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Lung Basic Course: LUNG FUNCTION 12.11.2014 Jie Jia AG: A. Ö. Yildirim.

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Presentation on theme: "Lung Basic Course: LUNG FUNCTION 12.11.2014 Jie Jia AG: A. Ö. Yildirim."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lung Basic Course: LUNG FUNCTION 12.11.2014 Jie Jia AG: A. Ö. Yildirim

2 Content Basic information Lung parameters Lung function tests and read-out Small animal application Equipment in Neuherberg Read-out of mouse lung function

3 Lung diseases you need to know RestrictiveObstructive

4 Why monitoring lung function is important Rennard et al., Proc Am Thorac Soc., 2008 Fletcher-Peto curve

5 Lung connective tissue Collagen High tensile strength Inextensible Elastin Long tensile strength Extensible

6 ShakespeareFan00. Take home massage: four V s and four C s Lung parameters

7 Spirometry Gas diffusion test Inhalation challenge test Exercise stress test Lung function test is applied for: Cause of breathing problems Lung disease diagnose Before surgery Harmful exposure in work or life Lung function test Lung function test measures: volume, speed, and gas exchange.

8 History of spirometry Hutchinson determined that the volume of exhaled air (VC) has a linear relationship with height The first effective spirometer was invented in 1846, by John Hutchinson http://hardluckasthma.blogspot.de/2012/02/history-of-spirometry.html

9 Volume and speed FVC (Forced Vital Capacity) FEV 1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second) Highly patient cooperation dependent Spirometry Spirometry with Body Plethysmography Body plethysmography is used to analyze RV, TLC, Raw, etc

10 Spirometry graph PEF: Peak of Expiratory Flow FEF: Forced Expiratory Flow

11 Lung parameters Obstructive lung disease Flow-volume: concave, FEF25%-75% too low, FVC normal; Volume-time curve: FEV 1 low, FET high Restrictive lung disease Flow-volume: shape normal, FVC low; Volume-time curve: FEV 1 too low, Forced expiratory time (FET) normal Normal lung

12 Except TLC, FRC, RV, every parameter drops Raub et al. Environmental Health Perspectives, 1984 Lung parameters Every parameter drops

13 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage Gold updated 2014 FEV 1 predicted is difined by the average FEV 1 in the population for any person of similar age, sex and body composition

14 Gas diffusion test Amount of oxygen and other gases that cross the lungs air sacs per minute Exhaled gas content is analyzed after one or multiple times inhalation of target gas, e.g. 100% O2, CO Darcy D Marciniuk, MD, FCCP

15 Inhalation challenge test Mostly used in asthma diagnosis Nebulized methacholine (utilizes the M3 receptor for bronchoconstriction) or histamine (causes mucus secretion and bronchoconstriction via the H1 receptor) Darcy D Marciniuk, MD, FCCP

16 Small animal lung function test The measurement can be done also in mouse: Lung Volumes Spirometry Gas diffusion test Inhalation challenge test

17 Noninvasive and invasive pulmonary function test Hoymann et al., Frontiers, 2012

18 Device in lab

19 Noninvasive and invasive pulmonary function test sensitive and specific analysis of pulmonary mechanics based on physiological principles intact anatomical relationships in the lung Ease of BAL sampling Adv.Dis. Invasive Noninvasive Quick, easy to handle Repetitive in the same animal No need of anesthesia or tracheal instrumentation Technically demanding Need of anesthesia and tracheal instrumentation Time consuming No repetitive measurements in same animals Expertise in handing No direct assessment of pulmonary mechanics Prone to artifacts (movements, temperature) Uncertainty about the bronchoconstriction Mitzner et al. Resp. Research, 2007

20 Scripts for Flexivent system Martin et al., JOVE, 2013

21 Calculations of lung capacity Compliance is a measurement of the distensibility of the lung. It measures how much volume is required to reach certain pressure in the lung. Elastance is an inverse of compliance

22 Changes in lung compliance http://www.sallyosborne.com/

23 Loss of connective tissue http://www.sallyosborne.com/

24 Induced lung connecting tissue http://www.sallyosborne.com/

25 compliance http://www.sallyosborne.com/

26 Calculations of lung capacity Compliance is a measurement of the distensibility of the lung. It measures how much volume is required to reach certain pressure in the lung. Elastance is an inverse of compliance Resistance is the force of tissue against pressure induced by volume

27 Questions about lung compliance and elastance Lung compliance can be defined as the pressure change required to achive a unit volume change. Elastance is the reciprocal of lug compliance. In a healthy individual, alterations in the elastance of the lungs determines the alterations in the respiratory system. Surfactant increases the lung compliance by increasing surface tension. Elastance of the lungs filled with air is much lower than that of the lungs filled with normal saline.

28 Read-out of mouse lung function analysis Buxco Flexivent Janssens et al., AJRCMB, 2009

29 Read-out of mouse lung function analysis Janssens et al., AJRCMB, 2009

30 Lung function test Important for pulmonary disease diagnosis Lung parameters: four Vs and four Cs Transferred from human to small animal-mouse Noninvasive and invasive lung function test Relationship between C (Compliance), E (Elastance) and R (Resistance)

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32 Rennard et al., Proc Am Thorac Soc., 2008


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