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Drug Information Resources Review Jennifer L. Rodis, PharmD, BCPS The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy October 25, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Drug Information Resources Review Jennifer L. Rodis, PharmD, BCPS The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy October 25, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drug Information Resources Review Jennifer L. Rodis, PharmD, BCPS The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy October 25, 2011

2 Objectives Review the differences between primary, secondary, and tertiary resources Review the differences between primary, secondary, and tertiary resources Discuss the value of each resources type Discuss the value of each resources type Provide a refresher on searching Pubmed Provide a refresher on searching Pubmed

3 Types of Literature

4 Types of literature 3 main types of drug information literature 3 main types of drug information literature –Tertiary  Interpretation of primary data –Secondary  No interpretation, just helps you find sources –Primary  Original research & analysis

5 Real-life Research

6 Tertiary Literature Summarizes and interprets the primary literature Summarizes and interprets the primary literature Information generally well accepted Information generally well accepted Place to start for basic information and guidance Place to start for basic information and guidance Can inform your subsequent research Can inform your subsequent research

7 Tertiary Literature Advantages Advantages –Convenient, accessible –Often available online –Review process of information is already done Disadvantages Disadvantages –Lag time –Not as complete –Author’s interpretation

8 Tertiary Literature Textbooks Textbooks –Electronic also Compendia Compendia –Electronic also Full-text computer databases (Internet) Full-text computer databases (Internet) Review articles Review articles

9 Tertiary Resources – Drug Databases Online Online –Lexi Comp CRL –MICROMEDEX –Drug Facts and Comparisons –MD Consult –AHFS Drug Information –Epocrates Print Print –PDR (Physician’s Desk Reference)

10 Tertiary Resources - Books Print Books Print Books –Remington’s –Trissel’s (2 titles) –Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs –Redbook –Drugs in Pregnancy & Lactation (aka: Brigg’s) –Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference

11 Tertiary Resources - Other UpToDate UpToDate Pharmacist’s Letter Pharmacist’s Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Ohio Administrative Code (pharmacy.ohio.gov) Ohio Administrative Code (pharmacy.ohio.gov) FDA.gov (Orange Book, Drugs@FDA) FDA.gov (Orange Book, Drugs@FDA) CDC.gov CDC.gov Professional Organizations Professional Organizations –APhA’s MTM Central Package Insert Package Insert Manufacturer web sites Manufacturer web sites

12 Using Tertiary Literature 1. Does author have expertise? 2. Is the information current? 3. Is the information supported with citations? 4. Does the resource contain relevant information? 5. Is the resource free of bias or errors? 6. Is it clear/concise/easy-to-use?

13 Secondary Literature Guides you to the primary and tertiary literature Guides you to the primary and tertiary literature Indexing Indexing –Bibliographic info only Abstracting Abstracting –Bibliographic citation plus brief summary of article or resource Almost all are electronic format Almost all are electronic format

14 Secondary Literature Advantages Advantages –Simple search strategies –Very current citation information –Access point for tremendous amount of primary sources Disadvantages Disadvantages –Understanding coverage of the database –Tweaking search strategies unique to each database

15 Secondary Resources ClinAlert ClinAlert EMBASE (Elsevier) EMBASE (Elsevier) International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) Iowa Drug Information System (IDIS) Iowa Drug Information System (IDIS) Journal Watch Journal Watch Lexis-Nexis Lexis-Nexis MEDLINE / PubMed MEDLINE / PubMed

16 Primary Literature Primary research Primary research –Journal articles that are:  Case reports  Drug studies  Original reports of data –Meta-analysis? –Unpublished studies

17 Primary Literature Considerations Evaluating the basics Evaluating the basics –Peer-reviewed –Journal reputation –Source of funding Digging deeper Digging deeper –Study methodology –Clinical relevance –Patient populations

18 Primary Literature Advantages Advantages –Most current published source –Tremendous range of information –Personally assess utility/validity Disadvantages Disadvantages –Overwhelming volume –Interpretation of results –Not yet vetted by experts

19 Primary Literature Peer-reviewed journals Peer-reviewed journals –JAMA –New England Journal of Medicine –American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy –Annals of Internal Medicine Non-peer reviewed journals Non-peer reviewed journals –Supplements –Pharmacy Today

20 What’s the difference? Ease of Use Tertiary Secondary SecondaryPrimary

21 What’s the difference? Most Current PrimarySecondaryTertiary

22 Alternate Sources of DI Internet, Listservs, and medical news briefs Internet, Listservs, and medical news briefs Local and national professional organizations and meetings Local and national professional organizations and meetings Pharmaceutical manufacturers Pharmaceutical manufacturers Drug information and poison control centers Drug information and poison control centers

23 Searching Strategies Begin broad, then narrow your search Begin broad, then narrow your search –Start with tertiary sources Use “related articles” Use “related articles” –Bibliographies –Secondary resource guides Always be sure to assess most up to date information available Always be sure to assess most up to date information available –Primary sources

24 Searching Pubmed

25 Searching Strategies 1. Develop focused question and break into parts What is the question asking? What is the question asking? “Is peptic ulcer prevention with proton pump inhibitors and NSAIDs dose-related?” “Is peptic ulcer prevention with proton pump inhibitors and NSAIDs dose-related?” –proton pump inhibitors, dose, non-steroidal anti- inflammatory agents, prevention of peptic ulcer disease –Other forms of the above words and phrases

26 Searching Strategies Putting together an answerable question is key to successful evidence-based medicine practice Putting together an answerable question is key to successful evidence-based medicine practice –Use PICO method  Patient or problem  Intervention  Comparative intervention  Outcome Be Specific!

27 Example: PICO What is the minimum or maximum dose of NSAIDs at which What is the minimum or maximum dose of NSAIDs at which proton-pump inhibitors are proton-pump inhibitors are effective for peptic ulcer disease prophylaxis? effective for peptic ulcer disease prophylaxis? Patient or problem Patient or problem Intervention Intervention Comparison Comparison Outcome Outcome

28 Searching Strategies 2. Read up on the basics of the question Start with tertiary resources for foundation Start with tertiary resources for foundation Build on information gathered from texts, review articles, and drug databases with a primary literature search Build on information gathered from texts, review articles, and drug databases with a primary literature search

29 Searching Strategies 3. Gather as many articles as possible for all of the parts of the search Use MeSH headings to help narrow or broaden your search Use MeSH headings to help narrow or broaden your search MeSH = Medical Subject Headings MeSH = Medical Subject Headings –Official indexing terms for MEDLINE

30 Searching Databases: Basic Boolean “AND” “AND” –Combines 2 terms (shrinks search) “OR” “OR” –Gives database more choices (broadens search) “NOT” “NOT” –Limits search (removes undesired terms)

31 Basic Boolean Both words must be present in results paroxetine AND suicide

32 Basic Boolean Either word can be present in results paroxetine OR suicide

33 Basic Boolean The first but not the second term will be present in the results paroxetine NOT suicide

34 Pubmed Search Example What is the minimum or maximum dose of NSAIDs at which proton-pump inhibitors are effective for peptic ulcer disease prophylaxis? effective for peptic ulcer disease prophylaxis?

35 Search keywords Proton pump inhibitors and dose and non- steroidal anti-inflammatory agents Proton pump inhibitors and dose and non- steroidal anti-inflammatory agents proton pump inhibitors and dose and non- steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and prevention of peptic ulcer disease proton pump inhibitors and dose and non- steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and prevention of peptic ulcer disease MeSH term search: PPIs, NSAIDs, PUD MeSH term search: PPIs, NSAIDs, PUD http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19240698

36 Resources Adapted from lectures by Bridget Protus, PharmD, CGP, MLS delivered 1/2010. Adapted from lectures by Bridget Protus, PharmD, CGP, MLS delivered 1/2010. Thrower MR. Literature retrieval and Finding Resources Electronically. In: Felkey BG, Fox BI, Thrower MR. Health care informatics: a skills-based resource. Washington DC: American Pharmacists Association; 2005. p. 191-228. Thrower MR. Literature retrieval and Finding Resources Electronically. In: Felkey BG, Fox BI, Thrower MR. Health care informatics: a skills-based resource. Washington DC: American Pharmacists Association; 2005. p. 191-228. West, PM. Literature evaluation. In: Pharmacotherapy self- assessment program: science and practice of pharmacotherapy, 5 th ed. (PSAP V). Kansas City: American College of Clinical Pharmacy; 2005. p. 93-110. West, PM. Literature evaluation. In: Pharmacotherapy self- assessment program: science and practice of pharmacotherapy, 5 th ed. (PSAP V). Kansas City: American College of Clinical Pharmacy; 2005. p. 93-110. Shields, KM. Drug information resources. In: Malone PM, Kier KL, Stanovich JE. Drug information: a guide for pharmacists, 3 rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2006. p.61-101. Shields, KM. Drug information resources. In: Malone PM, Kier KL, Stanovich JE. Drug information: a guide for pharmacists, 3 rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2006. p.61-101.

37 Resources Thrower MR. Literature retrieval and Finding Resources Electronically. In: Felkey BG, Fox BI, Thrower MR. Health care informatics: a skills-based resource. Washington DC: American Pharmacists Association; 2005. p. 191-228. Thrower MR. Literature retrieval and Finding Resources Electronically. In: Felkey BG, Fox BI, Thrower MR. Health care informatics: a skills-based resource. Washington DC: American Pharmacists Association; 2005. p. 191-228. West, PM. Literature evaluation. In: Pharmacotherapy self-assessment program: science and practice of pharmacotherapy I, II, III. Kansas City: American College of Clinical Pharmacy; 2005. p. 93-5. West, PM. Literature evaluation. In: Pharmacotherapy self-assessment program: science and practice of pharmacotherapy I, II, III. Kansas City: American College of Clinical Pharmacy; 2005. p. 93-5.


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