style for title pages: Running head appears upper left. Page number appears upper right. Paper title, author and institutional affiliation (if required) appear centered mid-page. The running head should capture the main point of the paper in shorter form than the title. Different journals have different length standards for length of running heads. JAMA’s is 45 characters. (AMA 2.1, )

6 Abstracts An abstract is a concise summary or overview of your research article, presented on a separate page between the title page and the body. Do not cite sources in abstracts. Include important key words in your abstract; this enables electronic retrieval in databases. Structured abstracts accompany reports of original data and meta-analyses. They are usually words in length and in IMRAD order: Introduction of Research Objectives Methodology and Research Design Results Discussion of Conclusions. Unstructured abstracts are summaries of about 150 words that accompany other types of AMA-formatted research writing or position papers. Some publishing venues add other requirements for abstracts. (AMA 2.5)

7 Levels of Headings AMA style does not specify any particular rules for levels of headings, but does advise a consistently maintained pattern for formatting and typeface within a document. Many authors of AMA papers use APA format for levels of headings; otjers adapt it to AMA use. Secondary-level headings should be formatted in a consistent style or typeface, visually distinguishable from the primary headings. Avoid inclusion of abbreviations, figures, tables, or references in headings. (AMA 2.8.1) APA levels of headings Level 1 : Centered, Boldface, Uppercase & Lowercase heading Level 2: Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase heading Level 3: Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading with a period. Level 4: Indented boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading with a period. Level 5: Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading with period. (APA 3.03)

8 Superscripts in AMA Cite sources in AMA by assigning consecutive superscript numerals, based on the order in which you first cite them in the paper. For all subsequent citations of a source after its first mention, use the same superscript you first assigned to it. Position superscript numerals outside periods and commas and inside colons and semicolons. (AMA ) PACP was first isolated from ovine hypothalamic extracts based on its ability to stimulate cyclic AMP production in anterior pituitary cells. 1 It is a highly conserved member of the IP/secretin/glucagon peptide family, with pleiotropic functions in development, cell signaling, metabolism, homeostasis and cell protection. 2-5 Thus, PACAP-PAC1 receptor signaling is integrally involved in stress mehanisms. 6,7 We hypothesized that PACAPergic systems may be important mediators of abnormal stress responses following psychological trauma contributing to PTSD, which is an extreme maladaptive and debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting up to 40% of individuals over lifetime exposure to traumatic events. 3, 8,9, Sample superscripts:

9 Direct Quotations 9 When quoting a source directly, use a signal phrase to provide context for the quotation. To cite sources of direct quotations, use the appropriately sequenced superscript, plus the page number. Notice that there is no period or space between the “p” and the numbers in the example to the right: (AMA 3.6, 8.6.1) According to Deiner and Silverstein, “Good basic care demands identification of at-risk patients, awareness of common perioperative aggravating factors, simple prevention interventions, recognition of the disease states, and basic treatments for patients with severe hyperactive manifestations.” 22 (p7)

10 With direct quotations: With separate sections of a source: Ressler concluded, “When we controlled for common stress-related phenomena (depression and history of substance abuse), the effect of PACAP level on PTSD remained stable (P<0.05).” 22 (p493) Ressler concluded that controlling for the usual stress-related catalysts for PTSD, depression and prior substance abuse, the effect of PAD-CAP level on PTSD did not vary(P<0.05). 22(p493) 10 When to Include Page Numbers in AMA

11 Block Quotations 11 If a direct quotation extends beyond 4 lines of your text, set it off in a block in a smaller font size and omit quotation marks. Add a space above and below the block quotation. Do not indent, unless to indicate the beginning of a paragraph in the original source. As with all direct quotations in AMA, include the page number in the superscript. (AMA )

12 Use of Numerals Always use numerals to express quantities, except in these cases: beginning of a sentence: Twenty-five patients responded to the medication. common fractions: Two-thirds of the respondents were male. ordinals: The second intubation was compromised by a non-sterile environment. Express percentages in numerals; avoid beginning sentences with percentages, but if you do, express in words. Sixty-five percent of studies used intention-to-treat analysis; only 42% had adequate sequence generation, 35% concealed allocation, and 61% had adequately described blinding. Decimal fractions below 1.0 must be expressed with a leading zero: The standard dosage for the control group was 0.5 ml every four hours. Express consecutively occurring numbers using a combination of words and numerals: Fourteen 12-year-olds eligible to participate in the study tested positive for staph infections. The study surveyed 203 five-year maintenance and warranty contracts on first-responder defibrillators in five boroughs in New York City. (AMA 19.1, )

13 Units of Measurement 13 Report measurements of height, length, weight, and volume in conventional metric units (meters, kilograms, or liters) or their decimal multiples. Report temperatures in degrees Celsius. Report blood pressure in millimeters of mercury, unless required otherwise by a particular journal. Many journals use the International System of Units (SI) for reporting. Consult Section of the AMA Manual for standardized abbreviations. (AMA 4.1.4, 14.12, 18.1, )

14 Proprietary Drug and Product Names Use the generic, non-proprietary name in titles, headings, and the text, unless comparing various brands or particular formulations of a drug. Avoid using proprietary (brand) names of pharmaceuticals to preclude any implication of bias or conflict of interest. Proprietary nameNon-proprietary name Medtronic Paradigm Revel 523 insulin pump Prinivil, Tensopril, Zestrillisinopril Chem-Ply glovesneoprene exam gloves Augmentinamoxicillin Vicodin, Norco acetominophen hydrocodone tartrate

15 Visual Presentation of Data 15 Tables present data in its relationships and support statements made in a paper without being redundant. Eachtable requires a title; number consecutively. For guidance, consult AMA Manual, 4.1. Figures are graphic displays such as charts, graphs, scatterplots, illustrations, pie charts, maps, or other visual representations of data. They also require titles and a separate numbering system from tables in a document. For guidance, consult AMA Manual, 4.2.

16 Reference List Citations must include “minimum acceptable data” for a reader to access the source: author or agency, book title & publisher, or article title and journal title, with standardized publication information or standardized electronic identification systems such as URL, DOI, or PubMed(PMID) numbers. List sources only once, in the order they first appear in the document. Number them consecutively. For research papers submitted for university classes, a common practice is to single-space reference lists, leaving a line space between each entry. Some professors require that students follow submission guidelines for medical journals such as JAMA. If in doubt, ask your professors. (AMA )

17 Submitting Manuscripts for Publication 17 To submit manuscripts for publication in a particular journal, the AMA Manual recommends preparing a manuscript according to the guidelines issued by that journal. Preferences may vary from journal to journal on such matters as spacing and title pages, as well as accompanying institutional documents. The Journal of the American Medication Association (JAMA) recommends following the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, which are published on the International Committee of Medical Editors website, which advises “double-spacing all portions of the manuscript— including the title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, individual tables, and legends” for both paper and online submissions.

18 Abbreviations of Periodicals When citing articles from journals in the reference list, use the title abbreviations standardized in the US National Library of Medicine’s current Fact Sheet or Index Medicus. For example: Ebneshahidi A & Mohseni M. Hoarseness after tracheal intubation. Anesth Analg. 2010;111: No periods are necessary after the abbreviations. Some examples: American Association of Nurse Anesthetists = AANA J American Journal of Nursing = Am J Nurs BMJ: British Medical Association = BMJ Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism = J Clin Endocrinol Metab Journal of Nursing Administration = J Nurs Adm Medical Letters of Drugs and Therapeutics = Med Lett Drugs Ther Southern Medical Journal = South Med J (AMA 14.10)

19 Journal Articles 19 List authors by surnames and initials (without periods) using commas to separate them. If there are more than 6 authors, use only the first 3, along with the “et al.” notation. Use lower-case letters for the article title, excluding the first word and any proper nouns included. Abbreviate the journal title according to the AMA-endorsed list (see previous slide). List year, volume number, issue number, and inclusive pagination in the pattern shown to the right. (AMA 3.4)

20 Books 20 Cite authors by surname and initials, without periods. Use commas to separate author names. Italicize book titles and use conventional capitalizations. Include edition numbers, city of publication, publisher’s name or imprint, and copyright date. If six or fewer authors, list all. If more than six, list the first three followed by “et al.” For edited books, add “ed.” or “eds.” after the names in the author position of the citation. (AMA )

21 Chapter in a Book 21 Cite the authors of the particular chapter or essay by surname and initials. Separate author names with commas. Follow the unconventional capitalization rules for titles of articles: use lower-case letters for all except the first word and proper nouns. Cite in full the title of the book in which the chapter appears. Use conventional capitalizations. Provide the city of publication, the publisher, and the year. Provide inclusive page numbers of the chapter.

22 Government or Agency Bulletins 22 If no single author is named, cite the issuing government agency as the author. Italicize titles of reports; follow article title rules for sections of reports. Provide any relevant information such as series numbers, or numbers used to identify the documents within agency-generated document identification systems. (AMA , )

23 Electronic Sources 23 Electronic sources should be cited in a way as to be accessible to your reader. Electronic source citation format is determined by method of access: e-books, journals, databases, list-servs, websites, government archives, and others. Some electronic citations require URLs and dates accessed, if website layout is subject to change. Other citations have permanent locators such as DOIs or PMID numbers, which will not change and therefore require no URL. Citation formats may vary slightly according to whether the source first appeared in print; some sources now appear online before they appear in print. Some online journals have pagination; others do not. Some electronic sources are available in more than one format. For example, a source may appear in an online journal as well as a database such as PubMed or Cochrane Library. “Versioning” refers to a means of citation that includes updates and edits to an electronic source. A good rule of thumb for citing electronic sources in AMA style: always cite the version you consulted. (AMA 3.15)

24 E-Book Cite an electronic book by providing the conventional elements of a book citation, then add the URL and date of access: Author and/or editor Title & edition number if applicable City and state of publication Publisher Year of copyright URL & Date of access. (AMA 3.4, 3.15)

25 Online Journals The basic elements of an online journal citation are: Authors(s) Article title Journal name, abbreviated Year Volume number (if available) Inclusive pages (if available) DOI, or PMID number URL and date of access if necessary Several versions of a source may exist online. Cite the version you consulted. (AMA )

26 Citing Databases 26 In citing databases, include the following elements in this order: Author(s), if available Title of database Publisher’s location, name, most recent date URL Date accessed. (AMA )

27 DOIs “DOI” stands for “digital object identifier.” A DOI is a permanent online address that is not subject to any changes of URL. A DOI has 2 elements, a prefix and a suffix, separated by a forward slash: /nature02312 DOIs are preferable to URLs; do not cite URLs with them, and there is no need to provide date of access. (AMA3.15)

28 PubMed (PMID) Numbers 28 PMID numbers denote journal articles that are indexed in PubMed. Include them in citations. If you use a PMID number, there is no need to cite a URL or date of access.

29 Newspapers 29 To cite newspaper sources, include author, article title, newspaper title (in italics), date of publication, section and page numbers. To cite newspaper sources retrieved electronically, follow the same pattern as for print and include the URL, plus the date of your access. (AMA , )

30 Websites When citing a website in AMA style, provide the elements crucial for your reader to locate the precise source you used: Author or authorial agency (if given) Title of article or document Name of the web site URL Date of publication Date of access or retrieval. (AMA )

31 Package Insert 31 Provide the product brand name, specifying in brackets that it is an insert. Also provide the manufacturer’s location, name, and date of copyright for the insert in a format similar to book or report citations, as shown in the two examples to the right. (AMA )

32 Index to Slides 32 Abstracts……………. Books……………. Block quotations………….. Chapters in books……………. Databases………………………. Direct quotations………………… Electronic sources…………………. E-books………………………………… Government bulletins…………………….. DOIs…………………………………. Levels of headings………………………….. Manuscript form………………………. Newspapers……………… Numerals………………………… Online journals…………………. Package inserts……………………………… Page numbers in superscripts……… Proprietary names………………… PubMed (PMID) numbers…………….. Reference list…………………………….. Summary of AMA style…………………… Superscripts…………………. Title page…………………………….. Units of measurement……………………. Visual data……………………… Websites………………….


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