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Medical Terminology. Objectives Upon completion of this unit you will be able to: –Identify and define the four word parts –Identify and define a combining.

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Presentation on theme: "Medical Terminology. Objectives Upon completion of this unit you will be able to: –Identify and define the four word parts –Identify and define a combining."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medical Terminology

2 Objectives Upon completion of this unit you will be able to: –Identify and define the four word parts –Identify and define a combining form –Analyze and define medical terms –Build medical terms for given definitions

3 Mrs. Jones is a 60 y/o admitted thru ER c abdominal pain in the RLQ. CXR, EKG, CBC and ABG’s were done stat. It was decided to perform an exploratory laparotomy, but suspects she will end up needing a bilateral salpingoophorectomy.

4 pneumonultramicroscopicsilicovolcanonconiosis

5 Origins of medical language Current medical vocabulary includes terms built from Greek and Latin word parts, some which were used by Hippocrates and Aristotle over 2000 years ago

6 Word Parts / Building Blocks Medical terms are built from word parts with some or all of the following components: Word roots Suffixes Prefixes Combining vowels Combining forms

7 Word Root The word root is the foundation of the word Usually indicates the part of the body involved All medical terms must have one or more word roots

8 Examples: In the word………………….. play/er (play is the word root) In the medical term ………… arthr/itis arthr (which means joint) is the word root In the medical term…………. hepat/it is hepat (which means liver) is the word root

9 Suffixes Suffix is the word part attached to the end of the word root to modify its meaning. The suffix usually indicates the procedure, disease, or condition All medical terms must have a suffix.

10 Examples: In the medical term…………..hepat/ic -ic (which means pertaining to) is the suffix The term hepatic means pertaining to the liver In the medical term ………… hepat/itis - itis (which means inflammation) is the suffix The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver (inflammation being a condition)

11 Prefix The prefix is a word part that is attached to the beginning of the word root to modify its meaning. It usually indicates location, time, color, or number Not all medical terms have prefixes

12 Examples: In the word ………………...re/play re- is the prefix In the medical term ………sub /hepat /ic sub- (which means under) The medical term subhepatic means pertaining to under the liver

13 Combining Vowel It links the root to the suffix or the root to another root The combining vowel is usually an “O” A combining vowel has no meaning of its own. It just joins word parts and makes them easier to pronounce

14 Combining vowels Guideline #1: –When connecting a root and a suffix a combining vowel is used unless the suffix begins with a vowel Guideline #2: –When connecting two word roots, a combining vowel is usually used even if vowels are present at the junction

15 Exercise 1: Complete the phrases with the correct word part: 1. A __ is attached at the beginning of a word root 2. ___ are usually an “o” 3. All medical terms contain one or more ___ 4. A ____is attached at the end of a word root. 5. The ______ _____ is the word root with the combining vowel attached True or False 6.There is always a prefix at the beginning of a medical term 7.A combining vowel is always used when connecting a word root and a suffix 8.A prefix modifies the meaning of the word 9.A combining vowel is used to ease pronunciation 10.“I” is the most commonly used combing vowel 11.The word root is the core of a medical term 12.A combining vowel is used between a prefix and word root 13.A combining form is a word part

16 Analyzing and defining Medical Terms osteoarthropathy To analyze a medical term divide it into word parts, label each word parts, and label the combining forms. Divide the word with slashes: oste / o/ arthr / o/ pathy Label each word part by using the following abbreviations: WRWORD ROOT PPREFIX SSUFFIX CVCOMBINING VOWEL

17 Example of dividing and labeling: WR CV WR CV S Oste / o / arthr /o / pathy CFCF

18 Putting it together! To define medical terms apply the meaning of each word part in the term. Begin by defining the suffix, then move to the beginning of the term to complete the definition

19 Fundamental rules for combining word parts Word partAbbr.Definition Rootwr Gives essential meaning to the word Usually body part involved Suffixs is the word ending Usually indicates, disease, procedure, or condition Prefixp Added to the beginning. Usually indicates times, number, color, position Combing vowelcv Connects roots to suffixes and root to other roots to make pronunciation easier Combining form cf Is the combination of the root and combining vowel

20 Root words Acr/o - extremities angi/o - vessel

21 arthr/o – joint

22 Common Medical Root Words cardi/o – heart cephal/o – head

23 col/o - colon cost/o – ribs

24 crani/o - skull cyst/o – sac containing fluid urinary bladder derm/o, dermat/o, cutane – skin

25 enter/o - intestines gastr/o - stomach hem/o – blood hemat/o

26 hepat/o - liver

27 my/o – muscle

28 nephr/o, ren/o – kidney

29 neur/o – nerve or/o - mouth

30 oste/o - bone ot/o – ear

31 pneum/o pulmon/o, - Lung

32 psych/o-mind

33 rhin/o – nose splen/o – spleen thorac/o- chest

34 Colors cyan/oblue erythr/ored leuk/owhite melan/oblack xanth/oyellow

35 Common Medical Suffixes -ac, -al, -ic pertaining to -algia pain -ectomy surgical removal -itis inflammation -malacia softening -megaly enlargement -ology the study of -ologist specialist

36 Common Medical Suffixes -oid-like, resembling -osis - abnormal condition -otomy- cut into -pathy – disease -scope- instrument to visually examine -oma-tumor

37 Common Medical Prefixes a - absence of; without ab- away from ad- toward, in the direction of ante- before anti- against auto - self dys- difficult, painful dors- back endo- within epi- above, upon

38 Common Medical Prefixes (cont.) hemi-half hyper- over, above, increased hypo- below, under, decreased inter- between, among intra- within, inside macro- large mal – bad micro - small peri - surrounding, around poly- many

39 Common Medical Prefixes post - after sub- under, less, below super- above, excessive, beyond tachy - fast (stop here)

40 Common Medical Abbreviations c – with s – without a – before p – after po – by mouth prn – as needed NPO – nothing by mouth

41 Common medical Abreviations ASAP – as soon as possible ABG’s- arterial blood gases ac – before meals amb – ambulate or to walk BP – blood pressure BS – blood sugar CBC – complete blood count c/o – complaining of CXR – chest x-ray

42 Common Medical Abbreviations DNR – do not resuscitate EKG – electrocardiogram ER - emergency room GI – gastrointestinal ICU – intensive care unit PACU – post-anesthesia care unit PT - physical therapy Pt - patient SOB – shortness of breath VS – vital signs W/C – wheel chair wnl - within normal limits y/o – year old

43 Common Medical Abbreviations stat – immediately IV – intravenous (within a vein) q.d. – every day b.i.d. – two times a day t.i.d. – three times a day q.i.d – four times a day Rx – prescription Tx - treatment

44 Common Medical Abbreviations Male female

45 Communication Connection A medication is to be taken once every day (q.d.), but a health care provider mistakenly writes q.i.d. on the prescription. What will be the result of writing the incorrect abbreviation?

46 A 76 y/o__ admitted amb. into the ER. c/o SOB and appears to be cyanotic. Tests ordered: ABG’s, CBC, CXR, and EKG STAT. IV started with 18 gauge butterfly infusing D5W at 20 gtts/min. VS wnl. Pt. to be sent to ICU per w/c ASAP. RX of Lanoxin 25 mg to be given po c meals qd


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