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ROOT WORDS Cardiovascular and Respiratory System

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1 ROOT WORDS Cardiovascular and Respiratory System
Heather Wipijewski CVT ALAT This workforce solution was funded by a grant awarded under the President’s Community-Based Job Training Grants as implemented by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration.  The solution was created by the grantee and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor.  The Department of Labor makes no guarantees, warranties, or assurances of any kind, express or implied, with respect to such information, including any information on linked sites and including, but not limited to, accuracy of the information or its completeness, timeliness, usefulness, adequacy, continued availability, or ownership.  This solution is copyrighted by the institution that created it.  Internal use by an organization and/or personal use by an individual for non-commercial purposes is permissible.  All other uses require the prior authorization of the copyright owner.

Function – Deliver oxygen, nutrients and hormones to various body tissues and transports waste porducts to the appropriate waste removal systems. Sometimes called the circulatory system.

3 Heart – cardi/o Provides the power to move blood through the body.
Located inside the thoracic cavity – chest cavity Lies between the lungs in a cavity called the mediastinum. Mediastinum also contains large blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, lymph nodes and other structures. Pericardium – Double walled membrane surrounding the heart. Heart Walls Epicardium – external layer of the heart. Myocardium – Middle and thickest layer of the heart – actual heart muscle. Endocardium – Inner layer of the heart – lines the heart chambers and valves. Note – end/o means within.

4 Heart Chambers Heart is divided into left and right sides. The right and left sides are further divided into chambers. Mammalian and avian hearts have 4 chambers. Reptile hearts have 3 chambers. Atrium/Atria – atri/o All vessels coming into the heart enter here. Craniodorsal chambers of the heart Ventricles – ventricul/o Caudoventral chambers of the heart. Pumping chambers of the heart and all vessels leaving the heart leave via the ventricles. Atria Ventricles

5 Heart Sounds Auscultation using a stethescope.
Hear a “lubb/dubb” sound. Lubb = first sound heard. Caused by closure of the AV valves (atrioventrical valves) Dubb = second sound heard. Caused by closure of the semilunar valves. Systole (ventricular contraction) – occurs between the first and second heart sounds. Diastole (ventricular relaxation) – occurs between the second and first heart sounds. Murmur – Abnormal sound associated with the turbulent flow of blood. May be caused by a leak in a valve.

6 VESSELS Three major types Vessel – angi/o vas/o Artery – arteri/o
Arteries, veins and capillaries Vessel – angi/o vas/o Artery – arteri/o Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. Usually is oxygenated and bright red Vein – ven/o phleb/o Return blood to heart. Thinner walls and less elastic than arteries. Have valves to permit blood flow toward the heart and prevent blood from flowing away. Capillaries Single-cell-thick vessels that connect arterial and venous systems. Blood flow is slower through capillaries than arteries or veins. CRT – Capillary Refill Time – tells us perfusion (or flow through tissues).


8 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Function – Brings oxygen from the air into the body for delivery via the blood to the cells.

9 Upper Respiratory System
Nose – rhin/o Sinus (air filled or fluid filled space…provide mucus, make bone lighter and help produce sound) – sinus/o Pharynx (throat) – pharyng/o Larynx (voice box) – laryng/o Glottis – (vocal apparatus) – glott/o’ Epiglottis – (acts as a lid – covers the larynx during swallowing) – epiglott/o

10 Lower Respiratory System
Trachea (windpipe) - trache/o Has C shape cartinlaginous rings. Bronchi (bottom of the trachea) – bronch/o Alveoli (air sacs in which most of the gas exchange occurs) – alveol/o Thorax (Cavity contained within the ribs) – thorac/o and –thorax Ribs – cost/o Intercostal – between the ribs Lungs (main organ of respiration) pneum/o pneumon/o and pneu all mean lungs or air. Pulm/o and pulmon/o mean lung. Pleura (membranous sac which encases the lungs) – pleur/o

11 Diaphram (muscle and contraction of the diaphram causes air pressure in the lungs to drop below atmospheric pressure. This produces a vacuum in the thoracic cavity to draw in air) diaphragmat/o phren/o Breathing Inhalation – Drawing in of breath Exhalation – Release of breath Spir/o – breath or breathing -pnea – breathing Apnea – Absence of breathing Dyspnea – Difficult or labored breathing

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