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Healthcare-Associated Infections and Infection Control Timothy H. Dellit, MD Medical Director, Infection Control Harborview Medical Center.

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Presentation on theme: "Healthcare-Associated Infections and Infection Control Timothy H. Dellit, MD Medical Director, Infection Control Harborview Medical Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 Healthcare-Associated Infections and Infection Control Timothy H. Dellit, MD Medical Director, Infection Control Harborview Medical Center

2 Patient Safety and Infection Control Prevention, monitoring, and feedback –Healthcare-associated infections Catheter-associated bloodstream infections Ventilator-associated pneumonia Surgical site infections Catheter-associated UTI –Transmission of multidrug-resistant/marker organisms MRSA VRE Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter ESBL-producing organisms → MDR Enterobacteriaceae C. difficile Aspergillus in burn and immunocompromised populations Tuberculosis

3 Increasing Regulation and Reporting CMS and “medical errors” –FY2008 Catheter-associated urinary tract infection Vascular catheter-associated infections Mediastinitis after CABG –FY2009 SSI following select orthopedic procedures –Spinal fusion –Elbow and shoulder arthroplasty SSI following bariatric surgery Mandatory reporting of healthcare-associated infections (HB 1106) –Central line infections in ICU: July 2008 –Ventilator-associated pneumonia: January 2009 –Selected surgical site infections: January 2010 Cardiac surgery Total hip and knee arthroplasty Hysterectomy Not selected VAP S. aureus septicemia/ MRSA C. difficile Legionnaires’



6 “MDRO Bundle” Lancet 2000;356:1307-12 Hand Hygiene Contact precautions Minimize shared equipment Environmental cleaning Healthcare-associated infections preventive bundles –Catheter-associated BSI –Ventilator-associated pneumonia –Catheter-associated UTI –SCIP measures Active surveillance cultures Chlorhexidine baths Antimicrobial stewardship


8 Percent of Surfaces Positive for MRSA Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:622-627 Role of Environmental Contamination Contact Contamination Percent positive

9 To Survey or Not to Survey? Interventions over 9 yr –Sterile CVC placement –Alcohol-based hand hygiene –Hand hygiene campaign –ICU surveillance for MRSA (16 months) 29% of newly detected MRSA carriers develop infection within 18 months Surveillance Cultures Reduce MRSA Bacteremia Reduced ICU transmission by 47% 43 vs. 23 cases per 1000 at risk patients Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:281-5 Clin Infect Dis 2006;43:971-8 Incidence density per 1000 pt-days 75% 40% 67%

10 Arch Intern Med 2006; 166:306-12 Chlorhexidine Body Wash in the ICU Arch Intern med 2007;167:2073-79 Decreased Acquisition of VRE Before and after, compared with soap and water Decreased Bloodstream Infections Cross-over, compared with soap and water 6.4 vs. 16.8 BSI per 1000 catheter-days

11 Confidential QI HMC Nosocomial MRSA Rates Quarterly Source: Infection Control, for more information, please contact Dr. Tim Dellit, Number of Cases 2007: 331 Cases 2008: 268 Cases 2009: 154 Cases

12 Central Line-Associated BSI ICU CVC utilization 0.39 – 0.71 catheters/pt – 15 million catheter-days per year in US ICU rate 1.3 to 5.5 per 1000 catheter-days (NHSN mean) –80,000 CR-BSI annually in US ICUs –Attributable mortality 0-35% Healthcare cost $296 million to $2.3 billion –Attributable cost $15,000-$56,000 –Prolonged ICU and hospital LOS Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:1281-307 Am J Infect Control 2009;37:783-805

13 NHSN CLA-BSI Pathogens 1986-1989 1992-1999 2006-2007 Pathogen (%) (%)(%) Coag-negative staphylococci 27 3734 Staphylococcus aureus 16 1310* Enterococcus 8 1316 Candida sp. 8 812 Enterobacter 5 5 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4 4 3 Klebsiella pneumoniae 4 3 5 E. Coli 6 2 3 Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:1281-307 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:996-1011 *MRSA 5.6%, MSSA 4.3%

14 Prevention of Catheter-Associated BSI IHI “Central Line Bundle” –Hand hygiene –Chlorhexidine skin prep –Maximal barriers Full drape Mask, hair cover, sterile gown, sterile gloves –Optimal catheter site selection –Daily review of line necessity Implementation AND documentation Institute for Healthcare Improvement

15 Bundle in Action Reduction in mean rate from 7.7 to 1.4 per 1000 catheter-days N Engl J Med 2006;355:2725-32 Months After Implementation Median Bloodstream Infections per 1000 Catheter-Days

16 UHC Benchmark of Key Performance Measures Key Performance MeasureHospital Performance Patient Level % of cases medianrange Central Venous Catheter Placed in the Subclavian Vein44.2%14.3 – 73.3% Evidence of Maximal Barrier Precautions for Insertion0.0%0.0 – 8.2% Hand Washing0.0%0.0 – 39.0% Full Body Drape3.0%0.0 – 46.3% Sterile Gloves and Gown1.9%0.0 – 39.0% Cap and Mask0.0%0.0 – 13.6% Chlorhexidine Skin Prep for Insertion1.9%0.0 – 98.1% Daily Dressing Inspection97.5%25.1 – 100% Daily Assessment of Medical Necessity to Continue CVC16.4%0.0 – 100% Operational Yes % (n)Site # Best Practice* CVC Insertion Policy11.8% (2)29, 89 Mandated Use of a CVC Insertion Checklist11.8% (2)84, 87 There is work to be done! Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:440-2

17 National Reduction in CLA-BSI JAMA 2009;301:727-36

18 MRSA Central Line-Associate BSI JAMA 2009;301:727-36 50% reduction in MRSA CLA-BSI (0.43 vs 0.21 per 1000 catheter-days)

19 Hospital-Acquired UTI Survey of Hospital Monitoring 40% of healthcare-associated infections 80% due to indwelling urethral catheter Potential Strategies Insertion/care Catheter reminders/ automatic stop orders Bladder US scanners Condom catheters Antimicrobial catheters Aymptomatic bacteriuria vs. Symptomatic UTI in patients without localizing GU symptoms Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:243-50 No monitoring (%)

20 CA-UTI Pathogens NHSN 2006-2007 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:996-1011

21 Catheter-Associated UTI Duration of catheterization is primary risk Providers unaware of catheter status –Students 21% –Interns 22% –Residents 27% –Attendings 38% Daily assessment of need, especially when transferred from ICU to floor Am J Med 2000;109:476-80

22 Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Rate 2.8 – 12.3 per 1000 ventilator days (NHSN 2006) –10-30% of intubated patients –Incidence increases with duration of MV Day 1-5: 3% risk per day Day 6-10: 2% risk per day > 10 days: 1% risk per day Attributable mortality rate 33-50% Increased LOS 7-9 days Cost of $40,000 per patient Accounts for 50% of ICU antimicrobials Clinical vs. microbiologic definitions –Poor external quality measure Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171:388-416

23 BICU: BurnPICU:Pediatric med/surg CICU: CoronaryNICU:Neurosurgery CT ICU: CardiothoracicSICU:Surgical MICU: MedicalTICU:Trauma Rate per 1000 vent-days NHSN Mean VAP by Unit 2006-2008 Am J Infect Control 2009;37:783-805

24 “Ventilator Bundle” Head of bed elevation > 30 degrees* Daily “sedation vacation” and assessment of readiness to extubate* Oral care (chlorhexidine) Peptic ulcer disease prophylaxis* Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis* *Institute for Healthcare Improvement Reduction in VAP from 6.6 to 2.7 (59%) per 1000 ventilator-days with > 95% compliance (Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2005;31(5):243-8)

25 Policy to Implementation J Trauma 2006;61:122-130 Ventilator Bundle Daily compliance and weekly feedback

26 Which of the following has been demonstrated to reduce surgical site infections and is currently part of national recommendations? A.Peri-operative prophylactic antibiotics should be given within 60 minutes after incision B.Peri-operative prophylactic antibiotics should be given within 60 minutes before incision and discontinued within 24 hours C.Peri-operative antibiotics should be continued until the drains are out D.Nasal carriage of S. aureus should be eradicated prior to surgery E.Pre-surgical bath with chlorhexidine

27 Surgical Care Improvement Project Implemented by CDC and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in 2002 Nationally included procedures –Cardiothoracic, vascular, colon, hip or knee arthroplasty, vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy Performance measures (Baseline of 34,133 medicare patients in 2001) –Antimicrobial prophylaxis within 1 hr of incision (55.7%) –Antimicrobial agent c/w current guidelines (92.6%) –Discontinuation within 24 hours after surgery (40.7%) Role of MRSA screening? Arch Surg 2005;140:174-82

28 N Engl J Med 1992;326:281-6 Perioperative Prophylactic Antibiotics Timing of Administration Infections (%) Hours From Incision 14/369 5/699 5/1009 2/180 1/81 1/41 1/47 15/441

29 Society of Thoracic Surgeons Rationale –Unique patient risks Cardiopulmonary bypass, systemic hypothermia –Devastating sequelae of mediastinitis (7-20% mortality) –No randomized studies < 48 hrs in CT surgery Major Recommendations 1.Postoperative prophylactic antibiotics are given for 48 hours or less 2.Duration not dependent on chest tube removal 3.If risk for MRSA, then vancomycin AND cefazolin 4.Routine mupirocin administration for all patients in the absence of documented negative testing for staphylococcal colonization Ann Thorac Surg 2006;81:397-404 Ann Thorac Surg 2006;83:1569-76

30 Is Vancomycin Alone Adequate? Acceptable for cardiac, vascular, or orthopedic surgery: Beta-lactam allergy Documented rationale Pathogens causing deep SSI following CABG, Hip and Knee Arthroplasty NNIS 1994-2003

31 Meta-analysis of Seven Randomized Studies: Glycopeptide vs. β-Lactam for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection after Cardiac Surgery Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1357-63 MSSA more frequent in vancomycin group 3.7% vs. 1.3% (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002;123:326-32)

32 Intranasal Mupirocin and Surgical Site Infections Nasal carriage of S. aureus and risk of surgical site infection –Orthopedic surgery with prosthetic implants in 272 patients, RR 8.9 (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:319-323) –Cardiothoracic surgery in 1980 patients, OR 9.6 (J Infect Dis 1995;171:216-9) 10/10 pre- and post-surgical pairs identical by phage typing Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pre- surgical mupirocin in 3864 patients (N Eng J Med 2002;346:1871-7) –No difference in nosocomial infections, nosocomial S. aureus infections, or S. aureus surgical site infections –S. aureus carriers (N=891) 4.5 fold increase in S. aureus SSI Significant reduction in S. aureus nosocomial infections (4.0 vs. 7.7) Trend towards decreased S. aureus SSI (3.7 vs. 5.9, 37%, P=0.15) Same strain in nares and site of infection in 85%

33 Universal Screening of Surgical Patients? JAMA 2008;299:1149-57 Prospective, cross-over study of 21,754 surgical patients –87% on admission –MRSA colonization 5.1% Standard practices for all patients with MRSA –Contact precautions –Adjustment of pre-op prophylaxis –Intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine body wash No difference in MRSA SSI (0.99 vs. 1.14 per 100) –34% of MRSA carriers did not receive appropriate pre-op prophylaxis –None identified through outpatient screening developed MRSA infection

34 2% Chlorhexidine and 70% alcohol (Chloraprep) vs. 10% Povidone Iodine for Surgical-Site Antisepsis N Engl J Med 2010;362:18-26 NNT: 17 patients Randomized, multi-center 849 patients Clean-contaminated surgery

35 Pre-operative Chlorhexidine Baths RR Chlorhexidine vs. placebo0.91 (0.80 to 1.04) Chlorhexidine vs. bar soap1.02 (0.57 to 1.84) Chlorhexidine vs. no washing0.36 (0.17 to 0.79) Cochrane Review of six randomized trials with 10,007 patients Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD004985. Review

36 It’s a small world… 26 y o medical student returns April 20, 2009 from an international elective in Mexico. On April 27 she presents to ED with 4 day h/o fever 39 C, cough, HA, myalgias, and diarrhea. That same day you hear reports of a novel Influenza A virus H1N1 associated with increased mortality in Mexico.

37 Which of the following is MOST correct regarding influenza? A.No special precautions are necessary for patients with suspected influenza since it is not very transmissible. B.Influenza is primarily transmitted by large droplets (> 5 microns), therefore healthcare workers should use Droplet Precautions with a surgical mask with eye protection for routine care to prevent contamination of mouth, nose, and conjunctiva. C.Patients with 2009 H1N1 should be placed in airborne isolation with use of N-95 respirators while patients with H1N1 seasonal influenza should be placed in droplet precautions. D.A negative rapid antigen test rules out influenza E.Influenza vaccination of healthcare workers does not have an impact on patients.

38 Modes of Transmission Droplets –Thought to be primary mode of transmission –Coughing, sneezing, and talking –Heavy; settle within 6 feet of the source Airborne –Related to procedures → aerosolized particles Contact –Direct: skin-to-skin contact –Indirect: contact with virus in the environment

39 Respiratory Protection Debate CDC (during 2009-2010 influenza season) –Fit-tested N95 respirators for care of patients with 2009 H1N1 –Prioritized usage if limited resources –Yet, Standard and Droplet Precautions for seasonal influenza? Infection Control and Infectious Diseases Societies* –No evidence that 2009 H1N1 transmitted differently than seasonal influenza –Standard and Droplet Precautions for routine care *Recommending organizations: World Health Organization (WHO) Infectious Disease Society of America Healthcare Infection Control Practices Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Advisory Committee (HICPAC) Association of Professionals in Infection Control

40 Surgical Mask vs. N95 Respirator Randomized Study CharacteristicSurgical Mask N=212 N95 Respirator N=210 P Vaccinated68 (30.2%)62 (28.1%) Lab-confirmed* RT-PCR H1N1 serology Serology without symptoms 50 (23.6%) 6 (2.8%) 17 (8.0%) 29/44 (65.9%) 48 (22.9%) 4 (1.8%) 25 (11.9%) 31/44 (70.5%) 0.86 0.75 0.18 Physician visits13 (6.1%)13 (6.2%)0.98 Influenza-like illness, Fever and cough 9 (4.2%)2 (1.0)0.06 Work-related absenteeism42 (19.8%)39 (18.6)0.75 JAMA 2009;302:1865-71 *RT-PCR or serology

41 One Approach Standard, Droplet, and Contact Precautions for routine care –Place mask on coughing patients –Separate sick from non-sick patients –Surgical mask, eye protection, gown, and gloves N95 respirators for higher-risk aerosol-generating procedures –Intubation and extubation –Bronchoscopy –Open suctioning of airway –Cardiopulmonary resuscitation –Non-invasive ventilation? Suspected or Confirmed Cases of Influenza

42 43 y o woman from Eritrea with 3 week h/o non-productive cough, fever, and night sweats

43 Now What? AFB smear neg x 5 (3 sputum, 2 BAL) Sputum AMTD neg

44 Which of the following is the BEST approach? A.Remove from airborne isolation as a negative AMTD test rules out infectious TB B.Begin 4 drug therapy and remove patient from airborne isolation due to multiple negative AFB smears C.Begin 4 drug therapy and keep in airborne isolation D.Obtain interferon-gamma releasing assay (IGRA) as a negative result would rule out TB

45 44 y o Vietnamese man with 6 month h/o pain and swelling of left medial thigh associated with fevers and night sweats

46 Pulmonary Involvement in Extrapulmonary TB 72 patients with XPTB 36 lymph nodes 12 pleura 6 CNS 6 GI 57 had sputum collection Weight loss associated with positive sputum cx OR 4.3 (1.01-18.72) Chest 2008;134:589-94 49% had abnormal CXR

47 Sputum AFB Smear Smear positive –5,000-10,000 organisms per ml of sputum must be present Smear negative, culture- positive TB –Responsible for roughly 17% of TB transmission in San Francisco and Vancouver Am Rev Respir Dis 1966;95:998 Lancet 1999;353;444, Thorax 2004;59:286 40-50% of pulmonary TB cases in King County are smear negative

48 Patient Safety and Infection Control UW Medicine Strategic Goals –Reduction in HAI –Expectation of hand hygiene with EVERY patient EVERY the time WSHA elimination of HAI by 2012 Mandatory reporting of HAI –CLA-BSI, VAP, selected surgical site infections MRSA legislation Increased linkage of reimbursement to quality –CMS preventable “medical errors”

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