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Searching the Literature and selecting the right references.

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Presentation on theme: "Searching the Literature and selecting the right references."— Presentation transcript:

1 Searching the Literature and selecting the right references

2 What Is a Literature Review? A review of the literature is a classification and evaluation of what accredited scholars and researchers have written on a topic, organized according to a guiding concept such as research objective or the problem/issue you wish to address.

3 Why perform literature review? 1.Saves yourself from work! Good sense of what has been thoroughly investigated and in what areas useful new work might be done. 2. Know the subject matter better Broader understanding of the question 3. Suggest new research topics, questions, methods

4 Information seeking: the ability to scan the literature efficiently using manual or computerized methods to identify a set of potentially useful articles and books Critical appraisal: the ability to apply principles of analysis to identify those studies which are unbiased and valid. Lit. Review: Not just a summary….

5 ….but a conceptually organized synthesis of the search Organize information: and relate it to the thesis or research question you are developing Synthesize results: into a summary of what is and isn't known Identify controversy: when it appears in the literature Develop questions for further research

6 Databases and basics of literature search Medical library resources Review articles Databases of medical literature Medline Full-text databases Electronic journals My NCBI [Sign In] [Register] EntrezPubMedNucleotideProteinGenomeStructureOMIMPMCJournalsBooks Search for Limits Preview/Index History Clipboard Details Feb :03:04

7 Searching with PubMed Developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine, located at National Institute of Health

8 MEDLINE: Bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and the preclinical sciences. Contains bibliographic citations and author abstracts from more than 4,800 biomedical journals published in the United States and 70 other countries. The database contains over 12 million citations dating back to the mid-1960s Coverage is worldwide, but most records are from English-language sources or have English abstracts. *

9 Keywords Major concepts or variables of a research problem or topic used to search a database May be single terms or phrase Each keyword used should be listed in a written search plan

10 “Lymphatic Filariasis” 786 “Filariasis” AND “Mass Drug Administration” 28 “Mass Drug Administration” 66 Search strategies

11 “Lymphatic Filariasis” 786 “Lymphatic Filariasis” OR “Mass Drug Administration” 824 “Mass Drug Administration” 66 Search strategies

12 “Lymphatic Filariasis” 758 “Filariasis” NOT “Mass Drug Administration” “Mass Drug Administration” Search strategies

13 Limits Publication type Ages Language Publication date Humans or animals Gender Entrez dates

14 Obtaining articles Full-text articles Medical library Full-text databases *

15 Selecting Studies for the literature review Read and critique studies. Select those of highest quality. Compare the purposes, methods, results, and findings of selected studies. Develop a table that includes essential information from each study so that comparisons can be made.

16 Construct an outline for literature review Develop a table of contents for the review Create a concept map of the major topics and the subtopics Build a step-by-step, hierarchical list of the points you plan to cover

17 Writing a Review of the Literature Outline –Introduction –Empirical literature –Summary

18 Introduction Indicates focus or purpose of review Describes organization of review Indicates basis for ordering –Most important to least –Earliest to most recent

19 Empirical Literature Includes quality studies relevant to topic For each study, purpose, sample, sample size, design, and specific findings presented, using paraphrasing rather than direct quotes Scholarly, but brief, critique of study’s strengths and weaknesses

20 Ethical Issues Content from studies must be presented honestly and not distorted to support a selected utilization project. The weaknesses of a study need to be addressed, but it is not necessary to be highly critical of a researcher’s work. Criticism should focus on the content, be related to your project, and be neutral and scholarly rather than negative and blaming. Sources should be accurately documented.

21 Concise presentation of the research knowledge about a selected topic—what is known and not known Summary

22 Title: Risk factors of leptospirosis in Andaman islands-a matched case-control study Objectives: To identify potentially modifiable risk factors associated with acute leptospirosis in Andaman islands

23 Introduction Zoonotic disease of public health importance About causative organism Clinical manifestations, complications Public health importance Increase in incidence over the years Large outbreaks in SE Asian countries Important outbreaks in India Animal reservoir Rodents Cattle Other domestic animals Wild animals

24 Modes of transmission Direct Indirect Risk Factors AuthorsYearTitlePlace, country Sasaki DM etal1993Active surveillance and risk factors of leptospirosis in Hawaii Hawaii, USA Bovet P etal1999Risk factors associated with clinical leptospirosis-- Seychelles Sarkar U etal2002Population based case- control study of risk factors of leptospirosis during an urban epidemic Brazil

25 Active surveillance and risk factors in Hawaii Objectives Design Case definition Selection of cases, controls, matching Results: use of water catchment systems Presence of Wounds Handling animals Drawbacks:

26 Prevention and control Depend on identifying source and interrupting transmission Modifiable risk factors identified in earlier studies Control measures based on modifying these risk factors Summary

27 Thank you


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