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How to make a literature search Introduction about basic search methods and how to use catalogues, databasses and other internet sources.

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Presentation on theme: "How to make a literature search Introduction about basic search methods and how to use catalogues, databasses and other internet sources."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to make a literature search Introduction about basic search methods and how to use catalogues, databasses and other internet sources

2 Content 2

3 1. Developing a Search Strategy Make brainstorming before you start and try to structure your ideas Identify main and side aspects to your search and try to find major and minor keywords Think of synonyms and variations (e.g. grammar, plural) of your keywords Use a dictionary or a handbook to get an overview. a) Defining the Topic

4 4 b) Choose Keywords and Search Strategy Strategy 1: “Blockbuilding-approach (BBL)“ Means to split your search topic in single terms Strategy 2: “Citation pearl growing approach“ Means you start with a known citation, may be a key-article and reuse this keywordsm, subject- headings, reference list to find more articles. Like a snowball system. Choose the appropriate source for searching Dependent on questions like „Do I need the latest infor- mation?“, “Is my topic very specific or more general?“, “What kind of publication do I need?“

5 5 c) Combining Keywords In Databases, Catalogues and Search engines single terms are combined with so called “Boolean Operators“ AND A AND B


7 Depending on your result you have to vary your search with different search terms 7 d) Vary your Search A search means always a brinkmanship of finding too much or too less Rule: The more complete your search should be, the more irrelevant hits will be included. On the other hand, in case all hits are relevant, then it is likely that there are more hits which are excluded by your search strategy.

8 8 2. Databases a) What is a database? An organized collection of information to a special field or subject Organized means all documents are indexed with special descriptors or subject headings  Bibliographic databases contain descriptive information about publications  Fulltext databases are including them

9 Keyword Means in general a search term that is somewhere included in the document (title, abstract, author, adress field …) A search done only with keywords can be unspecific and may have many irrelevant hits. Subject Heading or Descriptor A subject heading or descriptor corresponds to the content of the document. People (normally called documentalists) have read and indexed the documents Thesaurus A Thesaurus is a structured systems of subject headings. Subject headings are connected with broader and narrower terms (Tree structure). Controlled vocabulary, no synonyms. The Thesaurus in MEDLINE is called “Medical Subject Headings = MeSH 9 Some important terms that are related to databases (and catalogues )

10 10 Tree-structure for term “Smoking“ in PubMed

11 ProducerNLM = National Library of Medicine, USA TypeBibliographic Databases with Abstracts (67%) Indexed SourcesJournal articles of more than 4000 Journals. Yearly increase of 400 000 new articles. 90% articles are in english language. 50% sources are from the USA Regional FocusAnglo-american Region Subject coverageClinical Medicine, Biological Sciences, Pharmaceutics, Veterinary Medicine, Genereal Health Sciences AccessFree acces by Internet ActualityAbout 3 month for complete indexing. Incomplete, without descriptors partly after 2 weeks (e.g. BMJ, Lancet …) 11 b) Database profiles MEDLINE (Version PUBMED)

12 12 Entry page of PUBMED

13 ProducerJohns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Md., USA TypeBibliographic database with abstracts (67%) Extent300 000 documents, annual increase of 10 000. Since 1980 Indexed SourcesJournal articles, Books, Book Chapters, Unplished Reports, Articles in Newspapers, Dissertations, Confernce Papers Regional FocusWorld with Anglo-american focus Main subjectsFamily Planning, Reproductive Health, AIDS AccessFree access by Internet Other featuresOwn document delivery service (for Developing Countries free of charge) 13 POPLINE

14 14 Entry page of POPLINE

15 ProducerBIREME, Brasil TypeBibliographic database with abstracts Extent150 000 documents, annual increase of 7000. Since 1982 Indexed SourcesJournal articles, Books, Book Chapters, Unpublished Reports, Conference Papers Regional FocusLatin America and Caribean ; Language: span. + engl. Main subjectsHeath Sciences AccessFree access by Internet Other featuresOwn document delivery service. Uses same Thesaurus as Medline. Free access to some articles. 15 LILACS

16 16 Entry page of LILACS

17 ProducerWHO + Association for Health Information Libraries in Africa TypeBibliographic database Extent5 000, annual increase of less than 100. Since 1980 Indexed SourcesJournal articles, Unpublished Reports Regional FocusAfrica Main subjectsMedicine in Africa AccessFree access by Internet SonstigesDatabase is under construction. Some articles are free available online 17 Index Medicus Africa

18 18 Entry Page of African Index Medicus

19 19 3. Catalogues A catalogue is more incomplete than a database. In opposite to bibliographic databases it includes only documents that are locally available and gives information about their location. Online resources can also be part of a catalogue, even if they are located somewhere else.

20 Catalogues HEIDI Catalogue of the University Library of Heidelberg. Includes branch libaries and departmental libraries of Heidelberg. WHOLIS Catalogue of WHO. Includes free online access to WHO documents ZDB Periodical and serial catalogue for Germany. Important for interlibary-loan. KVK Makes a multiple search in several national and international catalogues 20 Links see Chapter “LINKS“

21 21 Search menu of „HEIDI“

22 22 Search menu of „WHOLIS“

23 23 4. Internet Sources a) Search engines Search engines are programmes that are searching the World Wide Web and finding and indexing sites. In spite of the enormous number of hits, it is estimated that search engines are only finding 5% of the complete WWW (the rest ist so called Deep or Invisible Web). Not searchable are:  In Databases and Catalogues stored information  Protected Websites  Dynamic Websites

24 General Search Engines GoogleMost used Search engine AltavistaSimiliar to google. But different hits and also different ranking VivismoFeature: is structuring the search result Meta Search Engines WebcrawlerIs searching simultaniously in Google, Altavista and other common search engines ExciteSimilar to Webcrawler Special Search Engines Google ScholarProvides search for scholarly literature. Search articles are ranked where they have been appeared and how often they have been cited. ScirusSearch engine for sciences. Sites are ranked dependend how many links are leading to the sites back. Has more links to (not free available) journal articles of publishers. 24

25 Citebase Search Search engines for for free available documents in the Internet PubMed Central Part of Medline/IndexMedicus. Search is limited here to free available documents Biomedcentral Open-Access-Journals. Peer-reviewed journals as commer-cial publishers. Philsophy: Free access. Financed by author-fees and their scientifc institutions PLOS Open-Access-Journals. Similar to “Biomedcentral“ 25 b) Open Source

26 Databases Medline (PUBMED) POPLINE LILACS Index Medicus Africa 26 5. LINKS

27 Catalogues HEIDI http://www.ub.uni- WHOLIS ZDB KVK Document-Delivery-Services SUBITO SUBITO (only D) BL Doc. Suppl. Cent BL Doc. Suppl. Cent (Int.) 27

28 Search Engine (general) Google Altavista Vivisomo Metagears Webcrawler Excite Special Search Engines Google Scholar Scirus 28

29 Open Source Citebase Search PUBMedCentral BiomedCentral PLOS 29

30 30 6. Excercises a) Bibliographic Search Find the follow articles / books. Use the appropriate catalogue! 1. Reinke, William A.: Health planning for effective management New York, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1988. - ISBN 0-19-505337-0 2. Cook, J.A.: Tropical medicine and health in the developing world Am J Trop Med Hyg. 38. 1998 : 459-65 3. Bennett, Sara ; Creese, Andrew ; Monasch, Roeland: Health insurance scheme for people outside formal sector employment. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998 WHO/ARA/CC/98.1 4. AbouZahr, Carla : Maternal mortality overview In: Health dimensions of sex and reproduction. Ed. by Christopher L. Murray... Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998. pp. 111 – 164. – (Global burden of disease and injury series)

31 31 b) Subject Search Use Medline/PubMed to find articles to the following topics: 1. Chloroquine-resistant Malaria in Tanzania 2. Studies on the introduction of charges for health care in developing countries 3. Assessment of nutritional status in infants and preschool children Try to mark and download or print relevant articles

32 32 1. Find statistics on the prevalence of AIDS in Africa (Try UNAIDS site via WHO website) 2. Find at least one article from Mr. Rainer Sauerborn about childhood mort- ality in Burkina Faso. How often is this article cited from other persons in their articles? Use search engines to find …

33 33 Search example Cost-effectiveness of immunization programmes in Africa Ideas what can be part of this this topic: Search terms:

34 34 Steinbrock, R. Serching for the right search – reaching the medical literature. New Engl J Med. 2006; 354(1): 4-5 Guistini, D. ; Barsky, E. A look at Google Scholar, PubMed and Scirus: comparisons and recommendations. JCHLA / JABSC. 2005: 26: 85-89 Eyers, J.E. Sources of information in tropical medicine. In: Cook, G.C.(ed.) Manson‘s tropical diseases, 21st. ed. London: Saunders, 2002 : 1807- 1815 Eyers, J.E. How to do (or not to do)… Searching bibliographic databases effectively. Health Pol Plann 1988; 13(3): 339-342 References

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