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ROOT WORDS Cardiovascular and Respiratory System Heather Wipijewski CVT ALAT This workforce solution was funded by a grant awarded under the President’s.

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Presentation on theme: "ROOT WORDS Cardiovascular and Respiratory System Heather Wipijewski CVT ALAT This workforce solution was funded by a grant awarded under the President’s."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ROOT WORDS Cardiovascular and Respiratory System Heather Wipijewski CVT ALAT This workforce solution was funded by a grant awarded under the President’s Community-Based Job Training Grants as implemented by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration. The solution was created by the grantee and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor. The Department of Labor makes no guarantees, warranties, or assurances of any kind, express or implied, with respect to such information, including any information on linked sites and including, but not limited to, accuracy of the information or its completeness, timeliness, usefulness, adequacy, continued availability, or ownership. This solution is copyrighted by the institution that created it. Internal use by an organization and/or personal use by an individual for non-commercial purposes is permissible. All other uses require the prior authorization of the copyright owner.

3 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Function – Deliver oxygen, nutrients and hormones to various body tissues and transports waste porducts to the appropriate waste removal systems. Function – Deliver oxygen, nutrients and hormones to various body tissues and transports waste porducts to the appropriate waste removal systems. Sometimes called the circulatory system. Sometimes called the circulatory system. es/Heart_labelled_large2.jpg

4 Heart – cardi/o Heart – cardi/o Provides the power to move blood through the body. Provides the power to move blood through the body. Located inside the thoracic cavity – chest cavity Located inside the thoracic cavity – chest cavity Lies between the lungs in a cavity called the mediastinum. Lies between the lungs in a cavity called the mediastinum. Mediastinum also contains large blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, lymph nodes and other structures. Mediastinum also contains large blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, lymph nodes and other structures. Pericardium – Double walled membrane surrounding the heart. Pericardium – Double walled membrane surrounding the heart. Heart Walls Heart Walls Epicardium – external layer of the heart. Epicardium – external layer of the heart. Myocardium – Middle and thickest layer of the heart – actual heart muscle. Myocardium – Middle and thickest layer of the heart – actual heart muscle. Endocardium – Inner layer of the heart – lines the heart chambers and valves. Note – end/o means within. Endocardium – Inner layer of the heart – lines the heart chambers and valves. Note – end/o means within.

5 Heart Chambers Heart Chambers Heart is divided into left and right sides. The right and left sides are further divided into chambers. Heart is divided into left and right sides. The right and left sides are further divided into chambers. Mammalian and avian hearts have 4 chambers. Mammalian and avian hearts have 4 chambers. Reptile hearts have 3 chambers. Reptile hearts have 3 chambers. Atrium/Atria – atri/o Atrium/Atria – atri/o All vessels coming into the heart enter here. All vessels coming into the heart enter here. Craniodorsal chambers of the heart Craniodorsal chambers of the heart Ventricles – ventricul/o Ventricles – ventricul/o Caudoventral chambers of the heart. Caudoventral chambers of the heart. Pumping chambers of the heart and all vessels leaving the heart leave via the ventricles. Pumping chambers of the heart and all vessels leaving the heart leave via the ventricles. Atria Ventricles

6 Heart Sounds Heart Sounds Auscultation using a stethescope. Auscultation using a stethescope. Hear a “lubb/dubb” sound. Hear a “lubb/dubb” sound. –Lubb = first sound heard. Caused by closure of the AV valves (atrioventrical valves) –Dubb = second sound heard. Caused by closure of the semilunar valves. Systole (ventricular contraction) – occurs between the first and second heart sounds. Systole (ventricular contraction) – occurs between the first and second heart sounds. Diastole (ventricular relaxation) – occurs between the second and first heart sounds. Diastole (ventricular relaxation) – occurs between the second and first heart sounds. Murmur – Abnormal sound associated with the turbulent flow of blood. May be caused by a leak in a valve. Murmur – Abnormal sound associated with the turbulent flow of blood. May be caused by a leak in a valve.

7 VESSELS Three major types Three major types Arteries, veins and capillaries Arteries, veins and capillaries Vessel – angi/o vas/o Vessel – angi/o vas/o Artery – arteri/o Artery – arteri/o Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. Usually is oxygenated and bright red Usually is oxygenated and bright red Vein – ven/o phleb/o Vein – ven/o phleb/o Return blood to heart. Return blood to heart. Thinner walls and less elastic than arteries. Thinner walls and less elastic than arteries. Have valves to permit blood flow toward the heart and prevent blood from flowing away. Have valves to permit blood flow toward the heart and prevent blood from flowing away. Capillaries Capillaries Single-cell-thick vessels that connect arterial and venous systems. Single-cell-thick vessels that connect arterial and venous systems. Blood flow is slower through capillaries than arteries or veins. Blood flow is slower through capillaries than arteries or veins. –CRT – Capillary Refill Time – tells us perfusion (or flow through tissues).

8 VESSEL.GIF s/articles/9916dog_crt.jpg s.jpg

9 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Function – Brings oxygen from the air into the body for delivery via the blood to the cells. Function – Brings oxygen from the air into the body for delivery via the blood to the cells.

10 Upper Respiratory System Upper Respiratory System Nose – rhin/o Nose – rhin/o Sinus (air filled or fluid filled space…provide mucus, make bone lighter and help produce sound) – sinus/o Sinus (air filled or fluid filled space…provide mucus, make bone lighter and help produce sound) – sinus/o Pharynx (throat) – pharyng/o Pharynx (throat) – pharyng/o Larynx (voice box) – laryng/o Larynx (voice box) – laryng/o Glottis – (vocal apparatus) – glott/o’ Glottis – (vocal apparatus) – glott/o’ Epiglottis – (acts as a lid – covers the larynx during swallowing) – epiglott/o Epiglottis – (acts as a lid – covers the larynx during swallowing) – epiglott/o

11 Lower Respiratory System Lower Respiratory System Trachea (windpipe) - trache/o Trachea (windpipe) - trache/o Has C shape cartinlaginous rings. Has C shape cartinlaginous rings. Bronchi (bottom of the trachea) – bronch/o Bronchi (bottom of the trachea) – bronch/o Alveoli (air sacs in which most of the gas exchange occurs) – alveol/o Alveoli (air sacs in which most of the gas exchange occurs) – alveol/o Thorax (Cavity contained within the ribs) – thorac/o and –thorax Thorax (Cavity contained within the ribs) – thorac/o and –thorax Ribs – cost/o Ribs – cost/o Intercostal – between the ribs Intercostal – between the ribs Lungs (main organ of respiration) pneum/o pneumon/o and pneu all mean lungs or air. Pulm/o and pulmon/o mean lung. Lungs (main organ of respiration) pneum/o pneumon/o and pneu all mean lungs or air. Pulm/o and pulmon/o mean lung. Pleura (membranous sac which encases the lungs) – pleur/o Pleura (membranous sac which encases the lungs) – pleur/o

12 Diaphram (muscle and contraction of the diaphram causes air pressure in the lungs to drop below atmospheric pressure. This produces a vacuum in the thoracic cavity to draw in air) diaphragmat/o phren/o Diaphram (muscle and contraction of the diaphram causes air pressure in the lungs to drop below atmospheric pressure. This produces a vacuum in the thoracic cavity to draw in air) diaphragmat/o phren/o Breathing Breathing Inhalation – Drawing in of breath Inhalation – Drawing in of breath Exhalation – Release of breath Exhalation – Release of breath Spir/o – breath or breathing Spir/o – breath or breathing -pnea – breathing -pnea – breathing Apnea – Absence of breathing Apnea – Absence of breathing Dyspnea – Difficult or labored breathing Dyspnea – Difficult or labored breathing


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