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Lung Transplant Dave Sweet. CASE You are currently the fellow working at VGH and as you come in Monday morning the charge nurse tells you that there are.

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Presentation on theme: "Lung Transplant Dave Sweet. CASE You are currently the fellow working at VGH and as you come in Monday morning the charge nurse tells you that there are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lung Transplant Dave Sweet

2 CASE You are currently the fellow working at VGH and as you come in Monday morning the charge nurse tells you that there are several transplants going on today including a lung transplant and that we are holding a bed. You have several resident working with you that are very excited and they start firing questions off…. You are currently the fellow working at VGH and as you come in Monday morning the charge nurse tells you that there are several transplants going on today including a lung transplant and that we are holding a bed. You have several resident working with you that are very excited and they start firing questions off….

3 CASE What diseases are currently we doing lung transplants for? What diseases are currently we doing lung transplants for? 1) Alpha1-antitrypsin 2) CF 3) COPD 4) IPF (UIP and occ NSIP) 5) IPAH (including Eisenmengers) 6) Sarcoidosis

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5 CASE What are the general goals for determining the appropriateness of a lung transplant in a individual patient? What are the general goals for determining the appropriateness of a lung transplant in a individual patient?

6 General Principles Need to consider the natural history and prognosis of primary disease and weigh against projected survival post transplant. Need to consider the natural history and prognosis of primary disease and weigh against projected survival post transplant. Ultimate goal= Ultimate goal= Obtain max mileage from native lung, conferring a greater overall survival time with new lung. Obtain max mileage from native lung, conferring a greater overall survival time with new lung. Avoiding death on the waiting list. Avoiding death on the waiting list.

7 General Principles Consider quality of life while on waiting list compared to quality of life with new lung. Consider quality of life while on waiting list compared to quality of life with new lung. Traditionally, looked at the median 2-year posttransplant survival rate and compared this to projected survival with underlying condition. Traditionally, looked at the median 2-year posttransplant survival rate and compared this to projected survival with underlying condition. When former=longer….patients are transplant candidates. When former=longer….patients are transplant candidates.

8 General Principles 2 year survival rate is not arbitrary number. Two reasons why used. 2 year survival rate is not arbitrary number. Two reasons why used. 1) Average waiting time is around 2 yrs. 2) Based on disease the first month mortality varies greatly. …..but then the mortality decreases relatively linearly. This will compensate for this.

9 CASE Do the survival rates for different diseases vary post transplant? What is the generally quoted first month mortality? Do the survival rates for different diseases vary post transplant? What is the generally quoted first month mortality?

10 CASE First month mortality quoted as 7% to 24%

11 CASE Which diseases are thought to have the greatest survival advantages? Which diseases are questionable? Which diseases are thought to have the greatest survival advantages? Which diseases are questionable?

12 Survival advantage? Use of time-dependent, nonproportional hazard models, equity points, and crossover points. Use of time-dependent, nonproportional hazard models, equity points, and crossover points. Survival benefit demonstrated with: Survival benefit demonstrated with: 1) CF 2) IPF 3) IPAH Critical Care Aspects of Lung Transplantation. Journal of Intensive Care Med 19(2); 2004

13 Survival advantage? However, also raised questions about any survival benefit for px with However, also raised questions about any survival benefit for px with 1) COPD 2) Eisenmener syndrome But in addition to survival, quality of life also needs to be taken into consideration. ie) COPD px changes in quality-adjusted life-years may be sufficient to justify transplantation.

14 Survival advantage?

15 CASE What are the indications for lung transplantation for these various diseases based on the ATS 1998 consensus statement? What are the indications for lung transplantation for these various diseases based on the ATS 1998 consensus statement?

16 Indications COPD COPD FEV1< 25% (without reversibility) FEV1< 25% (without reversibility) And/or PaCO2 >55 and/or elevated PAP with progressive deterioration And/or PaCO2 >55 and/or elevated PAP with progressive deterioration Preference to those px with: Preference to those px with: - elevated PaCO2 with progressive deterioration - require long term oxygen therapy. Nathan et al. Lung Transplantation: Disease-Specific Considerations for referral. Chest 2005;127:

17 Indications Interesting……the level of subjective dyspnea my be a better predictor of mortality than FEV1. Interesting……the level of subjective dyspnea my be a better predictor of mortality than FEV1. ie) grade IV dyspnea= stopping to take a breath during 100 yrd walk. ie) grade IV dyspnea= stopping to take a breath during 100 yrd walk. - median survival of 3 yrs, which is comparable to 3 yr posttransplant survival rate (61%) In contrast, FEV1<35% pred had a median survival of 5 yrs. In contrast, FEV1<35% pred had a median survival of 5 yrs.

18 Indications Currently several other models being investigated which incorporate a number of diff parameters such as the BODE index. Currently several other models being investigated which incorporate a number of diff parameters such as the BODE index. Body weight, Obstruction, Dyspnea level, Exercise tolerance. Body weight, Obstruction, Dyspnea level, Exercise tolerance. Score out of 10. Score out of =80% mort at 52 months (transplant cand) 7-10=80% mort at 52 months (transplant cand) <7= 5 yr mort of <50% (not transplant cand) <7= 5 yr mort of <50% (not transplant cand)

19 Indications IPF: IPF: Divided now into UIP and NSIP Divided now into UIP and NSIP UIP=When diagnosed should be referred!!! UIP=When diagnosed should be referred!!! Traditionally, break points at FVC of 60-70% and DLCO of 50-60% are indicative for poor outcome. Very inconsistent. Traditionally, break points at FVC of 60-70% and DLCO of 50-60% are indicative for poor outcome. Very inconsistent.

20 Indications Other models look at DLCO and HRCT scan to help predict mortality (May see in future!) Other models look at DLCO and HRCT scan to help predict mortality (May see in future!) Also, one of the most sensitive markers may be desaturation to less than 89% during a 6 min walk. Also, one of the most sensitive markers may be desaturation to less than 89% during a 6 min walk. If able to maintain sats may be able to defer transplant referral. If able to maintain sats may be able to defer transplant referral.

21 Indications NSIP: NSIP: True NSIP have much better prognosis and majority will not need transplant. True NSIP have much better prognosis and majority will not need transplant. Subgroup which may require include: Subgroup which may require include: 1) DLCO 15% have shown to have mortality similar to UIP with median survival of 2 yrs.

22 Indications CF: CF: FEV1 <30% or FEV1 <30% or Rapid progressive resp deterioration with FEV1 >30% (inc hosp, rapid fall in FEV1, massive hemoptysis, inc cachexia) Rapid progressive resp deterioration with FEV1 >30% (inc hosp, rapid fall in FEV1, massive hemoptysis, inc cachexia) Room air PaCO2 >50 or PaO2 50 or PaO2 <55. Woman whose condition is deteriorating rapidly. Woman whose condition is deteriorating rapidly.

23 Indications IPAH: IPAH: Medical management has improved greatly. Medical management has improved greatly. 1990= 10.5% of all lung transplants. 1990= 10.5% of all lung transplants. 2001=3.6% of all lung transplants. 2001=3.6% of all lung transplants. Should exhaust all medical management before consider transplant. Should exhaust all medical management before consider transplant.

24 Indications NYHA class III or IV after 3 months of IV epoprostenol have 2 yr survival of 46% and should be considered for transplant. NYHA class III or IV after 3 months of IV epoprostenol have 2 yr survival of 46% and should be considered for transplant. NYHA class I and II= 93% and not candidate. NYHA class I and II= 93% and not candidate.

25 Indications Sarcoidosis (common disease, rare transplant) Sarcoidosis (common disease, rare transplant) In 1998 guideline no official recommendation. In 1998 guideline no official recommendation. Need to have stage IV. Advanced fibrotic changes, honey-combing, hilar retraction, bullae, cysts, and emphysema. Need to have stage IV. Advanced fibrotic changes, honey-combing, hilar retraction, bullae, cysts, and emphysema. Also reasonable when FVC<50% and/or FEV1 <40%. Also reasonable when FVC<50% and/or FEV1 <40%.

26 CASE After you clearly describe the answers to the above questions your staff speaks up and asks you if you are familiar with the Lung Allocation Score (LAS). After you clearly describe the answers to the above questions your staff speaks up and asks you if you are familiar with the Lung Allocation Score (LAS). What is the LAS? Why was it designed? What is the LAS? Why was it designed?

27 LAS In Canada we determine how organs or allocated by: In Canada we determine how organs or allocated by: Size of patient Size of patient ABO matching (Not HLA matching) ABO matching (Not HLA matching) Time on the list. Time on the list. Kozower et al. The impact of the lung allocation score on short-term transplant outcomes: A multicenter study. J thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008;135:166-77

28 LAS In the US: Organ procurement and transplantation network (OPTN) began allocating lungs in 1990 based on size, blood type and amount of time candidate had spent on waiting list. Organ procurement and transplantation network (OPTN) began allocating lungs in 1990 based on size, blood type and amount of time candidate had spent on waiting list. 1995, minor change when 3 months credit given to IPF px to offset their inc mortality. (Not done in Canada) 1995, minor change when 3 months credit given to IPF px to offset their inc mortality. (Not done in Canada) To better list px according to medical urgency and expected benefit the LAS was developed. To better list px according to medical urgency and expected benefit the LAS was developed.

29 LAS Developed by multivariate modeling and approved by OPTN in Implemented in May Developed by multivariate modeling and approved by OPTN in Implemented in May Three main objectives are: Three main objectives are: 1) Reduce deaths on transplant list 2) Inc transplant benefit for lung recipients 3) Ensure efficient and equitable allocation of organs

30 LAS Gives a score between Gives a score between Weighted combination of predicted risk of death during the following year on the waiting list and the predicted likelyhood of survival during the first year after transplant. Weighted combination of predicted risk of death during the following year on the waiting list and the predicted likelyhood of survival during the first year after transplant.

31 CASE Is there any evidence that it is working? Is there any evidence that it is working?

32 First year of implementation compared to previous year. First year of implementation compared to previous year. 170 in each group. 170 in each group. Dec in waiting times (680 to 445 days). Dec in waiting times (680 to 445 days). Dec death on waiting list (74 to 51…30%) Dec death on waiting list (74 to 51…30%) Determined that there was a switch with inc in IPF px and dec in COPD and CF. Determined that there was a switch with inc in IPF px and dec in COPD and CF. Inc in primary graft dysfunction (14.1 to 22.9%). Inc in primary graft dysfunction (14.1 to 22.9%). Inc in ICU stay (5.7 to 7.8 days). Inc in ICU stay (5.7 to 7.8 days). Hosp mort and 1 yr survival were similar. Hosp mort and 1 yr survival were similar.

33 Concluded that the LAS is doing what it was designed to do. Concluded that the LAS is doing what it was designed to do. Reason why inc in PGD is likely due to higher number of retransplants and IPF which both are established risk factors for PGD. Reason why inc in PGD is likely due to higher number of retransplants and IPF which both are established risk factors for PGD. When controlled for Dx, the rates of PGD were no longer different. When controlled for Dx, the rates of PGD were no longer different. This also explains the inc in ICU stay, mech vent. This also explains the inc in ICU stay, mech vent. Most important…..no change in mortality. Most important…..no change in mortality.

34 Donor criteria? Less than 20% of organ donors possess lungs suitable for transplantation

35 Age <40 years (heart-lung), <50 years (lung) Age <40 years (heart-lung), <50 years (lung) Smoking history less than 20 pack-years Smoking history less than 20 pack-years Arterial partial oxygen pressure of 140 mm Hg on a fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) of 40% or 300 mm Hg on an FIO2 of 100% Arterial partial oxygen pressure of 140 mm Hg on a fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) of 40% or 300 mm Hg on an FIO2 of 100% Normal chest x-ray Sputum free of bacteria, fungi, or significant numbers of white blood cells on Gram and fungal staining Normal chest x-ray Sputum free of bacteria, fungi, or significant numbers of white blood cells on Gram and fungal staining Bronchoscopy showing absence of purulent secretions or signs of aspiration Bronchoscopy showing absence of purulent secretions or signs of aspiration Absence of thoracic trauma Absence of thoracic trauma Human immunodeficiency virus negative Human immunodeficiency virus negative

36 CASE You learn that the patient is a 58 yo male with severe COPD. Other PMHx includes a NSTEMI 8 yrs prev, HTN, hypercholesterolemia. Pre-op ECHO results show good biventricular fxn with PAS=33 mmHg via TRJ. Pre-op cath results show clean coronaries and right heart cath confirms the right sided pressures. Preop PFT show a PEV1 of 25% and moderate to severe airtrapping. They are doing a single right lung transplant and no plan for bypass. You learn that the patient is a 58 yo male with severe COPD. Other PMHx includes a NSTEMI 8 yrs prev, HTN, hypercholesterolemia. Pre-op ECHO results show good biventricular fxn with PAS=33 mmHg via TRJ. Pre-op cath results show clean coronaries and right heart cath confirms the right sided pressures. Preop PFT show a PEV1 of 25% and moderate to severe airtrapping. They are doing a single right lung transplant and no plan for bypass.

37 CASE 8) How is the choice for a single vs a double lung transplant made? In what situations is a double lung preferred? 8) How is the choice for a single vs a double lung transplant made? In what situations is a double lung preferred?

38 Single vs Double? Based on numerous factors such as: Based on numerous factors such as: Disease Disease Age Age Comorbidities Comorbidities Institutional biases Institutional biases Organ availability Organ availability Emergency of procedure Emergency of procedure

39 Single vs Double? Majority done in Canada are single lung transplants. Majority done in Canada are single lung transplants. First isolated single lungs were done for pulmonary fibrosis and this continues to be the norm. First isolated single lungs were done for pulmonary fibrosis and this continues to be the norm. COPD originally thought not possible to receive single lung transplants. COPD originally thought not possible to receive single lung transplants. First done in 1989 by Mal and colleagues First done in 1989 by Mal and colleagues Critical Care Aspects of Lung Transplantation. Journal of Intensive Care Med 19(2); 2004

40 Single vs Double? Currently a standard throughout the country. Currently a standard throughout the country. Specifically, in COPD if px is of shorter stature and older do better. Specifically, in COPD if px is of shorter stature and older do better. Pulmonary HTN= single or double but if choose single expect to have more difficulty in first few days. Many centers mandate only bilateral. Pulmonary HTN= single or double but if choose single expect to have more difficulty in first few days. Many centers mandate only bilateral. Bilateral transplants are mandatory for px with CF and bronchiectasis. Bilateral transplants are mandatory for px with CF and bronchiectasis. Critical Care Aspects of Lung Transplantation. Journal of Intensive Care Med 19(2); 2004

41 Single vs Double? Bilateral lung transplants for mycetomas or other chronic fungal or mycobacterial infections Bilateral lung transplants for mycetomas or other chronic fungal or mycobacterial infections Many larger centers are now favoring bilateral transplants. Specifically the Duke University Medical Center. Many larger centers are now favoring bilateral transplants. Specifically the Duke University Medical Center. Critical Care Aspects of Lung Transplantation. Journal of Intensive Care Med 19(2); 2004

42 Single vs Double? 1) Feel do not exclude other patient in many cases. 2) If single lung is “marginal” for transplant, taking both will provide adequate function. 3) Early post-op management is easier with bilateral

43 Single vs Double? Additionally, in 225 px who survive 6 months. Additionally, in 225 px who survive 6 months. Single lung transplant (as compared to bilateral) was a significant risk for BOS in multivariate Cox model (HR=2.08, p=0.001) Single lung transplant (as compared to bilateral) was a significant risk for BOS in multivariate Cox model (HR=2.08, p=0.001) ? If immunologic advantages of bilateral ? ? If immunologic advantages of bilateral ? Hadjiliadis D et. al. Chest 2002;122:

44 Single vs Double? A recent review of the United Network of Organ Sharing lung transplant database of 2260 transplants for emphysema compared single vs double lung transplants. A recent review of the United Network of Organ Sharing lung transplant database of 2260 transplants for emphysema compared single vs double lung transplants. No difference in 30 day mortality but long term survival data favored bilateral lung transplants for individuals <60 yrs of age. No difference in 30 day mortality but long term survival data favored bilateral lung transplants for individuals <60 yrs of age. Bilat were older and more women. ? How to interpret? Bilat were older and more women. ? How to interpret? Meyer et al. J heart Lung Transplant 2001;20:

45 Case 9) In what situations will a lung transplant be done on bypass? Why if done on bypass is it relevant to post-op management? 9) In what situations will a lung transplant be done on bypass? Why if done on bypass is it relevant to post-op management?

46 Bypass? Most adult transplants can be done without CPB. A number of specific situations will necessitate CPB. Most adult transplants can be done without CPB. A number of specific situations will necessitate CPB. 1) Primary or secondary pulmonary htn are most safely done on bypass. 2) Px with CF likely have such voluminous purulent secretions that independent ventilation is impossible. 3) During bilateral transplant early graft dysfxn of the first transplanted lung (reperfusion) preventing single lung vent. 4) If native lung is unable to sustain patient with single lung ventilation.

47 Bypass? Why relevant to post-op care? Why relevant to post-op care? 1) If get significant PGD it is unlikely the patient can be supported on single lung ventilation. 2) Bypass is a significant risk factor for PGD!! Most recent large study by Dalibon, which reviewed 140 LT, confirmed that CPB was associated with longer MV, more pulm edema, more transfusions and inc early mortality!! Dalibon et. al. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006;20:

48 CASE You hear that the case is finishing up. There was minimal surgical difficulty the lung was implanted using continuous 3/0 polypropylene sutures for the bronchial anastomosis (end-end- technique), continuous 4/0 polypropylene sutures for the pulmonary vein to left atrial anastomosis, and continuous 5/0 polypropylene sutures for the pulmonary arterial anastomosis. You hear that the case is finishing up. There was minimal surgical difficulty the lung was implanted using continuous 3/0 polypropylene sutures for the bronchial anastomosis (end-end- technique), continuous 4/0 polypropylene sutures for the pulmonary vein to left atrial anastomosis, and continuous 5/0 polypropylene sutures for the pulmonary arterial anastomosis.

49 CASE Unfortunately you hear that they need to do the case on bypass as they were unable to do the transplant on single lung ventilation. The overall ischemia time was 6 hours and 8 minutes for the lung. The post-transplant bronch looked pristine and the TEE looked good. The patient is brought to ICU post-op stable on AC and FIO2 of 100% and quickly weaned to 80%. CVP=12 CI=3.5, PA=40/18. (If the nurse said the PAWP=16…what would you say??) Unfortunately you hear that they need to do the case on bypass as they were unable to do the transplant on single lung ventilation. The overall ischemia time was 6 hours and 8 minutes for the lung. The post-transplant bronch looked pristine and the TEE looked good. The patient is brought to ICU post-op stable on AC and FIO2 of 100% and quickly weaned to 80%. CVP=12 CI=3.5, PA=40/18. (If the nurse said the PAWP=16…what would you say??)

50 CASE 10) Generally what ventilator settings would you like post transplant px to be on? What about this patient? What is your general plan to wean the ventilator? 10) Generally what ventilator settings would you like post transplant px to be on? What about this patient? What is your general plan to wean the ventilator?

51 Ventilation? Many centers prefer a PC ventilation so as to limit peak airway pressures (<40) and prevent barotrauma to the brochial anastomosis. Many centers prefer a PC ventilation so as to limit peak airway pressures (<40) and prevent barotrauma to the brochial anastomosis. Plat pressure should additionally be limited to less than 30 to 35 mmHg. Plat pressure should additionally be limited to less than 30 to 35 mmHg. Minimize Fio2 as quickly as possible. Minimize Fio2 as quickly as possible. Critical Care Aspects of Lung Transplantation. Journal of Intensive Care Med 19(2); 2004

52 Ventilation? This patient? This patient? Due to the very compliant native lung with potential for air trapping and the relatively stiff transplant lung….need to be aware of balance. Due to the very compliant native lung with potential for air trapping and the relatively stiff transplant lung….need to be aware of balance. To begin, as long as oxygenation is not a issue. Ventilation as if to prevent air trapping in native lung. To begin, as long as oxygenation is not a issue. Ventilation as if to prevent air trapping in native lung. Min PEEP, adequate expiratory phase with PC. Can still use EEP to determine if airtrapping. Min PEEP, adequate expiratory phase with PC. Can still use EEP to determine if airtrapping. Critical Care Aspects of Lung Transplantation. Journal of Intensive Care Med 19(2); 2004

53 Ventilation? Generally want to get off the ventilator as soon as possible. Generally want to get off the ventilator as soon as possible. Use adequate analgesia via epidural or paravertebral (recent metaanalysis and found paravertebral block had lower rate of resp complications and side effects) ….wake and wean. Use adequate analgesia via epidural or paravertebral (recent metaanalysis and found paravertebral block had lower rate of resp complications and side effects) ….wake and wean. If have standard PS weaning protocol it should be used as usual. If have standard PS weaning protocol it should be used as usual. Plan to have extubated in 24 to 48 hrs ideally! Plan to have extubated in 24 to 48 hrs ideally! Davies et. al. Br J Anaesth 2006; 96:

54 CASE 11) Generally discuss your fluid management post op. What variables are you balancing with your fluid management? 11) Generally discuss your fluid management post op. What variables are you balancing with your fluid management?

55 Fluid Management Careful fluid management is necessary to avoid substantial transplant lung edema. Careful fluid management is necessary to avoid substantial transplant lung edema. Usually aim for a negative fluid balance from the get go. Def aim for negative balance in the first 48hrs. Usually aim for a negative fluid balance from the get go. Def aim for negative balance in the first 48hrs. Minimal fluid and if require volume use colloid or blood. Minimal fluid and if require volume use colloid or blood. Some centers will target a CVP of <7 mmH20, with systemic perfusion supported by pressors. Some centers will target a CVP of <7 mmH20, with systemic perfusion supported by pressors. Pilcher et. al. A high CVP is associated with prolonged mech vent and inc mortality following lung transplantation. J Thoracic Cardiovasc Surg 2005;129:

56 Fluid Management Retrospective study of 118 px. Retrospective study of 118 px. After controlling for CV diz and vasopressors, CVP was correlated with duration of MV, with a CVP >7 also being associated with higher ICU and hosp mortality. After controlling for CV diz and vasopressors, CVP was correlated with duration of MV, with a CVP >7 also being associated with higher ICU and hosp mortality. Unclear whether a strategy aimed at keeping CVP less than 7 would alter outcome or if a marker of severity of illness. Unclear whether a strategy aimed at keeping CVP less than 7 would alter outcome or if a marker of severity of illness. Pilcher et. al. A high CVP is associated with prolonged mech vent and inc mortality following lung transplantation. J Thoracic Cardiovasc Surg 2005;129:

57 Fluid Management Obviously need to balance against the risk of renal insufficiency. Obviously need to balance against the risk of renal insufficiency. Many of these patient my have CRF….specifically the CF px. (why?). Many of these patient my have CRF….specifically the CF px. (why?). Additionally cyclosporine or tacrolimus may impair renal fxn. Watch levels closely post-op. Additionally cyclosporine or tacrolimus may impair renal fxn. Watch levels closely post-op. Titrate volume to u/o. Previous many centers still using “renal dose dopamine” in this setting. No evidence. Titrate volume to u/o. Previous many centers still using “renal dose dopamine” in this setting. No evidence.

58 CASE 12)Although our patient remains hemodynamically stable. Why is shock in these patients need to be quickly identified and diagnosed? 12)Although our patient remains hemodynamically stable. Why is shock in these patients need to be quickly identified and diagnosed?

59 CASE These patients should not be shocky!! These patients should not be shocky!! “NEED TO MAKE DIAGNOSIS” (Dr George Isac) “NEED TO MAKE DIAGNOSIS” (Dr George Isac) Bleeding? Anastamosis?(watch CTs and hgb) Bleeding? Anastamosis?(watch CTs and hgb) Obstructive? Anastamosis? Obstructive? Anastamosis? Cardiogenic? Cardiogenic? Infection/sepsis? Infection/sepsis?

60 CASE Judicious resuscitation (colloid) and vasopressors Judicious resuscitation (colloid) and vasopressors STAT ECHO (TEE) STAT ECHO (TEE) Notify the Surgeon Notify the Surgeon ? Mobilize ECMO early? ? Mobilize ECMO early? Is their a benign reason why they may be requiring increasing vasopressor support? Is their a benign reason why they may be requiring increasing vasopressor support?

61 CASE After initially settling the patient in and continuing on your rounds the RT approaches you and states that the FIO2 requirements are back up to 100% after a brief period at 50% and hypoxia is becoming an issue. A stat CXR was done. After initially settling the patient in and continuing on your rounds the RT approaches you and states that the FIO2 requirements are back up to 100% after a brief period at 50% and hypoxia is becoming an issue. A stat CXR was done.

62 CASE

63 CASE 13) What is your differential for early respiratory failure in the lung transplant? What are the risk factors for early respiratory failure? 13) What is your differential for early respiratory failure in the lung transplant? What are the risk factors for early respiratory failure?

64 Early Respiratory Failure DDx: DDx: 1) Reperfusion injury (55%) 2) Periop cardiovascular(MI, arrhythmia, CHF) /haemorrhagic (36%) 3) Anatomic complications 4) Infectious (bacterial and CMV) 5) Rejection (hyperacute=rare and acute=common) 6) Pneumothorax 7) PE Chatila el. al. Resp failure after lung transplant. Chest 2003;123:

65 Early Respiratory Failure Risk factors: Risk factors: 1) Preop pulmonary htn 2) Rt vent dysfunction 3) Prolonged ischemic time 4) CPB Chatila el. al. Resp failure after lung transplant. Chest 2003;123:

66 CASE 14) Briefly describe Reperfusion injury, Primary Graft failure. What can we do to help prevent Reperfusion injury before and after the transplant? How do you manage it? (specifically in our patient?) 14) Briefly describe Reperfusion injury, Primary Graft failure. What can we do to help prevent Reperfusion injury before and after the transplant? How do you manage it? (specifically in our patient?)

67 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Typically manifests in the first 72 h after transplant. Typically manifests in the first 72 h after transplant. Development of airspace disease, progressive hypoxemia, and inc in pulmonary pressures (reflective both epithelial and endothelia injury) Development of airspace disease, progressive hypoxemia, and inc in pulmonary pressures (reflective both epithelial and endothelia injury) When PaO2/FiO2 ratio below 200, termed primary graft failure. When PaO2/FiO2 ratio below 200, termed primary graft failure. Granton, J. Update of early resp failure in the transplant recipient. Current Opinion in Critical Care 2006;12:19-24.

68 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Recent 2004 publication identified several risk factors: Recent 2004 publication identified several risk factors: CPB CPB BMI >25kg/m2 BMI >25kg/m2 Immediate elevated PAS Immediate elevated PAS Trend in oxygenation index over 24hrs Trend in oxygenation index over 24hrs Elevated APACHE II Elevated APACHE II Sekine et al. J Heart Lung Transplant 2004;23:96-104

69 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Additionally, a review of 7 French transplant centers and 752 px over 12 yrs. Additionally, a review of 7 French transplant centers and 752 px over 12 yrs. Found graft ischemic time associated with the PaO2/FiO2 ration measured at 6 hrs. Found graft ischemic time associated with the PaO2/FiO2 ration measured at 6 hrs. 30 day mortality was associated with a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio at 6 hrs. 30 day mortality was associated with a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio at 6 hrs. Identified cold ischemic time of 330 min (5.5hr) as distinguishing between px who had a uncomplicated course vs those who did not. (Max accepted is 6-8hrs) Identified cold ischemic time of 330 min (5.5hr) as distinguishing between px who had a uncomplicated course vs those who did not. (Max accepted is 6-8hrs) Thabu et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171: Oto et al. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005;130:

70 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury also associated with long- term consequences. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury also associated with long- term consequences. Retrospective cohort study of 255 LT px. Retrospective cohort study of 255 LT px. Christie et al reported a 30 day mort of 63.3% compared to 8.8% in px with and without reperfusion injury. Christie et al reported a 30 day mort of 63.3% compared to 8.8% in px with and without reperfusion injury. Median hosp was longer (47 vs 15 days) Median hosp was longer (47 vs 15 days) Mech vent longer (15 vs 1 day) Mech vent longer (15 vs 1 day) Lower exercise capacity as assessed by 6 min walk distance at 12 months. Lower exercise capacity as assessed by 6 min walk distance at 12 months. Christie et al. Chest 2005;127:

71 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Pathogenesis: Pathogenesis: Variety of perturbations implicated. Variety of perturbations implicated. Factors relating to: Factors relating to: 1) Donor 2) Method of graft preservation 3) Effects of reperfusion following period of ischemia

72 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury The Lungs may be made susceptible from cytokine- mediated damage in px with elevated ICP and compounded following cold preservation of the grafts. The Lungs may be made susceptible from cytokine- mediated damage in px with elevated ICP and compounded following cold preservation of the grafts. De Perrot et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:

73 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury How can we help prevent ischemia- reperfusion injury? How can we help prevent ischemia- reperfusion injury? Can divide into: Can divide into: 1) Pre-transplant interventions 2) Peri-surgical interventions 3) Post-surgical interventions

74 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

75 Pre-Surgical interventions: Pre-Surgical interventions: Preservation solution…specifically a low- potassium dextran solution provides superior preservation over high potassium preservation solutions. Preservation solution…specifically a low- potassium dextran solution provides superior preservation over high potassium preservation solutions. In addition, nitric oxide added to the flush during harvest provides a preservation advantage. (not well studied) In addition, nitric oxide added to the flush during harvest provides a preservation advantage. (not well studied) Maccherini et al. Transplantation. 1991;52: Yamashita et al. Ann thorac Surg. 1996;62:

76 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury It is known that lung hyperinflation is a excellent model of pulmonary edema….therefore care should be taken to avoid during harvest and storage. It is known that lung hyperinflation is a excellent model of pulmonary edema….therefore care should be taken to avoid during harvest and storage.

77 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Peri-Surgical interventions: Peri-Surgical interventions: Lick and colleagues reported a small series where using leukocyte-filtered modified perfusate is pumped through the lung at time of reperfusion. In case report….no ischemia- reperfusion injury. Lick and colleagues reported a small series where using leukocyte-filtered modified perfusate is pumped through the lung at time of reperfusion. In case report….no ischemia- reperfusion injury. Lick et al. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69:

78 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Post-surgical interventions: Post-surgical interventions: TP-10 inhibitor TP-10 inhibitor - One of few randomized trials in lung transplantation, using soluble complement receptor-1 inhibitor led to reduction in duration of mech vent. - Interestingly, greatest effect in px who received bypass.

79 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury NO NO - Early preclinical and uncontrolled reports suggested that admin of NO either prior to or shortly after reperfusion injury could dec severity of disease. - Recent controlled clinical trial failed to show benefit when inhaled 10 min after reperfusion. Meade et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:

80 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury NO NO - Another recent trial by Perrin. - RCT in 30 bilateral lung transplants ppm iNO at time of reperfusion vs control. - Could not identify any reduction in extravasular lung water (p=0.61) or improvement in gas exchange (p=0.61). - Future studies needed. Perrin et al. Chest 2006;129:

81 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury ICU management: ICU management: Adoption of lung protective strategy would seem reasonable. (only one rat study has actually looked at this). Adoption of lung protective strategy would seem reasonable. (only one rat study has actually looked at this). “In refractory hypoxemia use of inhaled NO, HFO and ECMO may improve gas exchange.” “In refractory hypoxemia use of inhaled NO, HFO and ECMO may improve gas exchange.” Granton, J. Update of early resp failure in the transplant recipient. Current Opinion in Critical Care 2006;12:19-24.

82 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury What about our patient?? What about our patient?? In COPD single lung Tx that develop reperfusion injury….dilemmas may arise. In COPD single lung Tx that develop reperfusion injury….dilemmas may arise. As px becomes hypoxic and more aggressive vent/peep strategies are used….may overdistend native lung. As px becomes hypoxic and more aggressive vent/peep strategies are used….may overdistend native lung. Cause shunting of blood to dysfunctional allograft. Cause shunting of blood to dysfunctional allograft. Futhermore, if worsens still, mediastinal shift may result in impaired venous return. Futhermore, if worsens still, mediastinal shift may result in impaired venous return.

83 Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Better to minimize tidal volumes and lowest PEEP to gain acceptable oxygenation and accepting mild respiratory acidosis (+/- novalung??) Better to minimize tidal volumes and lowest PEEP to gain acceptable oxygenation and accepting mild respiratory acidosis (+/- novalung??) Place px in lateral decubitus with transplant side up, and aggressive chest physiotherapy. Place px in lateral decubitus with transplant side up, and aggressive chest physiotherapy. If this fails….should consider independent lung ventilation. If this fails….should consider independent lung ventilation. Be aware that will be more difficult to clear secretions and the ease with which the tube may be dislodged. Be aware that will be more difficult to clear secretions and the ease with which the tube may be dislodged. Gavazzeni et al. Chest. 1993;103:

84 Prediction of Independent Lung Vent. Prediction of need for single lung ventilation? Prediction of need for single lung ventilation? Study looking at 170 px who had single lung transplant for COPD. Study looking at 170 px who had single lung transplant for COPD. 12% required independent lung ventilation. 12% required independent lung ventilation. Similar in age, sex, ischemic time, and donor characteristics to those who required conventional ventilation. Similar in age, sex, ischemic time, and donor characteristics to those who required conventional ventilation. Pilcher et al. Predictors of independent lung ventilation: an analysis of 170 single-lung transplantations. Pilcher J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Apr;133(4):1071-7

85 Prediction of Independent Lung Vent. Patients receiving independent lung ventilation had a greater degree of: Patients receiving independent lung ventilation had a greater degree of: Preoperative airflow limitation (FVC1/FVC) Preoperative airflow limitation (FVC1/FVC) More hyperinflation More hyperinflation Lower postoperative PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratios Lower postoperative PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratios More radiologic mediastinal shift More radiologic mediastinal shift More transplant lung infiltrate on the postoperative chest radiograph. More transplant lung infiltrate on the postoperative chest radiograph.

86 Prediction of Independent Lung Vent. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent lung ventilation was associated with: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent lung ventilation was associated with: Increasing levels of recipient hyperinflation (percentage total lung capacity compared with predicted value; odds ratio 1.04;P =.032) Increasing levels of recipient hyperinflation (percentage total lung capacity compared with predicted value; odds ratio 1.04;P =.032) Reduced early postoperative PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (odds ratio 0.96; P =.005) Reduced early postoperative PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (odds ratio 0.96; P =.005)

87 Prediction of Independent Lung Vent. Length of ventilation and intensive care unit stay and mortality were higher in the independent lung ventilation group. Length of ventilation and intensive care unit stay and mortality were higher in the independent lung ventilation group. Among patients who survived to hospital discharge, there were no differences in long- term mortality between the 2 groups. Among patients who survived to hospital discharge, there were no differences in long- term mortality between the 2 groups.

88 Prediction of Independent Lung Vent. Conclusions= Independent lung ventilation predicted by the combination of: Conclusions= Independent lung ventilation predicted by the combination of: Increased hyperinflation measured on recipients' preoperative lung function tests Increased hyperinflation measured on recipients' preoperative lung function tests Low PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio, indicating graft dysfunction in the immediate postoperative period. Low PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio, indicating graft dysfunction in the immediate postoperative period.

89 Prediction of Independent Lung Vent. Another study looking at predictors of native lung hyperinflation. Another study looking at predictors of native lung hyperinflation. Retrospectively analyzed data from 27 patients who underwent 31 single lung transplantations for emphysema. Retrospectively analyzed data from 27 patients who underwent 31 single lung transplantations for emphysema. Two groups: Two groups: - 12 patients with development of acute or chronic NLH - 15 patients without development of hyperinflation Yonan. Single lung transplantation for emphysema: predictors for native lung hyperinflation. J Heart Lung Transplant Feb;17(2):

90 Prediction of Independent Lung Vent. NLH was defined as: NLH was defined as: Radiologic mediastinal shift with Radiologic mediastinal shift with Flattening of the ipsilateral diaphragm Flattening of the ipsilateral diaphragm Associated with respiratory dysfunction or hemodynamic instability Associated with respiratory dysfunction or hemodynamic instability

91 Prediction of Independent Lung Vent. No differences between the two groups regarding: No differences between the two groups regarding: age age preoperative partial pressure of oxygen preoperative partial pressure of oxygen partial pressure of carbon dioxide partial pressure of carbon dioxide acid-base status acid-base status donor lung size and physiological structure donor lung size and physiological structure side of transplantation side of transplantation primary pathologic condition primary pathologic condition rejection score rejection score infection episodes and obliterative bronchiolitis in the transplanted lung after operation. infection episodes and obliterative bronchiolitis in the transplanted lung after operation.

92 Prediction of Independent Lung Vent. Patients with NLH had: Patients with NLH had: Significantly higher preoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure > 30 mm Hg. Significantly higher preoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure > 30 mm Hg. Lower mean FEV1. Lower mean FEV1. Higher mean residual volume. Higher mean residual volume.

93 CASE A quick in and out bronch shows no anatomic abn and on TEE the pulmonary veins look good. After a short period of time you realize that he is deteriorating that the hypoxia is quickly becoming refractory. You quickly mobilize ECMO and after a short time on ECMO the patient stabilizes. A quick in and out bronch shows no anatomic abn and on TEE the pulmonary veins look good. After a short period of time you realize that he is deteriorating that the hypoxia is quickly becoming refractory. You quickly mobilize ECMO and after a short time on ECMO the patient stabilizes. 15) Your staff asks you if you know of any evidence for the use of early ECMO in these patients?

94 ECMO Several publications looking at ECMO in this situation. Several publications looking at ECMO in this situation. In the setting of pulmonary htn (high risk), early ECMO has been advocated (experience based). In the setting of pulmonary htn (high risk), early ECMO has been advocated (experience based). Another review of 17 cases Another review of 17 cases ECMO may preserve initial organ function due to reduction in use of injurious ventilation strategies. ECMO may preserve initial organ function due to reduction in use of injurious ventilation strategies. Dahlberg et al. J Heart Lung Transplant 2004;23: Pereszlenyi et al. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002;21:

95 ECMO More recent publication by Oto at Alfred Hosp in Melbourne. More recent publication by Oto at Alfred Hosp in Melbourne. Ten transplant recipients from total of 481 (2.1%) were treated with ECMO. Ten transplant recipients from total of 481 (2.1%) were treated with ECMO. Prior to initiation had TEE to exclude lung torsion and pulmonary vasc prob, and a retrospective crossmatch to exclude humoral rejection. Prior to initiation had TEE to exclude lung torsion and pulmonary vasc prob, and a retrospective crossmatch to exclude humoral rejection.

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97 ECMO Initiate 21 days (7-40days)Initiated after 0-2 days

98 ECMO

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100 CASE One of your keen residents asks if there is anyway this could be acute rejection? Are there any definitive tests to prove this is not rejection? One of your keen residents asks if there is anyway this could be acute rejection? Are there any definitive tests to prove this is not rejection?

101 Biopsy!! Patients with acute rejection can also have alveolar infiltrates, hypoxemia and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Patients with acute rejection can also have alveolar infiltrates, hypoxemia and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. To rule out hyperacute rejection can do a retrospective crossmatch. To rule out hyperacute rejection can do a retrospective crossmatch. For longer term observation pathologic assessment of multiple transbronchial biopsy specimens has proven to be the gold standard. For longer term observation pathologic assessment of multiple transbronchial biopsy specimens has proven to be the gold standard. Debate between transbronchial and surgical biopsy. Debate between transbronchial and surgical biopsy. Trulock et al. Chest. 1992;102:

102 Open Lung Biopsy In 2003 Burns et al looked at 41 patients on mech vent with questionable acute rejection that received transbronchial and open lung biopsy. In 2003 Burns et al looked at 41 patients on mech vent with questionable acute rejection that received transbronchial and open lung biopsy. Surgical biopsy inc dx of rejection by 33% and treatment changes in 15 of the 41. Surgical biopsy inc dx of rejection by 33% and treatment changes in 15 of the 41. Currently unresolved debate as previous studies contradicted this finding. Currently unresolved debate as previous studies contradicted this finding. Burns et al. J Heart Lung Transplant 2003;22:

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104 Open Lung Biopsy The risk of open lung biopsy must be weighed against the risk of simple empirical therapy for rejection after exclusion of infection. The risk of open lung biopsy must be weighed against the risk of simple empirical therapy for rejection after exclusion of infection. Given the consequences of intensification of immunosuppression in the intubated, critically ill px, open lung biopsy may be justifiable. Given the consequences of intensification of immunosuppression in the intubated, critically ill px, open lung biopsy may be justifiable.

105 CASE Now that the possibility of rejection has been brought up…..what are the different types of rejection? How are they treated? Now that the possibility of rejection has been brought up…..what are the different types of rejection? How are they treated?

106 Rejection Hyperacute- humoral based with preformed antibodies to the allograft vascular endothelium Hyperacute- humoral based with preformed antibodies to the allograft vascular endothelium - Only anecdotally reported in the literature with lung transplant. Cellular immune based rejections Acute Acute Chronic/bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) Chronic/bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS)

107 Rejection Standard immunosuppressive management: Standard immunosuppressive management: Triple drug combo=cyclosporin, imuran, prednisone. Triple drug combo=cyclosporin, imuran, prednisone. Methylprednisolone intraop and first 24 hrs. Then steroids suspended for 2 weeks, based on experimental and clinical evidence they impede bronchial anastamotic healing. Methylprednisolone intraop and first 24 hrs. Then steroids suspended for 2 weeks, based on experimental and clinical evidence they impede bronchial anastamotic healing. Then oral pred started. Then oral pred started. Some evidence tacrolimus/imuran/steroid may be a better combo. (acute and chronic rejection) Some evidence tacrolimus/imuran/steroid may be a better combo. (acute and chronic rejection)

108 Rejection Acute: Acute: Most common complication following lung transplantation. Most common complication following lung transplantation. Most recipients experience at least 1 episode in first year. Most recipients experience at least 1 episode in first year. It is clear that there is a association between frequency and severity of acute rejection and subsequent dev of BOS. It is clear that there is a association between frequency and severity of acute rejection and subsequent dev of BOS.

109 Rejection Thus, early detection and alteration of immunosuppression may have a significant impact on subsequent reduction of BOS. Thus, early detection and alteration of immunosuppression may have a significant impact on subsequent reduction of BOS. S/S: S/S: Fever Fever Dyspnea Dyspnea Dec PaO2 Dec PaO2 Fall in vital capacity Fall in vital capacity Infiltrates. Infiltrates.

110 Rejection After first postop month, CXR freq normal during episode of acute rejection. After first postop month, CXR freq normal during episode of acute rejection. Obviously, infection can present similarly. Obviously, infection can present similarly. Need to distinguish with transbronch biopsy and BAL. Need to distinguish with transbronch biopsy and BAL. Tx: Tx: Methylprednisolone 10-15mg/kg for 3-5 days. Methylprednisolone 10-15mg/kg for 3-5 days. 2-3 weeks of oral steroid taper. 2-3 weeks of oral steroid taper.

111 Rejection Some work by Loubeyre et al, that may be able to use HDCT to Dx acute rejection and avoid TBB (65% sens for rejection, 85% specific for acute lung complication.

112 Rejection Maintenance immunosuppression regimen should also be scrutinized. Maintenance immunosuppression regimen should also be scrutinized. First adjustment from maintenance cyclosporine is a switch to tacrolimus in event of cyclosporin toxicity or acute rejection episodes despite adequate cyclosporine dosage. First adjustment from maintenance cyclosporine is a switch to tacrolimus in event of cyclosporin toxicity or acute rejection episodes despite adequate cyclosporine dosage. Newer agents such as sirolimus, leflunomide may be used more in future. Newer agents such as sirolimus, leflunomide may be used more in future.

113 Rejection Chronic/bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome(BOS): Chronic/bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome(BOS): 70% of graft recipients are dx by 5 th year. 70% of graft recipients are dx by 5 th year. Usually presents as a late decline in FEV1 from a post- op baseline. Usually presents as a late decline in FEV1 from a post- op baseline. Pathologic lesion is broncholitis obliterans. Pathologic lesion is broncholitis obliterans.

114 Rejection Risk Factors: Risk Factors: Episodes of acute rejection Episodes of acute rejection Primary Graft dysfunction Primary Graft dysfunction CMV pneumonia CMV pneumonia Noncompliance with meds Noncompliance with meds

115 Rejection Causes not totally clear. Causes not totally clear. Evidence suggests both alloimmune and non- alloimmune mech are important (for example GERD). Evidence suggests both alloimmune and non- alloimmune mech are important (for example GERD). There is evidence that fundoplication will lower BOS scores and even eliminate it in certain individuals There is evidence that fundoplication will lower BOS scores and even eliminate it in certain individuals Cantu et al. Ann THorac Surg 2004;78:

116 Rejection Diagnosis- two approaches (definitive proof and diagnosis of exclusion) Diagnosis- two approaches (definitive proof and diagnosis of exclusion)

117 Rejection Treatment: (no well established protocol) Treatment: (no well established protocol) Conversion from cyclosporin to tacrolimus may stabilize progression. Conversion from cyclosporin to tacrolimus may stabilize progression. ?addition of mycophenolate may be benificial. ?addition of mycophenolate may be benificial. ?sirolimus ?sirolimus ?azithromycin daily is currently being investigated and may show promise. ?azithromycin daily is currently being investigated and may show promise. Retransplantation? Retransplantation?

118 CASE 17)Could this be infectious? Where in the complications timeline to infectious etiologies usually fit? Are there any exceptions? 17)Could this be infectious? Where in the complications timeline to infectious etiologies usually fit? Are there any exceptions?

119 Infection post transplant Unlikely in this scenario. Unlikely in this scenario. But infection is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. But infection is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Immediate post-op bacterial are the greatest threat. Immediate post-op bacterial are the greatest threat. But candidia or aspergillus or viral (herpies or CMV) can also arise. But candidia or aspergillus or viral (herpies or CMV) can also arise. Lung transplant: procedure and postoperateive management Uptodate.com.

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121 Bacterial Most common pathogen are those that colonized the donor or recipient. Most common pathogen are those that colonized the donor or recipient. Gram neg such as Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and H. flu are most common. Gram positives (staph) are also a frequent cause (head injury). Gram neg such as Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and H. flu are most common. Gram positives (staph) are also a frequent cause (head injury). Most centers use a 7-10 day prophylaxis (eg vanco, cefepime) or depending on previous colonization. Most centers use a 7-10 day prophylaxis (eg vanco, cefepime) or depending on previous colonization. We use generally use ceftaz and clox till lines and drains are out. We use generally use ceftaz and clox till lines and drains are out.

122 Viral CMV is most commonly seen infection post-op complication (13-75% of transplants). CMV is most commonly seen infection post-op complication (13-75% of transplants). Most risk obviously in CMV neg recipient receiving CMV pos donor. Most risk obviously in CMV neg recipient receiving CMV pos donor. Optimal prophylaxis remains controversial. Optimal prophylaxis remains controversial. Most centers will supply 12 weeks of IV gancyclovir (5 mg/kg qd) for +D/-R and CMV immunoglobulin. Most centers will supply 12 weeks of IV gancyclovir (5 mg/kg qd) for +D/-R and CMV immunoglobulin. If just +R get only gancyclovir for 12 weeks. If just +R get only gancyclovir for 12 weeks. If –D/-R nothing. If –D/-R nothing.

123 Viral Patients in the community are also susceptible to other viral infections (eg. RSV, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza). Patients in the community are also susceptible to other viral infections (eg. RSV, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza). Several of these have specific treatments so be aware of them (eg. Aerosolized ribavirin) Several of these have specific treatments so be aware of them (eg. Aerosolized ribavirin)

124 Fungal infections Major problem in the long term. Major problem in the long term. Aspergillus and Candida account for majority. Aspergillus and Candida account for majority. Both can represent colonization but also can be life-threatening infections. Both can represent colonization but also can be life-threatening infections. Aspergillus colonization and infection occur within first 6 months. Aspergillus colonization and infection occur within first 6 months. Mortality for pneumonia/disseminated disease approaches 60%. Mortality for pneumonia/disseminated disease approaches 60%. Critical Care Aspects of Lung Transplantation. Journal of Intensive Care Med 19(2); 2004

125 Fungal infections Several antifungal prophylactic strategies used. Several antifungal prophylactic strategies used. Systemic or inhaled or both. Systemic or inhaled or both. However, use of systemic antifungal therapies limited by lack of in vitro activity against some infections, drug interactions, significant treatment limiting toxicities. However, use of systemic antifungal therapies limited by lack of in vitro activity against some infections, drug interactions, significant treatment limiting toxicities. Several reports of using inhaled Ampho B lipid complex….may see used in future. Several reports of using inhaled Ampho B lipid complex….may see used in future.

126 Fungal infections What do we do? What do we do? Candida prophylaxis= nystatin swish and swallow. Candida prophylaxis= nystatin swish and swallow. PCP= septra or aerosolized pentamidine. PCP= septra or aerosolized pentamidine. Aspergillus=aerosolized ampho B. Aspergillus=aerosolized ampho B. Toxoplasma neg px= pyrimethamine for 6 months. Toxoplasma neg px= pyrimethamine for 6 months.

127 Fungal infections Although bronchial dehiscence is a rare complication due to improved surgical tech and lack of steroids for period of time after OR. Although bronchial dehiscence is a rare complication due to improved surgical tech and lack of steroids for period of time after OR. B/c of inherent ischemia occurring at the anastomosis fungal infections my develop at this site. B/c of inherent ischemia occurring at the anastomosis fungal infections my develop at this site. This can lead to life threatening airway complicatoins. This can lead to life threatening airway complicatoins. Careful attention should be paid to this area on all bronchoscopies. Careful attention should be paid to this area on all bronchoscopies.

128 Fungal infections In one study by Nunley it was found that 46.7% with anastamosis infections had airway complications where in only 8.7% of patients without. In one study by Nunley it was found that 46.7% with anastamosis infections had airway complications where in only 8.7% of patients without. These included bronchial stenosis, bronchomalacia, fatal hemorrhage and dehiscence. These included bronchial stenosis, bronchomalacia, fatal hemorrhage and dehiscence. Nunley et al. Chest 2002;122:

129 Fungal infections If on bronchoscopic inspection have pseudomembranes should perform biopsy. If on bronchoscopic inspection have pseudomembranes should perform biopsy. Optimal treatment still unknown. Optimal treatment still unknown. Suggested expert opinion is that should use combination of systemic and inhaled antifungal agents. (eg. Ampho B) Suggested expert opinion is that should use combination of systemic and inhaled antifungal agents. (eg. Ampho B) May need bronchoscopic debridement of the tissue. May need bronchoscopic debridement of the tissue.

130 Fungal infections Treatment of systemic infections. Treatment of systemic infections. Albicans still fluconazol. Albicans still fluconazol. Non-albicans caspofungin. Non-albicans caspofungin. Ampho B is classic drug of choice for aspergillus and fusarium. More utilization of Vori and caspo in last several years. Ampho B is classic drug of choice for aspergillus and fusarium. More utilization of Vori and caspo in last several years. Careful with Vori as has extensive interactions with immunosuppressants. Careful with Vori as has extensive interactions with immunosuppressants. Nunley et al. Chest 2002;122:

131 CASE The oxygen delivered via ECMO was adjusted according to the arterial blood gas results, and was successfully reduced to 40% within 4 days. After the first 48 hours, the ECMO flow rate was maintained at 2.5 L/min, with 3200 RPM. Prior to discontinuation of ECMO, the patient was relying on his lung for oxygenation with no oxygen given through the oxygenator. The oxygen delivered via ECMO was adjusted according to the arterial blood gas results, and was successfully reduced to 40% within 4 days. After the first 48 hours, the ECMO flow rate was maintained at 2.5 L/min, with 3200 RPM. Prior to discontinuation of ECMO, the patient was relying on his lung for oxygenation with no oxygen given through the oxygenator.

132 CASE Both the cannulae were successfully removed with application of pressure on the site and without any problems. The patient did very well there after and was discharged to the ward within 8 days. Both the cannulae were successfully removed with application of pressure on the site and without any problems. The patient did very well there after and was discharged to the ward within 8 days. While on the ward several surveillance bronchoscopies were performed. There were some pseudomembrains seen near the anastomosis and they were sampled. They were positive for candida sp. and treatment initiated with IV caspofungin. The site looked stable during repeated bronchoscopy. While on the ward several surveillance bronchoscopies were performed. There were some pseudomembrains seen near the anastomosis and they were sampled. They were positive for candida sp. and treatment initiated with IV caspofungin. The site looked stable during repeated bronchoscopy.

133 CASE On day 15 you are called to the ward for respiratory decline. He is in respiratory distress and a CXR is performed. On day 15 you are called to the ward for respiratory decline. He is in respiratory distress and a CXR is performed.

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135 CASE What is high on your differential for the cause of the abnormality? What is high on your differential for the cause of the abnormality? The patient requires reintubation, independent lung ventilation and is taken to the OR for repair of his bronchial dehiscence. The patient requires reintubation, independent lung ventilation and is taken to the OR for repair of his bronchial dehiscence. Is there any evidence for the outcomes of Lung transplant patients who require readmission to the ICU? Is there any evidence for the outcomes of Lung transplant patients who require readmission to the ICU?

136 All lung transplants at Duke University Medical Center discharged from hosp between March 99 and Feb 01. All lung transplants at Duke University Medical Center discharged from hosp between March 99 and Feb /214 px (23.8%) required ICU admissions. 51/214 px (23.8%) required ICU admissions. Of those 27/51 (57.5%) required MV. Of those 27/51 (57.5%) required MV. Dx: Dx: Resp failure (70%) Resp failure (70%) Sepsis (6.8%) Sepsis (6.8%) Pneumothorax, atrial fib, high-risk bronchoscopy, PE, antibiotic desensitization and cardiac arrest (2.7% each) Pneumothorax, atrial fib, high-risk bronchoscopy, PE, antibiotic desensitization and cardiac arrest (2.7% each)

137 19/51 (37%) died during their ICU admission. 19/51 (37%) died during their ICU admission. 16/27 (59%) receiving MV died. 16/27 (59%) receiving MV died. Px who died had lower FEV1 to posttransplant best FEV1 ratio prior to ICU admission. (51% vs 75% p=0.001) Px who died had lower FEV1 to posttransplant best FEV1 ratio prior to ICU admission. (51% vs 75% p=0.001) Also, had higher APACHE III scores on ICU admission compared to survivors. Also, had higher APACHE III scores on ICU admission compared to survivors.

138 Survival rates by Kaplan-Meier: Survival rates by Kaplan-Meier: 1 year= 43.1% 1 year= 43.1% 2 year= 40.9% 2 year= 40.9%

139 Conclusions: Conclusions: ICU admission and mechanical ventilation, is associated with a poor prognosis in lung transplant but…. ICU admission and mechanical ventilation, is associated with a poor prognosis in lung transplant but…. Is appropriate for selected patients with good allograft function. Is appropriate for selected patients with good allograft function.

140 Conclusions More immediate ICU complications with IPAH and IPF. More immediate ICU complications with IPAH and IPF. Beware the patient that required by-pass or that did poorly on single lung ventilation. Beware the patient that required by-pass or that did poorly on single lung ventilation. If become shocky….act quickly and look for the diagnosis. (? Bleeding, STAT TEE, contact surgeon) If become shocky….act quickly and look for the diagnosis. (? Bleeding, STAT TEE, contact surgeon) Reperfusion injury is a diagnosis of exclusion and may require independent lung ventilation or ECMO. Reperfusion injury is a diagnosis of exclusion and may require independent lung ventilation or ECMO.

141 Conclusions Predictors of need for independent lung ventilation include preoperative airflow limitation (FVC1/FVC) and hyperinflation. Predictors of need for independent lung ventilation include preoperative airflow limitation (FVC1/FVC) and hyperinflation. Mobilize ECMO early. Mobilize ECMO early. If questioning diagnosis of acute rejection vs infection use open lung biopsy. If questioning diagnosis of acute rejection vs infection use open lung biopsy. Acute rejection is a marker for future BOS….we may be able to make a difference. Acute rejection is a marker for future BOS….we may be able to make a difference. Patients with post-op good allograft function should be candidates for readmission to ICU. Patients with post-op good allograft function should be candidates for readmission to ICU.


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