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Lecture Notes Lecture Notes A PowerPoint Presentation Classroom Activity to Accompany Medical Terminology Systems, Seventh Edition Barbara A. Gylys ∙ Mary.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture Notes Lecture Notes A PowerPoint Presentation Classroom Activity to Accompany Medical Terminology Systems, Seventh Edition Barbara A. Gylys ∙ Mary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture Notes Lecture Notes A PowerPoint Presentation Classroom Activity to Accompany Medical Terminology Systems, Seventh Edition Barbara A. Gylys ∙ Mary Ellen Wedding 7 Respiratory System

2 2 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and Function Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Lungs Alveoli

3 3 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and Function (continued) Trachea (windpipe) Tube that extends from lower edge of the larynx downward into the thoracic cavity Rings of cartilage to help keep airways open

4 4 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and Function (continued) Bronchial tree Lower part of the trachea that divides into the right and left bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli Transport of air from the trachea over a wide area as quickly as possible

5 5 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and Function (continued) Bronchioles Smaller divisions of the bronchi Walls of smooth muscle to allow contraction and expansion, thereby regulating airflow to the alveoli

6 6 Alveoli Tiny sacs located at the end of the alveolar ducts O 2 and CO 2 exchange between the alveolus and the capillary surrounding it Loss of alveolar wall elasticity from respiratory disease, making breathing difficult, especially when exhaling 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and Function (continued)

7 7 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and Function (continued) Respiration External Internal Other functions (with help of the cardiovascular system) Transport of O 2 to body cells Removal of CO 2, a waste product of cell metabolism

8 8 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and Function Exercise 1.Name the main structures of the respiratory system. 2.Name the smaller branches of the bronchi. 3.Name the tiny air sacs in the lungs.

9 9 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and Function Exercise 1.Name the main structures of the respiratory system. nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs 2.Name the smaller branches of the bronchi. bronchioles 3.Name the tiny air sacs in the lungs. alveoli

10 10 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and Function Exercise 4.What do the abbreviations O 2 and CO 2 mean? 5.What body system helps the respiratory system transport O 2 and remove CO 2 from body cells? 6.What does the abbreviation OSA mean?

11 11 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and Function Exercise 4.What do the abbreviations O 2 and CO 2 mean? O 2 means oxygen; CO 2 means carbon dioxide. 5.What body system helps the respiratory system transport O 2 and remove CO 2 from body cells? The cardiovascular system helps transport O 2 to body cells and removes CO 2 from body cells. 6.What does the abbreviation OSA mean? obstructive sleep apnea

12 12 Combining Forms Exercise List the CF(s) for: 1.alveolus: 2.larynx: 3.nose: 4.pleura: 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

13 13 Combining Forms Exercise 1.alveolus:alveol/o 2.larynx: laryng/o 3.nose: nas/o, rhin/o 4.pleura: pleur/o RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7

14 14 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Combining Forms Exercise 5.pharynx: 6.tonsils: 7.trachea: 8.lung:

15 15 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Combining Forms Exercise 5.pharynx: pharyng/o 6.tonsils: tonsill/o 7.trachea: trache/o 8.lung: pulmon/o, pneum/o, pneumon/o

16 16 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Combining Forms Exercise 9. bronchus (plural, bronchi): 10. bronchioles: 11. chest: 12. diaphragm:

17 17 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Combining Forms Exercise 9. bronchus (plural, bronchi): bronch/o, bronchi/o 10. bronchioles: bronchiol/o 11. chest: thorac/o 12. diaphragm: phren/o

18 18 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Combining Forms Exercise 13.straight: 14.mucus: 15.blue:

19 19 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Combining Forms Exercise 13.straight: orth/o 14.mucus: muc/o 15.blue: cyan/o

20 20 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Plural Forms Exercise 1.What is the plural form of alveolus? 2.What is the plural form of bronchus? 3.What is the plural form of pleura?

21 21 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Plural Forms Exercise 1.What is the plural form of alveolus? alveoli 2.What is the plural form of bronchus? bronchi 3.What is the plural form of pleura? pleurae

22 22 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Complete the Medical Word Exercise 1.resembling the adenoids: / 2.paralysis of the larynx (voice box): /o/ 3.visual examination of the bronchi: /o/ 4.incision of the trachea: /o/

23 23 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Complete the Medical Word Exercise 1.resembling the adenoids: aden/oid 2.paralysis of the larynx (voice box): laryng/o/plegia 3.visual examination of the bronchi: bronch/o/scopy 4.incision of the trachea: trache/o/tomy

24 24 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Complete the Medical Word Exercise 5. paralysis of the diaphragm: /o/ 6. disease of the chest: /o/ 7. rapid breathing: tachy/

25 25 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Complete the Medical Word Exercise 5.paralysis of the diaphragm: phren/o/plegia 6.disease of the chest: thorac/o/pathy 7.rapid breathing: tachy/pnea

26 26 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Build Medical Words Exercise 1.excision of tonsils: 2.resembling mucus: 3.surgical repair of the nose:

27 27 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Build Medical Words Exercise 1.excision of tonsils: tonsill/ectomy 2.resembling mucus: muc/oid 3.surgical repair of the nose: rhino/plasty

28 28 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Build Medical Words Exercise 4.specialist in (treatment of) lungs: 5.swallowing air: 6.absence of breathing:

29 29 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Build Medical Words Exercise 4.specialist in (treatment of) lungs: pulmon/o/logist 5.swallowing air: aer/o/phagia 6.absence of breathing: a/pnea

30 30 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions Bronchiectasis Dilation of bronchial airways, as shown in the illustration Dilated areas becoming flabby and scarred Possibly localized or spreading throughout the lungs

31 31 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Bronchiectasis (continued) Pooling of secretions that are difficult to cough up, creating an environment where bacteria can flourish, thus causing infection Usually occurring secondary to another chronic respiratory condition, such as cystic fibrosis, asthma, bronchitis, or exposure to a toxin

32 32 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Bronchiectasis (continued) Signs and symptoms Productive cough over months or years Shortness of breath Wheezing Chest pain Finger clubbing

33 33 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Bronchiectasis (continued) Treatment Control of infections and bronchial secretions Relief of airway obstruction Regular, daily drainage to remove bronchial secretions Antibiotics, bronchodilators, mucolytics, and expectorants

34 34 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mr. M. has poorly controlled asthma and difficulty breathing, especially during the past 4 months. Besides retaining mucus, his bronchial passages are infected. The recurrent inflammation or infection of the airways has resulted in a condition known as (atelectasis, bronchiectasis, pleuroclysis).

35 35 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mr. M. has poorly controlled asthma and difficulty breathing, especially during the past 4 months. Besides retaining mucus, his bronchial passages are infected. The recurrent inflammation or infection of the airways has resulted in a condition known as (atelectasis, bronchiectasis, pleuroclysis).

36 36 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Clinically Related Exercise 2.Ms. J. is diagnosed with bronchiectasis, which resulted from a chronic respiratory condition known as cystic fibrosis. She has difficulty coughing up bacterial secretions and has now developed a lung (compliance, infection, tumor).

37 37 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Clinically Related Exercise 2.Ms. J. is diagnosed with bronchiectasis, which resulted from a chronic respiratory condition known as cystic fibrosis. She has difficulty coughing up bacterial secretions and has now developed a lung (compliance, infection, tumor).

38 38 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Pulmonary Embolism Foreign object that travels through the blood stream Possibly a blood clot, air, or fat Usually a blood clot that has traveled into a pulmonary artery (as shown in the illustration)

39 39 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Pulmonary Embolism (continued) Signs and symptoms Shortness of breath Chest pain Hemoptysis Edema Acrocyanosis Finger clubbing

40 40 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Pulmonary Embolism (continued) Treatment Anticoagulant therapy Thrombolytics (clot busters) Insertion of small filters to remove the embolism from the blood stream Surgical embolectomy (possibly required in life- threatening cases)

41 41 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mr. P. presents to the ER and is diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism. His chief complaint is that he spits up blood in his sputum. This condition is charted as (hemolysin, hemoptysis, hemolysis).

42 42 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mr. P. presents to the ER and is diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism. His chief complaint is that he spits up blood in his sputum. This condition is charted as (hemolysin, hemoptysis, hemolysis).

43 43 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 2.Mr. L. undergoes knee replacement. He is advised that a complication of this surgery is the development of blood clots that may break loose and travel to the lungs. This is a serious condition known as a pulmonary (aneurysm, edema, embolism).

44 44 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 2.Mr. L. undergoes knee replacement. He is advised that a complication of this surgery is the development of blood clots that may break loose and travel to the lungs. This is a serious condition known as a pulmonary (aneurysm, edema, embolism).

45 45 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Sleep Apnea Breathing at night repeatedly stops and starts Serious symptom, especially in patients with other life- threatening conditions Accompanied by snoring loud enough to disturb others

46 46 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Sleep Apnea (continued) More common in males and older adults Three forms Obstructive, in which throat muscles relax due to obstruction of the airway (by the soft palate or obesity of the neck) Central, in which the brain does not send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing Complex, a combination of obstructive and central

47 47 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Sleep Apnea (continued) Signs and symptoms In premature infants, failure of the immature CNS to maintain a consistent respiratory rate, causing long pauses between periods of regular breathing Susceptibility of middle-aged, obese patients who snore excessively due to obstructive sleep apnea Breathing may stop as many as 30 times during the night (commonly caused by the soft palate blocking the airway or obesity of the neck), leading to gasping respirations that commonly awakens the patient

48 48 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Sleep Apnea (continued) Treatment Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPP) Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) apparatus to keep airway open in adults Apnea monitor in the hospital and at home for infants

49 49 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mrs. S. is diagnosed with sleep apnea and asks the nurse to explain this disorder. 2.Ms. M. presents for an excision of tonsils and adenoids as a treatment for sleep apnea. The abbreviation for excision of the tonsils and adenoids is.

50 50 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mrs. S. is diagnosed with sleep apnea and asks the nurse to explain this disorder. She explains that this condition occurs when an individal’s breathing at night repeatedly stops and starts. 2.Ms. M. presents for an excision of tonsils and adenoids as a treatment of sleep apnea. The abbreviation for excision of the tonsils and adenoids is T&A.

51 51 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 3.Mary is prescribed a CPAP machine. The respiratory therapist explains that it will help keep her airway open at night so she can breathe normally. The medical term for normal breathing is (apnea, dyspnea, eupnea).

52 52 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 3.Mary is prescribed a CPAP machine. The respiratory therapist explains that it will help keep her airway open at night so she can breathe normally. The medical term for normal breathing is (apnea, dyspnea, eupnea).

53 53 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 4.Mr. M. complains of excessive snoring at night that awakens him and causes him to gasp for breath. The physician explains that he has a common condition for middle-aged, obese men in which temporary cessation of breathing occurs. This condition is known as sleep (apnea, dyspnea, eupnea).

54 54 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 4.Mr. M. complains of excessive snoring at night that awakens him and causes him to gasp for breath. The physician explains that he has a common condition for middle-aged, obese men in which temporary cessation of breathing occurs. This condition is known as sleep (apnea, dyspnea, eupnea).

55 55 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Lung Cancer Comprising various malignant neoplasms in the trachea, bronchi, or air sacs of the lungs Leading cancer killer in men and women Commonly metastasizing to surrounding tissue Three main types Squamous cell Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma

56 56 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Lung Cancer (continued) Signs and symptoms Difficult to detect in early stage (usually no symptoms until later stages) Smoker’s cough, wheezing Chest pain, dyspnea Hemoptysis Risk factors Chemical exposure History of smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke

57 57 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Lung Cancer (continued) Treatment Depending on the type of malignancy Combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy Common metastasization to other tissues by the time of diagnosis Commonly, metastasis to the brain, liver, and bone

58 58 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mr. O. sprays paint on cars and admits he does not wear a face mask during his work hours. He has also smoked two packs per day for 15 years. His doctor tells him he has two risk factors for developing lung cancer. What are these factors?

59 59 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mr. O. sprays paint on cars and admits he does not wear a face mask during his work hours. He has also smoked two packs per day for 15 years. His doctor tells him he has two risk factors for developing lung cancer. What are these factors? Smoking and inhaling toxic substances are risk factors for developing lung cancer.

60 60 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 2.Ms. B. has smoked one pack per day for the past 8 years and is concerned about contracting lung cancer. How should the doctor respond when she asks how she can reduce her chances of contracting this disease?

61 61 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 2.Ms. B. has smoked one pack per day for the past 8 years and is concerned about contracting lung cancer. How should the doctor respond when she asks how she can reduce her chances of contracting this disease? If she stops smoking during early precancerous cellular changes, damaged bronchial lining tissues commonly return to normal.

62 62 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 3.Mr. D. undergoes visual examination of his interior bronchi with biopsy to confirm a diagnosis of lung cancer. The physician documents the visual examination of the bronchi as a(n).

63 63 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 3.Mr. D. undergoes visual examination of his interior bronchi with biopsy to confirm a diagnosis of lung cancer. The physician documents the visual examination of the bronchi as a bronchoscopy.

64 64 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 4.Ms. T. is diagnosed with advanced lung cancer and asks why it was not detected last year during her annual physical examination. How should the nurse respond?

65 65 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 4.Ms. T. is diagnosed with advanced lung cancer and asks why it was not detected last year during her annual physical examination. How should the nurse respond? Early-stage lung cancer usually produces no symptoms and is difficult to detect. When symptoms appear, cancer commonly has metastasized to tissues, such as the brain, liver, and bone.

66 66 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Upper Airway Obstruction Acute blockage in any of the upper airway structures, including the: trachea larynx throat Commonly caused by infections, allergic reactions, throat cancer, or trauma

67 67 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Upper Airway Obstruction (continued) Signs and symptoms Varying, depending on the cause of obstruction Some common to all types of obstruction Cyanosis Difficulty breathing Choking Confusion, panic Loss of consciousness

68 68 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diseases and Conditions (continued) Upper Airway Obstruction (continued) Treatment Depending on the cause of the blockage Removal of objects lodged in the airway with a laryngoscope or bronchoscope Possible tube insertion into the airway (endotracheal tube or nasotracheal tube) Creation of an opening directly into the airway (tracheostomy), if needed

69 69 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Dr. Jones is concerned that Mrs. M. has an airway blockage. The patient asks if there is a test to confirm the blockage. How should the doctor respond?

70 70 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Dr. Jones is concerned that Mrs. M. has an airway blockage. The patient asks if there is a test to confirm the blockage. How should the doctor respond? Bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, and radiography are common diagnostic tests used to confirm a blockage.

71 71 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 2.Mr. C.’s x-ray shows a small foreign object lodged in his larynx. The physician removes the object with an instrument called a(n).

72 72 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 2.Mr. C.’s x-ray shows a small foreign object lodged in his larynx. The physician removes the object with an instrument called a laryngoscope.

73 73 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 3.An opening into the trachea is created to maintain an open airway. This surgical procedure is documented as a(n). 4.The anesthesiologist inserts a catheter directly into the trachea to help the patient maintain normal breathing while under general anesthesia. This catheter is known as a(n) (draining, endotracheal, suction) tube.

74 74 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 3.An opening into the trachea is created to maintain an open airway. This surgical procedure is documented as a tracheostomy. 4.The anesthesiologist inserts a catheter directly into the trachea to help the patient maintain normal breathing while under general anesthesia. This catheter is known as an (draining, endotracheal, suction) tube.

75 75 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Vocabulary Challenge Exercise 1.atelectasis: 2.consolidation: 3.coryza:

76 76 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Vocabulary Challenge Exercise 1.atelectasis: collapsed or airless condition of the lung(s) 2.consolidation: process of becoming solid (used especially in describing lung diseases) 3.coryza: acute inflammation of the nasal mucosa accompanied by profuse nasal discharge; also called rhinitis or a cold

77 77 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Vocabulary Challenge Exercise 4.epistaxis: 5.rhonchi: 6.stridor:

78 78 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Vocabulary Challenge Exercise 4.epistaxis: bleeding from the nose; also called nosebleed, nasal hemorrhage, or rhinorrhagia 5.rhonchi: abnormal respiratory sound resembling snoring, caused by blockage in the larger airways 6.stridor: high-pitched sound heard on inspiration that may indicate a serious airway obstruction

79 79 Medical and Surgical Procedures Endotracheal intubation Tube placed through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea Used to establish an airway RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7

80 80 Medical and Surgical Procedures (continued) Laryngectomy Removal of all or part of the larynx Illustration: Airflow before laryngectomy (A) and airflow after laryngectomy (B) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7

81 81 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Medical and Surgical Procedures (continued) Lavage Irrigation of paranasal sinuses to remove mucopurulent material Postural drainage Body positioned so gravity helps remove secretions from the lung or bronchi and coughing will usually expel secretions from the trachea

82 82 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Medical and Surgical Procedures (continued) Septoplasty Correction of a deviated nasal septum, the dividing partition separating the right and left nostrils Difficulty breathing caused by deviation of septum that may impede airflow through the nose Removal of cartilage or bone usually required to restore normal nasal breathing

83 83 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mr. W. fell off his bike which resulted in facial lacerations and a nasal fracture. His septum now completely blocks his right nostril. The surgeon will perform a surgical repair of the septum. This surgery is called.

84 84 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mr. W. fell off his bike which resulted in facial lacerations and a nasal fracture. His septum now completely blocks his right nostril. The surgeon will perform a surgical repair of the septum. This surgery is called septoplasty.

85 85 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Medical and Surgical Procedures (continued) Tracheostomy Surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck to provide and secure an open airway

86 86 Medical and Surgical Procedures (continued) Mechanical ventilation Ventilator: device that provides respiratory assistance for a patient who is unable to breathe (as shown in illustration) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7

87 87 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Medical and Surgical Procedures (continued) Oxygen therapy Oxygen administration most commonly via nasal cannula Oxygen delivery through a flexible catheter that has two short nasal prongs, as shown in the illustration

88 88 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mr. J. has a history of smoking two packs per day for 30 years. He is diagnosed with throat cancer and presents to the hospital for an excision of the larynx. What is this surgical procedure called?

89 89 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 1.Mr. J. has a history of smoking two packs per day for 30 years. He is diagnosed with throat cancer and presents to the hospital for an excision of the larynx. What is this surgical procedure called? laryngectomy

90 90 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 2.Mr. M. has accumulated thick mucus in his lungs due to a prolonged respiratory infection. As part of his treatment, his head must be positioned below the affected lung area. The use of body positioning to facilitate removal of mucus is called postural.

91 91 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 2.Mr. M. has accumulated thick mucus in his lungs due to a prolonged respiratory infection. As part of his treatment, his head must be positioned below the affected lung area. The use of body positioning to facilitate removal of mucus is called postural drainage.

92 92 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 3.Mrs. S. presents to the ED with cyanosis caused by an obstructed airway. The physician incises the trachea to open it below the blockage and restore breathing. An incision into the trachea is known as (tracheocentesis, tracheostenosis, tracheotomy).

93 93 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 3.Mrs. S. presents to the ED with cyanosis caused by an obstructed airway. The physician incises the trachea to open it below the blockage and restore breathing. An incision into the trachea is known as (tracheocentesis, tracheostenosis, tracheotomy).

94 94 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 4.Once in the recovery room following her T&A, Mrs. Q. wears a small finger monitor that provides information regarding her oxygen saturation in the blood. This finger- clip device is known as a(n) (aspirator, oximeter, spirometer).

95 95 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Clinically Related Exercise 4.Once in the recovery room following her T&A, Mrs. Q. wears a small finger monitor that provides information regarding her oxygen saturation in the blood. This finger- clip device is known as an (aspirator, oximeter, spirometer).

96 96 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diagnostic Procedures Bronchoscopy Tissue biopsy for detecting cancer in the lungs Removal of obstruction (tissue or other) or direct observation of pathological changes

97 97 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diagnostic Procedures (continued) Thoracentesis Removal of fluid from the pleural space for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes (see illustration) Throat culture Identifies the microbe (bacterium or fungus) causing a throat infection, with results usually available within 2 days

98 98 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Diagnostic Procedures (continued) Arterial blood gas (ABG) Magnetic resonance imaging MRI) Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) Sweat test Measurement of the amounts of chloride in sweat Considered the most reliable test for diagnosis of CF Concentration of chloride in sweat of children with cystic fibrosis two to five times greater than in healthy children

99 99 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 7 Build a Medical Word Exercise 1.visual examination of the bronchi: 2.surgical puncture of the chest: 3.forming an opening (mouth) in the trachea:

100 100 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Build a Medical Word Exercise 1.visual examination of the bronchi: bronch/o/scopy 2.surgical puncture of the chest: thor/a/centesis or thorac/o/centesis 3.forming an opening (mouth) in the trachea: trache/o/stomy

101 101 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Build a Medical Word Exercise 4.visual examination of the larynx: 5.instrument for examining the larynx: 6.incision of the trachea:

102 102 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Build a Medical Word Exercise 4.visual examination of the larynx: laryng/o/scopy 5.instrument for examining the larynx: laryng/o/scope 6.incision of the trachea: trache/o/tomy

103 103 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Build a Medical Word Exercise 7.process of recording radiation or an x-ray: 8.act of measuring oxygen: 9.act of measuring breath (breathing):

104 104 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Build a Medical Word Exercise 7.process of recording radiation or an x-ray: radi/o/graphy 8.act of measuring oxygen: ox/i/metry 9.act of measuring breath (breathing): spir/o/metry

105 105 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Pharmacology Bronchodilators Drugs used to increase airflow by dilating constricted airways of the bronchioles and bronchi via a metered-dose inhaler (MDI), as shown in the illustration Corticosteroids

106 106 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Pharmacology (continued) Nebulized mist treatments (NMTs) Drugs used to deliver medications as a fine mist directly into the lungs when the patient inhales, as shown in the illustration

107 107 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Clinically Related Exercise 1.To reduce airway inflammation in an asthmatic patient, the doctor prescribes a(n) (antibiotic, corticosteroid, expectorant). 2.Ms. C. presents with a chief complaint of shortness of breath upon exertion. Medication is prescribed to expand the bronchial airways via an MDI. This medication is known as a(n) (antihistamine, bronchodilator, expectorant).

108 108 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Clinically Related Exercise 1.To reduce airway inflammation in an asthmatic patient, the doctor prescribes a (antibiotic, corticosteroid, expectorant). 2.Ms. C. presents with a chief complaint of shortness of breath upon exertion. Medication is prescribed to expand the bronchial airways via an MDI. This medication is known as a (antihistamine, bronchodilator, expectorant).

109 109 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Clinically Related Exercise 3.Upon inhalation, a fine spray delivers medication into the lungs. The device used for this treatment is a(n) (bronchoscope, intubator, nebulizer). 4.To reduce sputum thickness and increase the ability to cough it up, the physician prescribes a(n) (antibiotic, corticosteroid, expectorant).

110 110 7 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Clinically Related Exercise 3.Upon inhalation, a fine spray delivers medication into the lungs. The device used for this treatment is a (bronchoscope, intubator, nebulizer). 4.To reduce sputum thickness and increase the ability to cough it up, the physician prescribes an (antibiotic, corticosteroid, expectorant).

111 111 Copyright © 2013 by F.A. Davis Company. All rights reserved. This product is protected by copyright. No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means— electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without written permission from the publisher.


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