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Using PubMed to Find Research on Your Topic Simone Briand, MS, MLS Library Director Ruth R. Cleveland Memorial Library Cleveland University – Kansas City.

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Presentation on theme: "Using PubMed to Find Research on Your Topic Simone Briand, MS, MLS Library Director Ruth R. Cleveland Memorial Library Cleveland University – Kansas City."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using PubMed to Find Research on Your Topic Simone Briand, MS, MLS Library Director Ruth R. Cleveland Memorial Library Cleveland University – Kansas City September 8, 2014

2 What will be covered: Types of articles needed for your assignment –peer-reviewed, original research Getting to PubMed Generating ideas for topic Using PubMed to explore research on topic Searching with keywords Searching with Mesh terms Using filters to limit search by date and language Using tags to eliminate review articles Using geographic Mesh terms to find research outside the U.S. Using the Clipboard to save articles Navigating to full text if available Requesting articles from the Library when full-text isn’t available PubMed ReMiner

3 You need to find peer-reviewed articles reporting original research. Peer-reviewed means it’s subjected to a rigorous review process by a board of expert editors. They evaluate the research submitted to make sure it is of high quality. Journal articles needed for your assignment

4 Peer-reviewed journals Peer-reviewed journals: contain scholarly content are written for fellow colleagues in the field use sophisticated language are text-heavy in appearance scarcity of photos and advertising purpose is to disseminate research.

5 Find articles that discuss original research, where the authors were the ones who did the research. Journal articles needed for your assignment E Eureka!!

6 Journal articles needed for your assignment Avoid review articles, where the authors summarize and discuss research that other people did. a bunch of people conducted some experiments and got results and stuff….

7 You need to find original research. Clinical trials Randomized controlled trials Observational study Validation study Multicenter study Cohort Study Prospective study Case control study Crossover study Called “Reviews “Systematic Reviews” “Meta-analysis.” Original research Secondary research

8 How to use review articles Review articles provide background information the References list may be a good source of original research articles

9 Introduction: We developed a resistive vibration exercise (RVE) platform to test if an intervention RVE protocol would be effective to protect bed rest-induced bone loss. Methods: Fourteen male subjects were assigned randomly to either the RVE group (n = 7) that performed daily supervised resistive vibration exercise or to the no any exercise control (CON) group (n = 7). Both dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography were used to monitor changes in bone mineral density. Results: RVE significantly prevented bone loss at multiple skeletal sites, including calcaneus, distal tibia, hip, and lumbar spine (L2-L4). The ratio of urinary calcium and creatinine was found higher after starting bed rest in CON group while no significant changes were observed in RVE group. No significant temporal change was found for osteocalcin-N during and after bed rest in CON group. However, a significant increase was shown after bed rest in RVE group. In both groups, the urinary concentration of bone resorption markers, such as C- telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD), were significantly elevated Original or secondary research? 9

10 10 The answer: Original Research This was a study conducted with 14 males subjects, who were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group.

11 Original or secondary research? 11 Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute hemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomized cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either sucrose, glucose or fructose, or an amount of fructose equivalent to that present in sucrose (i.e. 30 g fructose). Continuous cardiovascular monitoring was performed for 30 min before and at 60 min after ingestion of sugary drinks, and measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and impedance cardiography. Additionally, microvascular endothelial function testing was performed after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside using laser Doppler flowmetry. Ingestion of fructose (60 or 30 g) increased diastolic and mean BP to a greater extent than the ingestion of 60 g of either glucose or sucrose (P< 0.05). Ingestion of sucrose and glucose increased cardiac output (CO; P< 0.05), index of contractility (P< 0.05) and stroke volume (P< 0.05), but reduced total peripheral resistance (TPR; P< 0.05), which contrasts with the tendency of fructose (60 and 30 g) to increase resistance. Microvascular endothelial function did not differ in response to the ingestion of various sugary drinks. In conclusion, ingestion of fructose, but not sucrose, increases BP in healthy human subjects. Although sucrose comprises glucose and fructose, its changes in TPR and CO are more related to glucose than to fructose.

12 12 The answer: Original Research The authors are reporting on the results of a study they conducted.

13 Original or secondary research? 13 BACKGROUND: The relation between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body weight remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence in children and adults. DESIGN: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through March 2013 for prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the SSB-weight relation. Separate meta-analyses were conducted in children and adults and for cohorts and RCTs by using random- and fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Thirty-two original articles were included in our meta-analyses: 20 in children (15 cohort studies, n = 25,745; 5 trials, n = 2772) and 12 in adults (7 cohort studies, n = 174,252; 5 trials, n = 292). In cohort studies, one daily serving increment of SSBs was associated with a 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.10) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.07)-unit increase in BMI in children and 0.22 kg (95% CI: 0.09, 0.34 kg) and 0.12 kg (95% CI: 0.10, 0.14 kg) weight gain in adults over 1 y in random- and fixed-effects models, respectively. RCTs in children showed reductions in BMI gain when SSBs were reduced [random and fixed effects: -0.17 (95% CI: -0.39, 0.05) and -0.12 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.2)], whereas RCTs in adults showed increases in body weight when SSBs were added (random and fixed effects: 0.85 kg; 95% CI: 0.50, 1.20 kg). Sensitivity analyses of RCTs in children showed more pronounced benefits in preventing weight gain in SSB substitution trials (compared with school-based educational programs) and among overweight children (compared with normal-weight children). CONCLUSION: Our systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and RCTs provides evidence that SSB consumption promotes weight gain in children and adults.

14 14 The answer: Secondary Research The authors are reviewing the results of studies conducted by others.

15 Why use PubMed to search for articles? Nearly all journals indexed are peer-reviewed Filters and tags allow you to limit search to fit requirements of your assignment Limit by date range Limit by type of study design---eliminating review articles Use Mesh tags to find research outside the U.S. PubMed is a great source for literature in the life and health sciences PubMed makes it easy to retrieve articles that fit your assignment

16 Maintained by the National Library of Medicine Contains over 24 million biomedical references Indexes over 5600 life sciences journals from over 80 countries Coverage runs from 1946 to the present PubMed fundamentals

17 Accessing PubMed@Cleveland On-campus and off-campus 17 @Cleveland

18 On-Campus there are two ways... 18

19 19 Via the PubMed icon on the Library workstations...

20 Or through The Library's web page...

21 If you are using a personal device, make sure you are connected to the college's Wi-Fi network to gain full access to Library subscriptions!

22 If you are off campus...

23 Log in to Remote Access to connect to PubMed@Cleveland

24 Before you search, you may need to spend some time thinking about your topic...

25 Sources to get ideas/background information Science Daily -Health & Medicine news Science Daily Health & Medicine/human biology USA Today Current topics in Biology NY Times Topics in Biology & Biochemistry The Guardian – Human biology World Health Organization Global

26 Generating ideas for your topic It might help to brainstorm words and concepts associated with your topic…

27 Generating ideas for your topic You can also try to do a little background reading on the topic, to discover issues surrounding your topic

28 Generating ideas for your topic Another place to get ideas for your topic is PubMed. You can start with a very general search and explore a topic.

29 Browsing PubMed can also help you answer the question: “Is there enough research on my topic to support an Advanced Topics paper?!!!”

30 Generating ideas for your topic Let’s say you are starting off with a vague, undefined topic: drinking water and scarcity of water supply

31 Generating ideas for your topic drinking water water supply drought water quality water purity, water purification water contamination Start by making a list of terms related to your topic.

32 Construct a simple search using keywords from your list For example: water quality AND drinking Don’t use sentences Don’t use abbreviations or acronyms Use no more than two or three concepts Generating ideas for your topic

33 33 Don’t use Stop words—PubMed will ignore them A abou t Again all almo st also altho ugh alwa ys amon g An any are as at It mad e main ly migh t thes e they this those throu gh upon use used using variou s very was we were

34 Use the Boolean operator AND to combine both concepts in your search. Use the Boolean operator OR to search for either concept. Use the Boolean operator NOT to eliminate concepts. Did you know? 34

35 Generating ideas for your topic General topic: drinking water and scarcity of water supply drinking water water supply water quality water purity, water purification water contamination rainwater harvesting/harvested water filter water filtration water treatment As you search PubMed you may find new terms you hadn’t thought of. Add these your list.

36 36 PubMed search strategies Keyword vs. Mesh terms

37 Keyword searching –how it works PubMed has its own controlled vocabulary of medical subject headings called Mesh terms. Because keywords are imprecise, PubMed translates your keywords and tries to match them to its Mesh terms.

38 Automatic Term Mapping PubMed does this through a process called Automatic Term Mapping. It maps your key words to Mesh Terms.

39 malnutrition Automatic Term Mapping malnutrition [mesh] sciatica sciatica [mesh]

40 car automobiles [mesh] Automatic Term Mapping sleeping sickness Trypanosomiasis, African [mesh] heart attack myocardial infarction [mesh] bends decompression sickness [mesh]

41 teeth grinding bruxism [mesh] Automatic Term Mapping testresearch design cancer panic attack neoplasms [mesh] Panic disorder [mesh]

42 Automatic Term mapping What happens to a search for the term cervical adjustment?

43 How PubMed handles your search Check the Search Details box

44 Automatic Term mapping You can delete terms in the Search Details box that aren’t relevant, add terms that might work better, and re-run your search. AND cervical manipulation

45 Keyword searching –how it works In addition to mapping your keyword to Mesh terms, PubMed will search also search the abstract, title and all fields for your keywords. It does not search text of article.

46 ALL FIELDS means it searches all of these

47 It’s quick and easy Automatic term mapping does a lot of the work for you, translating your terms and finding Mesh terms that match. Keyword searching is convenient because… However…

48 Keywords may not always map the way you think they will. Also, keywords are searched in ALL FIELDS bringing up a lot of results that aren’t relevant. Keyword searching is not the most precise way to search …

49 For example, Instead of using the phrase drinking water, you could use the Mesh term drinking water [mesh]. For a more precise search you can try using Mesh terms..

50 Using PubMed’s controlled vocabulary means you will capture associated terms and synonyms that are relevant to your concept. Your search will be more precise. It will not be mapped to ALL FIELDS, so you bring up fewer irrelevant results. For a more precise search you can try using Mesh terms.. However…

51 You will miss out on brand new articles just entered into PubMed that haven’t been indexed with Mesh terms yet Mesh terms might make your search too narrow and you may miss articles that you would have found relevant. There is not a Mesh term for everything. Sometimes you have to use keywords. Using Mesh terms is not always the best approach…

52 So…Keywords or Mesh terms? There are advantages and disadvantages to both. Experiment with different search strategies.

53 If you want to find articles with an international focus, you can use geographic MeSH terms. Many of the articles retrieved with these MeSH terms will feature research originating from countries outside the U.S. 53

54 Add these Geographic MeSH terms to your search with the word AND in all caps. These are just a few of the geographic terms available. There are many more! "Asia"[MeSH] "South America"[MeSH] "Europe"[MeSH] "Central America"[MeSH] "Europe, Eastern"[MeSH] Canada"[MeSH]"Africa"[MeSH] "Middle East"[MeSH] “Australia"[MeSH] "Russia"[MeSH] "Restless Legs Syndrome"[MeSH] AND "Europe"[Mesh] 54

55 For example, this article was published in the American Journal of Roentgenology But the research took place in South Korea This article was retrieved by including "Asia"[MeSH] in the search. 55

56 Thank you for watching! Simone Briand, MS, MLS Library Director Ruth R. Cleveland Memorial Library Cleveland University – Kansas City September 8, 2014

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