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Conducting a Literature Search and Writing a Literature Review Lisa Eblen, MLIS, AHIP Research Symposium 16 November 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Conducting a Literature Search and Writing a Literature Review Lisa Eblen, MLIS, AHIP Research Symposium 16 November 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conducting a Literature Search and Writing a Literature Review Lisa Eblen, MLIS, AHIP Research Symposium 16 November 2011

2 Why does a CID Research Proposal require a literature search and review? Define the background for the research project Present evidence that the work is original For animal research, demonstrate the requirement for using an animal model

3 Requirements for a NMCP Human Research Application Literature Search  “demonstrate your literature search for currently published research that directly pertains to your proposal “ [background]  “This is intended to be a thoughtful search. “ Literature Review  “The committee is interested in your interpretation of the literature that you have reviewed. “

4 Requirements for a NMCP Animal Research Application Two literature searches  Literature Search for Duplication  Literature Search for Alternatives to Painful or Distressful Procedures Elements for each search  Literature Source(s) Searched  Date of Search - Period of Search  Key Words of Search - Results of Search Summary of the literature

5 What is a Literature Search? a literature search is  “a systematic and thorough search of all types of published literature in order to identify as many items as possible that are relevant to a particular topic” Gash S Effective Literature Searching for Students, Gower Publishing LTD, 1989, p.1. the literature search  reveals gaps in existing knowledge  identifies areas of consensus and debate  identifies approaches to research design and methodology  identifies other researchers in the field  clarifies future directions for research

6 Why is a Comprehensive Literature Search Important? Sound research is based on a thorough literature search and literature review.

7 Steps in the Literature Search Define the research question Read background material Conduct a literature search Review the results Read the relevant articles Evaluate the studies Conduct additional literature searches

8 Searching the Literature Looking at the Numbers Over 6000 biomedical journals published More than 300 searchable databases available from commercial vendors National Library of Medicine anticipates indexing 723,000 articles in 2011 PubMed provides access to over 20 million citations in MEDLINE back to the 1946

9 Health Sciences Library Journals and Databases Electronic Full-Text  over 7,000 titles online accessible from library website  passwords for specific titles Print  approximately 200 current titles  Journal Lists available  Copies of articles in the print collection can be scanned and sent to MS Outlook

10 Where does Google fit in a literature search? Google Rarely scholarly Poor substitute for library reference databases Unstable Google Scholar searches peer-reviewed papers, books, theses, etc. leads to fee-based online full-text websites

11 Journal Searching ~ beyond Google MEDLINE (complete MEDLINE indexes 6000 journals)  PubMed, Ovid Online Ovid Online (Medline, PsycInfo) Evidence-Based Healthcare Database  Cochrane Library EBSCOhost (CINAHL, HaPI, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Resource) Web of Science and over 200 databases through the Library

12 Getting Started ~ Visit Library Services on the Intranet https://intranet.mar.med.navy.mil/Library/index.asp

13 Search PubMed from the Library’s website to access PubMed LinkOut Search PubMed with links to fulltext articles (print and online)  Library’s website or  MD Consult  Ovid Online  EBSCOhost Look for these icons on the Abstract display

14 Links the Library’s Collection with PubMed

15 Researcher’s Reference Toolkit

16 Confused or overwhelmed? Ask a Librarian for expert literature search assistance document delivery service Instruction in literature searching

17 Additional Aspects to Consider Medical or Nursing Research  expand the search to specialized databases Federal Research  databases required by instruction: FEDRIP and more Animal Research  databases required by instruction: Agricola, FEDRIP and more Check with CID or the Health Sciences Library

18 Key Databases in Medicine MEDLINE (PubMed or Ovid Online) Web of Science Biosis Mediated access only Embase Mediated access only PsycInfo (Ovid Online)

19 Key Databases in Nursing CINAHL ( Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature) EBSCOhost MEDLINE (PubMed or Ovid Online) Web of Science and Social Science ERIC Education Resources Information Center Dissertation Abstracts Mediated access only PsycInfo (Ovid Online)

20 Key Databases for Federal Research BRD DoD Biomedical Research Database FEDRIP Federal Research in Progress Mediated access only DTIC Online access controlled Technical Reports, Research in Progress https://www.dtic.mil https://www.dtic.mil RePORTER Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools

21 Key Databases for Animal Research Agricola agriculture database of National Agriculture Library BIOSIS Mediated access only Biological Abstracts online AWIC Animal Welfare Information Center

22 Remember Online full-text articles are limited Libraries are still the best source of full-text books and journal articles Obtain in full-text the documents you need to read for your research Thoroughly read all papers you plan to use in your reference list Read the Pertinent Literature

23 When is a Literature Done? McLellan F, 1966 and all that-when is a literature search done? Lancet Aug 25;358(9282):646.

24 Keeping Organized and Current EndNote MyNCBI RSS Feeds

25 Writing a Literature Review

26 Requirements for a Literature Review for Research on Human Subjects NMCP Human Research Application  Summary of the Search [Literature Review]  “The committee is interested in your interpretation of the literature that you have reviewed. “

27 Requirements for a Literature Review for Animal Research NMCP Animal Research Application  Summary of the Search [Literature Review]

28 What is a Literature Review? Critique and summary of current knowledge about a research topic Examination of studies already completed on the question The literature review states  What is known and what remains to be learned  How the present study will contribute to existing knowledge  What methods have been identified to conduct experiments or studies

29 Keeping up with new developments and managing citations and documents Research projects take time. Plan periodic updates of your original bibliographic research to stay abreast of developments.  RSS Feeds  My NCBI Document and update any Internet resources Use EndNote

30 Questions? Searching is a skill, finding documents is often difficult, the best research is a done collaboratively Don’t hesitate to seek assistance Ask a Librarian  Call  Send a message to


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