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Introduction to Veterinary Medical Terminology Building Blocks of Words.

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1 Introduction to Veterinary Medical Terminology Building Blocks of Words

2 It’s all Greek to me! Some may say that veterinarians speak Some may say that veterinarians speak Greek, they are right! Greek, they are right! Most terms used in veterinary medicine are based on Latin or Greek. Most terms used in veterinary medicine are based on Latin or Greek. Latin is the universal language of medicine and the Greeks were the founders of modern medicine. Latin is the universal language of medicine and the Greeks were the founders of modern medicine. The following will be some common examples, be sure to record these terms on your worksheet. The following will be some common examples, be sure to record these terms on your worksheet.

3 Latin (Scientific) Adjectives: Common Name Latin Derived Adj. DogCanisCanine CatFelisFeline HorseEquusEquine CattleBosBovine SheepOvisOvine GoatCapraCaprine PigSusPocine BirdAvisAvian MouseMusMurine RatRattusMurine

4 Prefix Combining Form Root Suffix

5 Word Structure Root Word Root Word Prefix Prefix Suffix Suffix Combining Vowel Combining Vowel Compound Word Compound Word The key to learning terminology is to break down each word into parts and learn the most common roots, prefixes, suffixes, and combing forms.

6 Root Word Definition - the foundation of the word Definition - the foundation of the word Gives substance to the meaning. Gives substance to the meaning. Like a box car in a train, they give the train volume and substance. Like a box car in a train, they give the train volume and substance. They come in a variety of different sizes and volumes. They come in a variety of different sizes and volumes. There can be more than one in a word. There can be more than one in a word. Prefix Combining Form Root Suffix

7 Root Word Examples - 1 Cardi/o – Heart Cardi/o – Heart Cephalo/o – Head Cephalo/o – Head Dent/o – Tooth, Teeth Dent/o – Tooth, Teeth Mamm/a, Mamm/o – Mammary Gland Mamm/a, Mamm/o – Mammary Gland Nas/o – Nose, Nasal Nas/o – Nose, Nasal

8 Root Word Examples - 2 Ophthalm/o – Eye Ophthalm/o – Eye Ot/o – Ear Ot/o – Ear Steth/o – Chest Steth/o – Chest Thorac/o – Thorax Thorac/o – Thorax Trache/o - Trachea Trache/o - Trachea

9 Root Word Examples - 3 Abdomin/o – Abdomen Abdomin/o – Abdomen Copr/o – Feces Copr/o – Feces Cyan/o – Blue Cyan/o – Blue Derm/o, Dermat/o – Skin Derm/o, Dermat/o – Skin Enter/o – Intestines Enter/o – Intestines

10 Root Word Examples - 4 Erythr/o – Red Blood Cell Erythr/o – Red Blood Cell Gingiv/o – Gums Gingiv/o – Gums Hepat/o – Liver Hepat/o – Liver Hydr/o – Water Hydr/o – Water Peritone/o – Peritoneum Membrane Peritone/o – Peritoneum Membrane

11 Word Structure Root Word Root Word Prefix Prefix Suffix Suffix Combining Vowel Combining Vowel Compound Word Compound Word

12 Prefix Word that precedes/BEFORE the root, modifying the roots meaning to form a new word. Word that precedes/BEFORE the root, modifying the roots meaning to form a new word. Alone they have some meaning, but they are not complete words without the rest of the word parts. Alone they have some meaning, but they are not complete words without the rest of the word parts. They are like the train’s engine with its whistle. Leads the train and announces the coming train. Without the box cars, together with the engine there is not a complete train.

13 Prefix Examples - 1 A-, an- Not, Without A-, an- Not, Without Anti- Opposing, Against Anti- Opposing, Against Brady- Slow Brady- Slow De- Away from De- Away from Dys- Difficult Dys- Difficult

14 Prefix Examples - 2 Hyper- High, Above, Beyond Hyper- High, Above, Beyond Hypo- Low, Below, Behind Hypo- Low, Below, Behind Mal- Bad, Poor Mal- Bad, Poor Poly- Many Poly- Many

15 Prefix Examples - 3 Ep-, Epi- On, Upon Ep-, Epi- On, Upon Eu- Normal Eu- Normal Iso- Equal, Same Iso- Equal, Same Multi- Many, Much Multi- Many, Much Neo- New Neo- New

16 Prefix Examples - 4 Pan- All Pan- All Peri- Around Peri- Around Post- After Post- After Pyo- Pus Pyo- Pus Uni- Single Celled Uni- Single Celled

17 Prefix Example: Example: Prefix +Root WordNew word brady + cardi/a bradycardia “slow” “heart”slow heart (rate)

18 Exercise on Prefixes 1. ________ biotic (against life) 2. ________ thermia (high temperature) 3. ________ horn (remove the horn)  a-, an- (without or not having)  anti - (against)  brady- (slow)  contra- (against, opposed)  de- (remove, take away, loss of)  dys- (difficult, troubled)  pyo - (pus)  hyper- (high)

19 Word Structure Root Word Root Word Prefix Prefix Suffix Suffix Combining Vowel Combining Vowel Compound Word Compound Word

20 Suffix Written AFTER a root word to form a NEW word. Written AFTER a root word to form a NEW word. Follows root word altering the words meaning. Follows root word altering the words meaning. Determines if word is a noun, adjective or other type of word. Determines if word is a noun, adjective or other type of word. Like a caboose, it is always last.

21 Suffix Examples - 1 -ectomy – Removal of -ectomy – Removal of -emia – Blood condition -emia – Blood condition -pnea – Breathing -pnea – Breathing -iasis – Infestation or infection -iasis – Infestation or infection -itis – Inflammation -itis – Inflammation

22 Suffix Examples - 2 -ism – State or condition -ism – State or condition -logy – Study of -logy – Study of -oma – Tumor -oma – Tumor -penia – Deficiency of -penia – Deficiency of -scope – Instrument for exam -scope – Instrument for exam -tomy – Cutting, Incision -tomy – Cutting, Incision

23 Suffix Examples - 3 -al –ic, -ac, -ous– Pertaining to -al –ic, -ac, -ous– Pertaining to -graphy – Recording of -graphy – Recording of -lysis- Destruction of -lysis- Destruction of -megaly– Abnormally Large -megaly– Abnormally Large -natal– Birth -natal– Birth

24 Suffix Examples - 4 -osis – Abnormal condition -osis – Abnormal condition -spasm– Involuntary Contraction -spasm– Involuntary Contraction

25 Word Structure: Suffix Example: Example: Root Word+SuffixNew word Tonsil+-itis Tonsilitis -itis = inflammation ofInflammation of the tonsils

26 Exercise on Suffixes 1. Hyper- adrenocortic -________ (state…) (Adrenal cortex) 2. Acar/i -________ (tick/mite infestation) 3. Gastr/i-________(inflammation of the stomach lining)

27 Word Structure Root Word Root Word Prefix Prefix Suffix Suffix Combining Vowel Combining Vowel Compound Word Compound Word

28 Word Structure: Combining Vowel Vowel commonly used: “o” Vowel commonly used: “o” General Rule 1: If the suffix starts with a consonant, connect the rootword and the suffix with the vowel “o”. General Rule 1: If the suffix starts with a consonant, connect the rootword and the suffix with the vowel “o”. Example 1: Example 1: Root Word+CVSuffixNew word Cardi+-o- -logyCardiology “Heart”study of Study of the heart

29 Word Structure: Combining Vowel Vowel commonly used: “o” Vowel commonly used: “o” General Rule 2: If the suffix starts with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) DO NOT USE the vowel “o”. General Rule 2: If the suffix starts with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) DO NOT USE the vowel “o”. Just attach the suffix to the root word. Example 2: Example 2: Root Word+ SuffixNew word Hepat/o-osisHepatosis liver-disease process - disease process in the liver liver-disease process - disease process in the liver

30 Word Structure: Combining Vowel Vowel commonly used: “o” Vowel commonly used: “o” General Rule 3: If the suffix begins with the same vowel as the root word, DO NOT repeat the vowel. General Rule 3: If the suffix begins with the same vowel as the root word, DO NOT repeat the vowel. Example 3: Example 3: Root Word+ Suffix New word Cardi-itis Carditis heart -inflammation of - inflammation of the heart heart -inflammation of - inflammation of the heart

31 Word Structure Root Word Root Word Prefix Prefix Suffix Suffix Combining Vowel Combining Vowel Compound Word Compound Word

32 Word Structure: Compound Word Rootword 1 + CV +Rootword 2+ SuffixNew word Rootword 1 + CV +Rootword 2+ SuffixNew word Heart +worm Heartworm Medi+ “o” +later+ -al Mediolateral Crani+ “o” +caud/al + -al Craniocaudal Dors+ “o” + palm+-ar Dorsopalmar

33 Review: Word Structure 1. What is a Root Word? 2. Where can you find a prefix in a word? 3. Where can you find a suffix in a word? 4. What is the most commonly used vowel? a. If first letter of suffix = consonant? b. If first letter of suffix is = vowel? c. If first letter of suffix = last letter of RW? 5. Create a compound word.

34 Create a Word Activity For each group there are three “dice.” For each group there are three “dice.” Prefix Prefix Rootword Rootword Suffix Suffix Each person is to take three rolls of each dice to create three words. Each person is to take three rolls of each dice to create three words. Write out the correct notation, including combining vowels/words and its meaning. Write out the correct notation, including combining vowels/words and its meaning.


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