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Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. CHAPTER 6 Skeletal System.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. CHAPTER 6 Skeletal System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. CHAPTER 6 Skeletal System

2 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Skeletal System Human skeleton consists of 206 bones –Serves as supporting framework of body –Protects vital internal organs –Important role in movement = attachments for muscles –Reservoir for storing minerals –Red bone marrow = blood cell formation

3 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Structure Diaphysis –Main shaft-like portion of a long bone –Compact bone Epiphysis –Located at each end of a long bone Epiphyseal line –Separates diaphysis from epiphysis

4 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Structure Periosteum –Covers the surface of the long bone Articular cartilage –Covers joint surfaces

5 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Structure Medullary (marrow) cavity –Contains yellow marrow Spongy bone (trabeculae) –Also called cancellous bone

6 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Structure Red bone marrow –Site for blood cell production Yellow marrow –Stores fat

7 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Structure

8 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question The bony skeleton serves many purposes EXCEPT: a.structure b.movement c.digestion d.red cell production

9 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question True or False: To keep epiphysis and diaphysis straight, remember that epi- means outermost and dia- means through.

10 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Markings Bone markings = specific features of bones –Enlargements that extend out from the bone –Openings within the bone –Hollow regions within the bone –Points of attachment for muscles and tendons –Points for joining one bone to another –Cavities and passages for nerves and blood vessels

11 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Depressions Concave areas or openings in a bone –Help form joints –Serve as points of attachment for muscle Sulcus –Groove or depression in a bone Example = fissure

12 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Depressions Sinus –Opening or hollow space in a bone Example = frontal sinus Fossa –Hollow or shallow concave depression in bone Example = fossa of the iliac (hip) bone

13 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bone Depressions Foramen –Hole within a bone for blood vessels or nerves to pass through Example = foramen magnum of the skull

14 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question What do you think passes through the foramen magnum ("great hole") on the underside of the skull? a.neck muscles b.spinal cavity c.ball-and-socket joint d.aorta

15 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Cranial Bones Cranium = bony skull –Envelops brain –Composed of eight bones Immovable bones –Borders meet to form immovable joints Immovable joints = sutures

16 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Cranial Bones

17 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Facial Bones Two bones provide distinctive shape to face –Maxillae (upper jaw bones) –Mandible (lower jaw bone) All facial bones connected by immovable joints (sutures) –One exception (mandible)

18 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Facial Bones

19 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question True or False: The immovable joints in the skull and face are called fissures.

20 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Vertebral Bones Form long axis of the body Referred to as spinal column or backbone 24 vertebrae + sacrum + coccyx Offer protection to spinal cord

21 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Vertebral Bones Cervical vertebrae –Vertebrae of the neck (cervic/o = neck) –Identified as C 1 - C 7 Thoracic vertebrae –Vertebrae of the chest (thorac/o = chest) –Identified as T 1 - T 12

22 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Vertebral Bones Lumbar vertebrae –Vertebrae of lower back (lumb/o = lower back, loins) –Identified as L 1 - L 5

23 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Vertebral Bones Sacrum –Singular, triangular shaped bone –Resulted from fusion of five individual sacral bones in the child Coccyx –Also called “tailbone” –Resulted from fusion of four individual coccygeal bones in the child

24 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question True or False: The first three segments of the vertebral column are named by their corresponding body position.

25 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bones of the Thorax True ribs (ribs 1-7) –Attach to sternum in front and vertebrae in back False ribs (ribs 8-10) –Attach to vertebrae in back but attach to cartilage of 7th rib in front – not the sternum Floating ribs (ribs 11-12) –Attach to vertebrae in back –Completely free of attachment in front

26 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bones of the Upper Extremities

27 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Pelvic Bones

28 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bones of the Lower Extremities Femur –Thigh bone Patella –Knee bone or kneecap

29 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bones of the Lower Extremities Tibia –Larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones Fibula –More slender of the two lower leg bones

30 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Bones of the Ankle and Foot Ankle bones (tarsals) –Calcaneus –Talus bone Foot bones –Metatarsals –Phalanges

31 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question The false ribs connect to the cartilage of rib number ____ instead of the sternum. a.7 b.11 c.1 d.9

32 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question The carpals are to the wrist as the _______ are to the ankle. a.phalanges b.tarsals c.metatarsals d.metacarpals

33 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Skeletal System

34 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Osteomalacia Pronounced –(oss-tee-oh-mah-LAY-she-ah) Defined –Abnormal softening of the bones due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood, which are necessary for bone mineralization

35 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Osteomyelitis Pronounced –(oss-tee-oh-my-ell-EYE-tis) Defined –A local or generalized infection of the bone and bone marrow –Resulting from a bacterial infection that has spread to the bone tissue through the blood

36 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Osteoporosis Pronounced –(oss-tee-oh-poh-ROW-sis) Defined –Porous bones –Bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density

37 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Osteoporosis

38 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question True or False: Osteoporosis and osteomalacia are describing the same problem, but one is more severe than the other.

39 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Ewing’s Sarcoma Pronounced –(YOO-wings sar-KOH-mah) Defined –Malignant tumor of the bones common to young adults, particularly adolescent boys

40 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Osteogenic Sarcoma Pronounced –(oss-tee-oh-JEN-ic sar-KOH-mah) Defined –Malignant tumor arising from bone –Also known as osteosarcoma

41 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Osteochondroma Pronounced –(oss-tee-oh-kon-DROH-mah) Defined –Most common benign bone tumor –Most frequently involves the femur and tibia

42 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Paget’s Disease Pronounced –(PAJ-ets dih-ZEEZ) Defined –Nonmetabolic disease of the bone –Characterized by excessive bone destruction and unorganized bone formation by the osteoblasts Bone is weak and prone to fractures

43 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Spinal Stenosis Pronounced –(SPIGH-nal stin-OH-sis) Defined –Narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina Openings of the lumbar spinal canal –Causes pressure on nerve roots prior to their exit from the foramina

44 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Talipes Equinovarus Pronounced –(TAL-ih-peez eh-kwine-oh-VAIR-us) Defined –Clubfoot

45 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Talipes Equinovarus Photo courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

46 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question If chondr- means cartilage, what do you think the term osteochondroma literally means? a.cartilaginous tumor of the bone b.bony tumor of the cartilage c.tumor of bone or cartilage d.tumor of bone and cartilage

47 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Abnormal Curvature of the Spine Kyphosis –Outward curvature = humpback or hunchback Lordosis –Inward curvature = swayback Scoliosis –Lateral (sideward) curvature

48 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Abnormal Curvature of the Spine

49 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Fracture: Broken Bone Closed fracture –Break in the bone but no open wound in skin –Simple fracture Open fracture –Break in the bone, as well as an open wound in skin –Compound fracture

50 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Fracture: Broken Bone Complete fracture –Break extends through the entire thickness of bone Incomplete fracture –One side of bone is broken and one side of bone is bent considerably but not broken –Greenstick fracture

51 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Fracture: Broken Bone Compression fracture –Caused by bone surfaces being forced against each other Impacted fracture –Direct force causes bone to break –Forces broken end of smaller bone into broken end of larger bone

52 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Fracture: Broken Bone Colles’ fracture –Break occurs at lower end of the radius –Within 1 inch of connecting with wrist bones Hairline fracture –Minor fracture in which the bone continues to be in perfect alignment –Also known as a stress fracture

53 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Fracture: Broken Bone Pathological fracture –Bone is weakened by a preexisting disease –Break is in response to a force that would not cause a normal bone to break Treatment of fractures –Closed reduction –Open reduction

54 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question I jumped down from a ledge and heard a crack in my shin. X-rays showed that the broken ends of bone were forced into each other. This is called a(n) __________ fracture. a.greenstick b.incomplete c.comminuted d.impacted

55 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question True or False: A comminuted fracture can usually be treated with a closed reduction (no surgery).

56 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS, AND PROCEDURES Skeletal System

57 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures Bone scan –Intravenous injection of a radioisotope, which is absorbed by bone tissue –Followed by scanning of the skeleton approximately three hours later to detect areas where the bone absorbs the isotope

58 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures (A) anterior view (B) posterior view AB

59 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures Bone marrow aspiration –Removal of a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle –Specimen is examined under a microscope –Sterile technique

60 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures Noninvasive procedures for evaluating bone density –Dual photon absorptiometry –Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

61 Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Question True or False: The most common method to check for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis is the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan.


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