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Issues affecting small journals Ana Marušić Editor, Croatian Medical Journal Past President, Council of Science Editors Veterinary Editors Meeting 29 September.

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Presentation on theme: "Issues affecting small journals Ana Marušić Editor, Croatian Medical Journal Past President, Council of Science Editors Veterinary Editors Meeting 29 September."— Presentation transcript:

1 Issues affecting small journals Ana Marušić Editor, Croatian Medical Journal Past President, Council of Science Editors Veterinary Editors Meeting 29 September 2008, London, UK

2  Problems of small scientific communities Paraje et al. Increasing International Gaps in Health- Related Publications. Science 2005;308:959-960

3 Where are veterinary journals published?  USA39  England27  Germany13  Netherlands11  France7  Japan4  Brazil3  Australia, Canada,2 Czech R., Denmark Hungary, India Italy, Poland, South Africa, Switzerland  Austria, Belgium1 Chile, Ireland Israel, New Zealand Serbia, Turkey, Venezuela 2007 Journal Citation Reports, Thomson Reuters 133 vetarinary journals in 2007 JCR

4 Impact factor of veterinary journals JournalIFCountry  VET RES4.125FRANCE  VACCINE3.377ENGLAND  ATLA-ALTERN LAB ANIM3.203ENGLAND  FISH SHELLFISH IMMUN3.160ENGLAND  ILAR J2.319USA  VET PARASITOL2.016NETHERLANDS  VET MICROBIOL2.010NETHERLANDS Journal Citation Reports 2007, Thomson Reuters

5 Small journals in veterinary science vs. medicine n=133 median IF=0.646 total cites=182 009 total articles=12 674 n=100 median IF=1.331 total cites=770 230 total articles=13 352 VET RES 4.125 VET TECH 0.013 NEJM 52.589 BRIT J HOSP MED 0.049 MAYO CLIN PROC 4.362 AM J PREV MED 3.489

6 Citation networks of veterinary research Analysis of SCOPUS citation database: SCOPUS Co-citation networks by SJR — SCImago Journal & Country Rank

7 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – UK

8 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – USA

9 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – Croatia

10 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – Australia

11 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – Poland

12 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – Czech R.

13 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – Sweden

14 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – France

15 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – Canada

16 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – Netherlands

17 SCOPUS: Veterinary sciences – Korea

18  Usually academic and scolarly journals, where the editorial position is not a full-time position.  Published in small scientific communities – the so- called scientific periphery, characterized by:  smallness of the research community,  lack of financial support,  language barrier. Small journals – definition Marušić A, Marušić M. Croat Med J 1999;40:508-514. Marušić A, Marušić M. Croat Med J 2001;42:113-120.

19 Peripheral position to the mainstream science:  US National Library of Medicine receives more than 18,000 journals and indexes only 5,000 in MEDLINE.  90% of relevant information is published in 10% of the journals.  Science Citaton Index indexes less than 2% of journals from small and developing countries.  Small and developing countries encompass ~24% of the world's scientists but receive only ~ 5% of global research spending. Small journals - definition

20 Author pool + + + + + + No. and quality of manuscripts LOW Reviewer’s pool Review process INADEQUATE FinancesTechnical resources LOW LanguageEnglish IMPERFECT ProductJournal LOW QUALITY Poor visibility Small journals – vicious circle of inadequacy Marušić A, Marušić M. Croat Med J 1999;40:508-514

21 The journal’s niche: SWOT analysis  Strengths:  What advantages do you have?  What do you do well?  What are your resources?  What do other people see as your strengths?

22 The journal’s niche: SWOT analysis  Weaknesses:  What could you improve?  What do you do badly?  What should you avoid?

23 The journal’s niche: SWOT analysis  Opportunities:  Where are the good opportunities facing you?  What are the interesting trends you are aware of?  Are there changes in your environment?

24 The journal’s niche: SWOT analysis  Threats:  What obstacles do you face?  What is your “competition” doing?  Are the specifications for your product (journal) changing?  Do you have financial problems?

25 Local journal, global science

26 Role of the editor in a small journal Editor as educator of:  authors  readers  reviewers  researchers  students  policy makers

27 SWOT analysis of editorial role in responsible publishing factors external to the organization or group Marušić A, Katavić V, Marušić M. Role of Editors and Journals in Detecting and Preventing Scientific Misconduct: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Medicine and Law 2007;26:545-566. internal resources and capabilities S TRENGTHS W EAKNESSES O PPORTUNITIES T HREATS

28 S TRENGTHS of editors in promoting good research and publishing:  Authority in the scientific community  Editorial independence  Expertise in research  Responsibility for the integrity of published records  Power to formulate and implement editorial policies

29 S TRENGTHS: Research into peer review  Problems with peer review  Different interpretations by different journals, slow, expensive, subjective, biased, open to abuse, poor at identifying errors, cannot be taught  Who makes the best reviewers  Under 40, good institution, known to the editors  What would improve quality of reviewers?  Reward/credit/acknowledgement, careful selection, training, greater accountability, interaction between reviewer and author

30 PRC 1 1989 PRC 2 1993 PRC 3 1997 PRC 4 2001 PRC 5 2005 Abstracts submitted Citations in PubMed Source: D. Rennie, JAMA 2006 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006

31 S TRENGTHS: Responsibility for the integrity of published records PubMed Special Queries at Retracted Publication – Provides a search in PubMed for all citations designated as retracted publications

32 Total: 926 JournalNo. retractionsNo. indexed items New Eng J Med13 60097 JAMA 1 58983 Lancet10116606 Ann Int Med 3 24861 BMJ 6 45419 Eur J Public Health 0 790 Am J Public Health 0 12125 Science58151260 Nature35 84668 Retractions at PubMed (search data from Feb 11, 2008) :

33 Retractions at PubMed (search data from 2007): First retraction on PubMed in 1977

34 S TRENGTHS: Editorial policies

35  Call for comprehensive registration of trials as the first step in alleviating selective data presentation on clinical trials in medical literature : ICMJE – International Committee of Medical Journal Editors: Statement on the Registration of Clinical Trials

36 What can journal editors do? “A subject that needs reform should be kept before the public until it demands reform.”

37 Policy on clinical trial registration (Source: Zarin et al. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2779) S TRENGTHS: Editorial policies September 13, 2005 deadline

38 WEAKNESSES of editors in promoting responsible research  No mandate for legal actions  Few means of action: expression of concern and retraction  Reluctance to get involved in delicate issues  Possible damage to journal’s reputation  Lack of education and staff to implement adequate procedures

39 W EAKNESSES: experiences of editors Smith R. Investigating the previous studies of a fraudulent author. BMJ 2005; 331:288-291. White C. Suspected research fraud: difficulties of getting at the truth. BMJ 2005;331:281-288. Sox H, Rennie D. Research misconduct, retraction, and cleansing the medical literature: lessons from the Poehlman case. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:609-613. Katavic V. Five-year report of Croatian Medical Journal's Research Integrity Editor – policy, policing, or policing policy. Croat Med J 2006;47:220-227.

40 O PPORTUNITIES of editors in promoting responsible publishing practices  Editors well positioned to detect scientific misconduct  Availability of new technologies for detecting misconduct  Editorial policies developed by editorial organizations  Policies developed by national ethics/integrity bodies  Greater transparency of publications on the web  Greater transparency of literature corrections on the web

41 Opportunies : Editorial policies World Association of Medical Editors EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF SCIENCE EDITORS

42 Opportunies : Editorial policies Ethics Flowcharts

43 T HREATS to editors promoting responsible research  Lack of legal regulation and culture of research integrity in the scientific community  Corruption of the scientific community and governments  No training available  Lack of support from stakeholders in scientific publishing (publishers, associations, scientists, academic and scientific community)  Pressures on editors and journal (publishers, financial conflict of interest)

44 T HREATS to editors promoting responsible research In small journals, the weakneses and external threats to the job outweigh their strengths and opportunities provided by the global editorial community.

45 What can editors of do to promote research in their scientific communities? Learn Be informed Teach

46 ICPRT - Thank you.

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