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1 Learning Medical Terminology Recognizing the S tems/Prefixes/Suffixes Prepared by E. Phufas.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Learning Medical Terminology Recognizing the S tems/Prefixes/Suffixes Prepared by E. Phufas."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Learning Medical Terminology Recognizing the S tems/Prefixes/Suffixes Prepared by E. Phufas

2 2 It’s all Greek (or Latin) to me! Learning and understanding the roots of most words in the field of Health and Medicine can help you to understand what is being discussed ORIGIN OF MEDICAL TERMS Hippocrates was a Hippocrates was a Greek physician and is known as the is known as the “father of medicine.” 75% of medical terms are based on terms are based on either Greek or Latin words.

3 3 Two basic rules for building medical words: Rule 1: A stem word (the main meaning) is used before a suffix that begins with a vowel Scler/ + Osis = Sclerosis = (hardening) (abnormal condition) Sclerosis Rule 2: A combining vowel – usually an o (Sometimes ‘a,’ ‘e,’ ‘i,’ ‘u,’ or ‘y.’is used to link a stem word to a suffix that begins with a consonant and to link a stem word to another stem word to form a compound word. Colon + o + scope = colonoscope (colon) (instrument to view) Colon + o + scopy = the procedure Colonoscopy

4 4 Stem (or root) words – main stem (part) of word and can appear at the beginning (prefix) in the middle or at the end of the word (suffix) cardi = heart gastr or ventr = stomach hepat = liver nephr or ren = kidney oste or ossi = bone thorac or steth =chest arthr = joint cyt =root for cell colp=vagina derm=skin

5 5 Compound Words A combining vowel is used to link a stem word to another stem word to another one for a compound word such as: Gastr + o + enter = itis = gastroenteritis (stomach) (intestine) (inflammation) Oste + o + arthr + itis = osteoarthritis (bone) (joint) (inflammation)

6 6 Suffixes pt 1 A suffix is a word ending. Changing the suffix gives medical words a new meaning. Usually indicates a procedure, condition, disorder or disease. Most suffixes are derived from Greek or Latin words. (A suffix that is well known is – ology – the study of)

7 7 What is a SUFFIX part 2 A suffix is the word ending that follows the word stem and changes its changes its meaning. A suffix often indicates the: procedure condition disorder disease

8 8 Suffixes – terms used in surgery Notice the connecting vowel Enterotomy Appendectomy Gastrorrhaphy Cystoplasty Steatorrhea Tomy – cut or incision Rhaphy- sewing Plasty – molding/repair Rhea - discharge

9 9 Quick review of surgical terms Nephrotomy is… Gastroplasty is… Colporrhaphy is… Appendectomy is… Incision of the kidney Surgical operation for morbid obesity that changes the shape of the stomach surgical repair of a defect in the vaginal wall Removal/cutting of appendix Source:

10 10 Suffixes = word endings Arthr/o + centesis = arthrocentesis (joint) (puncture) Thorac/o + -tomy = thoracotomy (chest) (incision) Gastro/o + -megaly = gastromegaly (stomach) (enlargement) Colon/o + -scopy = colonoscopy (colon) (see/search)

11 11 Suffix-disease/change in body/used for diagnoses Hepatitis: hepa - liver; itis- inflammation of Splenomegaly: Spleno – spleen; megaly- large Acrophobia: acro – edge; phobia- fear of Artheriosclerosis: atherio-artery; sclerosis- hardening of Cardiogram: cardio-heart; gram - record or write Laparoscopy: laparo-abdomen; scopy- to look in or search

12 12 PREFIXES A prefix is a word element located at the beginning of a word. Prefixes can alter the meaning of the word. Usually indicates a number, time,position, direction, color, or sense of negation.

13 13 prefix means before/in front peri - prefix means around hemi - prefix means half micro - prefix means small Neo - prefix means new a part of the word part of the word that precedes word root and changes its changes Often indicates location, time, or number.

14 14 Some Prefixes Peri + cardio + logy = pericardiology (around) (heart-pericardium) (study of) Hyper + therm + -ia = hyperthermia (excessive) ( heat) (condition) Intra + muscul + -ar = intramuscular (in, within) (muscle) (relating to) Macro + gloss + -ia = macroglossia (large - enlargement) (tongue) (condition)

15 15 Cardi ---? Do you remember what cardi means? – it is a root that means … -ogist – suffix that means one who -ology – is a suffix that means the study of ----------------------------------------------- So Cardiology is… Cardiologist is… heart. the study of the heart. one who studies the heart.

16 16 Review quiz – 10 questions 1.All medical terms can be broken down into word parts. The three word parts are the prefix, the stem (root), and the suffix. Usually, only two of these parts are present in a medical term. The word parts, then, of a medical term may include the _________, the stem, and the suffix. prefix

17 17 2. The part of the word which gives the basic meaning to the word is called the ___________. stem

18 18 3. Dermatology is _____________________________. The study of skin The branch of medicine concerned with the study of the skin, diseases of the skin, and the relationship of cutaneous lesions to systemic disease 957

19 19 4. Osteo is a stem which means bone. A person who has osteo-arthritis, for example, has inflammation of the ______ and joint. bone

20 20 5. Rhino and naso are stems which mean nose. A person who has rhinitis has inflammation of the __________. nose

21 21 6.So…rhinoplasty is ____________________________. Surgery to reshape the nose plus/ency/article/002983.htm

22 22 7.Nephritis is Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney. ticle/000464.htm

23 23 8. Laryngo is a stem meaning larynx or voice box. A laryngoscopy is an examination of the interior of the __________. Larynx

24 24 9. Phlebo and veno are stems which mean vein. A phlebectomy is the _____________________________ Surgical removal of veins such as varicose veins on the surface of the legs.

25 25 10. Arterio is a stem which means artery. A person who has arteriosclerosis has ________________________. Hardening of the arteries

26 26 There are many sources for medical terminology on the internet. Always consult your instructor for recommended ones. itions/article.htm

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